Skip to main content

Full text of "Studies on Homer and the Homeric age"

See other formats


This Js a digital copy of a book thai was preserved for generalions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as part of a projecl 
lo make Ihe world's books discoverable online. 

[I has sal's' ived long enough for Ihe copyright to expire and the booklo enter the public domaLn. A public domam book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright tenn has expired. Whelhera book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth oF history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Mai'ks, notations and other marginalia present in Ihe original volume will appear in this file - a reminder oF this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a Iibrai7 and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong lo the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have laken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parlies, including placing lechnicaJ reslrictions on autonialed querying. 
We also ask Ihal you: 

+ Make non-commenia! iise of tha jiies We designed Google Book Search for us^ by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
persona], non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from auTornated qtte/ying Do not send automaled queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
Iranslation, optical character recognilion or other areas where access lo a large araouut of text is helpfuL please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials For Ihese pur|X}ses and may be able to help. 

+ Mainraln atliiburion The Google "walermark" you see on each file is essenlial for informing people about this project and helping I hem find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep jT legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume thai jusl 
because we believe a book is in Ihe public domain For users in the United Slates, that the work is also in Ihe public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyrighl varies fivim country to counlr\'. and we caji*l ofFer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume thai a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any maimer 
anywhere in the world- Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google*s mission is lo organize the world's information and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through Ihe full text of this book on Ihe web 

at http : / /books ■ google , com/ 

80004641 ar 

-2^3 d Z2 



THE H<>«I5:I' A*^! 


15 THiili: T.lTltt^ 

PiniTitf jc hr-jiu ■J^ ig^ ' mj q>j rt r^auun ^shLa; 



[7*^ '*vk V T(«»i>0M» « 


>£?^ d 








Plentus ftc melius Chry^ppo et Cmntore. — Horace, 



[TAe Hffhl "/ Tt-anatalMH m raerrcd.] 
















Flenius &c inetiuB Chryaippo ct Craiitore. — Horace, 



ITkcritfhi ft/ TnintlntioH 14 ^f■crTfrf,| 


Prcvaj Uic f int Vi^luinc or Mr. J^h-^ujjhju'a Hcrodottw litt AppMrnL 
EoHivr fOMfiriiciTi of tiJa tin]><>rtdut Fultlic&lioa voulU Imvij «iu- 
boliltniExl uif ti> pn>c<e<I n f-Xcf fuithrr In Uic ntli^iuiil to »|ipcify ihc 
pniAttliji^ or pomlile fbnu of thr ori^Tiu! Ktlmic rfliktitni 1]i-twi>«n 
thi^ [ViMgiui* Bad Ili4> IfelU'HO* of Ih^ l.irei>k P«ii.uunila, hy dunff- 
imCui^ the i&ttcT* M pure Arinn, And the former lu Arian, with n 
nwduc or mixture of Turnniuik tlcmcbta. 

Tl liM bIvj Iven ^inc^ (lit- ' OliiiifiUH* wkm [jnutcil, tliHl I Iuitv 
b«ooiiic Mx^iuintPil wih Wrlpkrr"* ppcmt mU unfii^r^licd ' Grw^hiiK^ 
O^iltrUJ^' tGi>ttii>g4<R, 1K37.} I cniilil lutve wt«lK<iI to roFtfr to it 
«| viuioiui pointo. *iid rapL^diklly tv ttv^ul mjnclf of tbo cli»rcr Hew, 
«Ucb llir 1<«nir(l Autlkor IiM i^vcn. of IIh; ptjsitioii uf KpfWi. 

FotiiLdiny hinwclf iu |Mrt ^ii tlii; vxrlujtivu uifjiriijiriiitiMLi liy 
Hiiruo- of llip term K^wt>9« to Jupit*r, he tmMt% v« to bpo h(fw 
Jnpiltr luuj him iulivntv^ ilit' solt? ust? uf the titiv on licinff ' the 
Aflciml uf ^y9 ; uud how K/i^nt vp-m o fvmmtkiii iu tlic Mjrtliology 
wliuUj wtniidary Aud ppcti-Tior tL« hii rrpult^ mux. (Wu]l:1iit. »i-ctL 
aj.B pp.l40-y.] 

AtLOthrr r«o(tjt book^ M- AHivd ]htAUiy'« IIiiUtir9 du /M^pontf </« 
i^ O'eitci AaJtqi^ undorUikn tlkv uwlitl tdok of imlbldiikj; l«r|]ccit^ 
tJlc irldtMiu cf lliv Qnvh rclipuii lo ibc Eu&t. But the dtviRitni i>f 
It vliich dmU With llunirr Hpo^ifimlly m ik(TJ||itir nimjileti^ nor ttw^u- 
late; uft] mflordi b new illirctrttiui] af tlio pro]u3B]tion whWh I (iliioHr 
dcnrv to ivLkMittli* natni-lyt tiint Hom<^r iiught t<> be Imttc^d ixa a 
jivfHinilc Mkd j|iiU|>nidrTit r«ii1rr itT xlu<1>- 


t. AGORfe: 



PbbtkQlk4eM of iDiffF Gmrre , Figt i 

TWr itioQg dcwli^pincul m Heroic Gnccc i 

Gottii of th* J^fr of Nution*- ,.,,.. ..•....» 4 

GrMv'ii aonHinL of th(< Hrrtii<' PolfdM £ 

TtimpKnliu fcsliun, ]*uSlL% anJ rnviuuion 6 

Ptections of the king in Ibc Uoroit FoJjIin 8 

K«lurc cithi: Prlopu! Rmpin, ..,.,,.,,..... «, * ^ 

Degree* io Kiifvihip ukd in Lordship k> 

P01V braiD of SorDrekiniy 19 

Flni tokens of <bftn|<v in the Heroic PolhJA. la 

Slio*ii bycaaifaUuf ilieC«iiiiotfucHi.,., * 14 

BxtnuM ngna in tl>« Odyvvf. .^,.,,, ■■>. «•.•>«. if 

AlEcmd ■ciiiBof Qifin>n'«ijT King ,,. ift 

Nvrvunii cif Qunn. ..'...<,....,.■•■■.. flo 

DM^S^'buiivn oaiuftd by the Wu ti 

htrrval ti x n*w rv^ it manhiKiil^ ...-■••*•■••-■■■'■•«•.«•«•• >f 

IncftttBeii wdntitor tliE »oMt« - .....*, k,r.,, I,.,,,.,*. *4 

AlUnd idM of (he kinfly o^c^.. .,,. .•....■■«...*••«• 35 

TlnrftrK in«tann of » h*il Kjiim -..•*. ■ rj 

FiifthcT chta^ iu the Umc uf llctuid .<,.,,.•.....,....,,,,* lA 

V«Mrvian long >dh#hng Lo ih" rmm^. ,,, ••.. 31 

Riv tUulnrMlva DolH of Bait^^j in the llud 3? 


The ttiae Greek Boo-A^r of Ihfl Iliad . : 35 

The case of Megw 36 

Of Ph(EDix , ,...,.,. 37 

Of Patrocliw and Emypylua 38 

Conditions of Kingship in the lti>d , ,..,,..,.. 39 

The pergonal b«auty of the Kin^ 40 

CuHEom of rcBtgnattaa \n old age 40 

Force of the term oifoot 41 

Gymnaatic superioritf of the Kings 44 

Their pureuiC of Muffle aod Song 45 

Ulysses as artificer aod husbandman 46 

The Kings as Gentlemen. 47 

Achillea in particular . 4S 

Tenderness and tears of the Greek chiefs. 49 

Right of hereditary succession 50 

Right of primogeniture 53 

The Homeric King (i) as Priest 55 

(i) OS Judge 56 

(3) as General 57 

(4) as Proprietor: the riiui/os. 58 

His revenues, from four sources in all S9 

Burdens upon them 61 

The political position of Agamemnon 63 

The govemiDg motives of the War 64 

Position of Agamemnon in the anny 66 

HiH personal character 67 

Hie relation of sovereign aod subject a free one. 67 

The personal attendants of the King 69 

The Aristocracy or chief proprietor 69 

The Trades and Profeaaions 70 

The Slaves of the Homeric age 7a 

The dr^s or hired aervants 74 

Supply of military service 75 

Whether there was a peasant-proprietary. 77 

Political Economy of the Homeric age. ...................... 78 

The precious metals not a measure of value. 81 

Oxen in some degree a Tneasure of value ..,,......,...,. 83 

Relative scarcity of certain metals. .......................... 84 

Mode of government of the Army 85 

Its military composition. 88 

Chief descriptions of fighting men 91 

Thr Bnuie aiuI ihr Amlnucailr ,..^ .^.. gi 

Tb» Soa^^ or O&iinoil vf tb« Cmk** ■,. .■. • w 

It mInhAmI in peace Kod in w^> -,,... ......*.. 9} 

OppoiilioD in tlir novX) ......,,,*t,,t.,..,k, {0 

AgDDicmnoa'ft |iro|Hitdii uf Iltiuni. -,,.'..,..■■*,.....,->.. 9Q 

Tbe iofivtiiM «J SpMcb in Ihie H«TDLe >g« ....«•.•*. .i...... IC9 

li vn« ■ aubjoci of ivipEtar inlninj;^ IQS 

Varied dvcripLKMucf oracor? m Hinncv ••«• B04 

AehillM UiE imwDOurit Oniut .,,, Mg 

Tlwftrat^MM of th« fntoni. - . . .......<■.••- K^ 

J\v iniwvr vi nputn .4 > kB 

T1iepOirpr«f MKAMa. 109 

Tbir £»rL]Ify i^f (Wilihif m Hcimer Ill 

Ibc JimitBiun or Ott Xmlb IUmJ ill 

miPcUoo nf ibi; Avflt^inbly in lIh Heroic affc II4 

The fofrml tur '>f i^Bjorirn'* iinltmnvn -.,,,.,,,,.■■,.,, tl6 

'Ftc ^rbl ilc^bjuuh uf lliv War ttkctt Ujctv. .'■■■ h ,,-•,.•,, ,, 11^ 

llm« JM£ wimirion«(l fKf luvtTclf by Ai^mFmnoa iiS 

Oppatitian in ih* Ajpru by th« chhofii -,..,,.,.,.,,,,,, 119 

DpIHLba lif Thrnitet jiO 

Urotc'a juilKTaDDl on ibc ca*c orThtfillu J33 

||«irlhal rawb«v« vitiuu Lo Ihip pfipiilAr ptinoii^ ig|i 

A« iloci the Ajforf on the Sliield j»d 

Wod«of>ildreHiD|r thf AM«inb1]r •■••.. 1^ 

lu dnohiOftB m ihn Stvmib i.nd Ninth Ili*d« , 139 

Dhvisnintbr DniiLltn Abieuilily 1^ 

AppniorTcl«niachii"ioOio Imuran Awwibly 13^ 

Phnuun Atwrablf of ilu Eighth UdyMoy 1^ 

Itharaii Auwnilil)' of O^r Tvnily^fi^rcli •*«!•. ,.,.. ..,. 1^ 

CoSDcili or A**embhc> oJ Olyinpiti. ., ............*.. ij^ 

JudiriB) funeiioiu of Qw AMmibly^ - _ -»--,-_....... 139 

Aivembly ihe »atnl p^ni of rh? PuHtjr 140 

n^ ciinuiM]! *0ti1 or TU uj IliJiQeT ^.^*,,> ■ 141 

IvpodHt Diigaciution of Hcrmc PoliEica 143 




ReUtionahip of Troy and Greece twofold. ,..,...,...., 145 

Greek name« of deities found alao in Troae. 147 

fnclude nearly all the greater deitiea. ....................... 150 

Worship of V'ulcaa in Troas .-.....'...._ 151 

Wonhip of Juno and Gala in Troas. - 153 

Worahip of HflTcury in Troaa. ............................ 1 54 

Wonhip of Scanuuider, 155 

DiSereot viev of Rivers in Troae .......-.-- 15B 

EflHential character of Trcjan Rirer-worflhlp - j6o 

Trojan imperaoDBtioDa from Nature rare 163 

Poverty of Mythology among theTrtqanft 165 

Their j^uae doctrine of a Future State 166 

Bediindancfl of life in ihe Greek Byatem. 16S 

Worship from biUe. 169 

The nations compared u to exterual development of religion. — 

1 . Temples 1 70 

2. Aa to endowmeute in land, or rt^Jna. 173 

3. Aa to Groves' dXirca 173 

4. As to Stataea of the Gods. 1 74 

5. As to Seers or Divinera. <-.........-............>.<.... 177 

6. As to the Prieatbood : Priesthood in Greeos 179 

Prieathood in later Greece 163 

Phesthood among the Tr<^aDa 184 

Comparative observance of sacrifice 187 

The Trojans more given to religious observaaces ..........,,, 189 

Uomer^e different modes of bandliog for Greece and Troy 190 

Mond superiority of bia Greeks on the whole ips 

Homer's account of the abduction of Helen 193 

The Greek estimate of Paris , , . T97 

Its relation to prevailing views of Marriage 700 

And to Greek views of Homicide 203 

The Trojat) es^mste of Paris - 305 

Pubhc opinion less developed in Troy soG 

The l>ojana more sensual and false - 307 

Trojan ideas and usageH of Marriage 210 


II! ftimiW flT Prikrn Ill 

8Liict«r LilrdK upotif ttir GrtelLH. ., « , 915 

'IVqjftD PdiCy leu highly Drginnni 3l6 

BuU of iWnMiiin in Troy .-_.-... 317 

SuccciHon t> tho throne of IViDHi • ai9 

I'ana. iztotil prolaUy, uw hi« «litoil »ii.. ^ UI 

PoiiLion mf Pnam knd Hi dynuty tnl^oiir. .,>.... Jug 

Ucuiinir <^ Tp«ti| «iiil of *lKivi ...w*. >if 

Bvtdcncofirom ihe'IVojAo C&u]c?|fac. 4.,*,>.... B3|G 

Rxuiir of hi* bK'fffiijcJtU *ni\ iupmni/ryl.., .....•■. H8 

Potitf flf tlio* . the DwiA^ ai3J 

Thv AHCfnbEf ^ q^ 

Thegmttn vtn^hi 4^f Agf in Troy ..*.•.,,..•.,«>••.>.,..« ^34 

The fi(<«ncecf t Bou^^inlVof ,., Jjtf 

llw (fTcnlav wBtglit fforntory jn C>tn*0e .•.■■!. <•«.-.•■ 439 

IVqfKU bia gifted wiTh uir-nmrnnTid 149 

Afld with cntdlilfcnrc ic>Jnor«1])r S4^ 

DiffsfmM m the |>unuiti of tinh-bom jmtih 9145 

DUbfvpcc V uotUhf 046 

SomoMrr ofdiSntDOM acT 



Wlif k iJocn'tv intvUgntioti 949 

I'hnnpil hMdt ariheiTiqiury 41 

"Hw im Sjih»T*t ff IpQirr util Ut>t#r O^if^njib^ , ^^ 

JiBUtH of lilt 1 nner (iM-grapliy . . , JSS 

IW inl«nnc4tttf or (loubirgl Bw^c , ,.,,,,...,.,...... qgj 

TiM.Sfhnv ofchr ChiTvr G«ognplij J0O 

Tmihd Ke)«of ibeOuwiUMiitrftplij ifil 

Tbo tniiUonbl inUrprviAUoiih vvluolu* a6> 

UuiMbi lUilorstiaQii of arruid nbtun ^6^ 

Portulaiv tor ixaminiaa Uiri OtiUir OtOffTHjihy >•- < afi* 

Tk« %lnd- of UomcT 963 

Spcttl no(im of F'ltma Jinri NnUiA , , 1^17 

OtZrjhyt atul Hufu* , 36^ 

P«ntH(irili* (;omfU« for iht Ivn kal.,,.,,,.. afo 

Fot ibf i»o ftm d .......,..,.— flffl 

Sdmu" iif ilir friui Wtnda.. 37^ 

AiffrBAf^tion <l Eurj* .,..,. 273 


Homeric diGtsnces and r«teH of §peed ...... ..... ^ ,._., ^ . , 371^ 

ParticutarH of evidence on speed ............... ^ -■-.,- 377 

The nurtbwBrd seft-rouie to the EuiinQ ............ .,^ . ^ .. . aSo 

Evidence from U. niii. 1-6 381 

From Od. yii. 319-36 38a 

From Od, v. 44-57 383 

From Od. «iv. j 1-13 385 

Atnalgunated reports of the Ocean-mouth ,....,«,.......... 387 

Opea-sea pueage to the OwaQ-mouCh. .-...._...._'- 369 

Homeward pasaage hj the Straita^ vfhj pieferred ............ 390 

Three mantime routes to the Ocean-Enouth .,,...,.... 391 

Ita tvo possible originals in nature 393 

Straits of Yenikali ba Ocean-mouth 394 

Summary of facta from PhcBnician reports ............'..-.. 395 

Two sets of reports are blended into one ..,.,.,....... 396 

The site of Mte& ; Noith-western hypothesia ................ 396 

North-eaatern hypothesis 300 

Argument from the HXcrywral 303 

From the Island Thrinacie 303* 

Local notes of jf^ ...>,,.....,....... 303 

SiteoTOgygia 3<^ 

Argument from the flight of Mercury 305 

From the floatage of Ulyssea 306 

From his homeward passage .............................. 308 

Ste of Scylla relatively to the Dardanellea 309 

Why MiBa eanoot lie North- vest vard , ..................... 311 

CoQstructbn of Od. lii. 3,4 313 

Conatruction of Od, v. 376, 7. , grs 

Genuineness of the passage queatioiiable .........>. . 316 

Ita real meaning 317 

Homer'a tDdicaCioDs of geographical miagivinga. ............. 318 

Stages of the tour of Ulyaaes to ^<ea (i-vi-) 330 

jBasa and the Euime (vi-viii.) .,.......,-....-... 335 

Remaining stages (viii-xi.) 337 

Directions and distances from JFacs onwards ^ . . . 339 

Tours of Meneiaua and Ulysses compared 331 

The earth of Homer prohahty oval 334 

Points of contact with Oceanus, . , -.....,.-..-,.. 337 

The Caspian and Persian Gulf belong to Oceanue 338 

Contraction and comjiTvssion of the Homeric East 34O 

Outline of Homer's terrestrial syelem 343 

Map of Earth according to Homi-r 343 



J'tirmtlaffii and Sxtt^ttiim ^J/iwu 

ODtlivK^Dnbeaewof D. i^v.^t^-t^ 

On thw •vruf (iflh* llii* II. seiT.jJi .^w^ 

ColUtenI Lutiinouy lo tie tictnciion of Mlnoti , . . . . 


KxcrR8US n. 

PolnU itf Uur itunlJim tlMlid,.,*. , . 349 

8fliLM*«f Atft^ianJij^Tffji^ jiSo 

duatmefl trom It. liu j;^] 

Ontb« furceufilic Homeric Ar) j&4 

Force <4 tnl wilb tipurxf ;/i) ^ --,... , ..,..,. ^^ 

llTuitratMl iTDin II. i' .'^3. Ud, m. 141 •. ^£S 

FraiD ir I- £97, rii, 33^ lii. 339, 149.... .............. .t.i j;5f 

From IL omi. jtJlS~T > Jt^ 

Froni D- n, s^ - - i** 

A|ipUralioa tf> f)tK v- ^7;.. h - ■ < >-.>.,.' .^ .»..'■■• .« 364 

Anoticr Kn>c prmilcd In )«C«r Greek ^ 

IV- A 01 DOS. 
8ficr I. 

'Pm Thfoiy <4 lr>ot« on Ihf itnic-Inr* nf ihr jKwm. , ■ -i ^6( 

(MVr nUted in the Ninih 800k an6 ila njeOiOD jfp 

lUtUiitKiP anj 1,'iftii nailTiL: obji:r( of AchiUc* 371 

Hie offer wai ndJf iDf defeetivp ......,,,.,,,.„ j^j 

AfoJ^p- nrvlcd m jvUnuUr ^^ 

GouMf«DCX D^ntnwd in and dhn IL ui j^f 

SUtUneqaMniMM ofconAMlngnnu ^ 

Gkff? c'lT^n lu Acliilltf . . H - _ 3R0 

Glory fivtn id Uireec« .- _-..,....*.* -->.. jSo 

IVcju infinvAtiy intinLT in ih« Chwft iiii.i,..*. j|8i 

Bni ii pmsdeAlbc poevi jiU 

Ib lb« Ctut^ it U Kbrinic ^ 

CtiftftiCUDg ei](pnrLf« «f ihr pliD. t«iii.«.,^ J87 

Gntks n]|«riur «\tu *Ubuut AcLiHii .••«••■ •■ t< ■«•••■ j08 

lUrmonr in rcUtive proiainjGQoo of die Oath 389 

RiCribtftJiv juytio* kn Eh# Itvo pomu ...... ji^s 

Ttw ■sfloinf* «f AdiiJltfe .,,.,-„,......,.... 394 

Dcuble cutuinnl ottr hi^ will -,..... ^95 


SECT. 11. 

The Sffnge of BeatUy in Homer : fwmttn, amnuU, and inanintals. 

Hifl aense of Beauty alike pure and atrong .................. ^7 

Degeneracy of the popular idea had begun .,>..- 39S 

lUuBtraled by the series of Dardanid traditioTiaT (i) Ganymede, . 398 

ta) Tllhoiiua, (3) Anchiaes 400 

{4) Paris and Venua ......,,......,,.,.... 401 

Homer^s aeaae of Beauty in Ihe human funn ... - - . > . 403 

Hia treatment of the Beauty of Paris ...................... 40 

Beauty among the Greek chieftainfl ........,.....,..,..,.,. 404 

Ascribed also to the natioii 405 

Beauty of Nireua ...................................... 406 

Of Naatea and of Euphorbtu 407 

Beauty placed acaong tbe prime gifts of man 408 

Homer^H sense of Beauty m animals . . ^ 409 

Especially in horses .,..,...,,..., 410 

Aa to thdr movements 41 1 

Aa to their form and colour 413 

Homsr^s senae of Beauty in inanimate nature ._,-.-....... 416 

The instance of Ithaca ^ ^. 417 

Genn of feeling for the picturesque In Homer- .............. 419 

Ck>fle relation of Order and Beauty 430 

Causes adverae to the development of the germ 431 

Beauty of material objects absorbed in their Life ..,..>. 493 


Homtfr'e ptrtxption and uw qf /fvmbef* 

The tr^itional character of nptitudea 4^5 

GoDcepdons of Number not alvays definite in childhood 437 

Nor even in manhood 43S 

No calculatioas in Homer 430 

Greek estimate of the diacovery of Number. . . . . _ 431 

Enamerative addition in Od. ir. 4i3>45i 43' 

Highest numeralfl of the poema 433 

The three hundred and siity fat hogs 434 

The Homeric inaTOft^fj 435 

The numerals e^ipressive of value 436 

His silence as to the numbcTB of the armies ................ 439 

Especially in the Greek Catalogue 440 



(^MA of t\w !idrrii ami (liirki In OA. w'tv. ,.,.,. , . , . 443 

Ucdod^Bmiof tbe N^iiih* 444 

Cm« of tt* oitu* of Crtu » 445 

No >4?h«m« o4 chronology hi Homer. ,.,..,., .,. 440 

CiMuf Ui« lluw DvoiJtflof yCHTv 446 

ll«ttiuiig of the >TKf:^ ol HdncT ,,'......i.......,..,,i,.. 449 

Hoifltfr nrknn* tiA* by fjmvntioiiv ■ ^. -.. 1 ,«■««•«>•.,. •, 451 

Some (lUlLculiici of ihc Droftdei taken lilcnUf 439 

0<Q> of l]>f pn>poK() inhirpNbilkra ...rtisi*! •■■«... .....•■ 45s 


Uodan perccptii^n* vT culour ijMuLly defiiCe. ,*,» oi 1 •>«,«• • 4{if 
ffiglM of tmiSOiurc pertqHioQ in IJoni^r 438 

ffiitfhkfttlJMtivvHorTOiuur , , 459 

Bii qTiMd-*4!<ctive« of colour 41C0 

Appfical*M« of 6»A4< ^pv^l^- nvp^^p«<« ' 4^ 

Of MVdv ntd JooHoc, - . , . - .,. 4A1 

or^n« ««S 

or«AMi 4(6 

Tb* 'iiuaA-fl4jftrLitnii>f rolour ; ;tX«v^ ■,..< iftf 

l*hc o/fluAf^ii of llotiicr ,. 4^ 

'Hm p»Wf <r «lJd ^tMi^nhtt .-' 469 

ThofAfit. tf«i04t. i*4aii«>^ * 470 

Tlic v&D^ iind >>iXnjR4lp^Df ■ ■ •»■<.■... 493 

AMf* and itfl i>v^al<« i ^■oJ^t.a&Xor 47^ 

noHD^r. )AaKr«fTj(, yAtivMii^^ > . - 474 

Xijjmreir, tfr|^tei, juti>*'l^<'^ ^pwiAi)' ■•-■■■■■■■■ -- 475 

C^nflitt of ilac tvloun MnjcQcd to thotoou o^«ct.. .* 47J 

QrMi prcdomcnuwv of (vhitr uad blirW ,,.*•,..-> 4}$ 

KtfUtfbAlHc uumIoih to vped^ dolour 411 

Ia tho n«« of dw horis mimir othcn 47} 

In iIm faoe cif humaiD bmuiy. kw) nf IHh, ^ , 4SA 

In tW COM of iIm hcoiixnf < 4^h) 

Cmm» of lfciiapf«abulTMtiMni«d colour 483 

TJaiwi cif fiiinj krjthc mitttt of colour 4B4 

niiwfnvlcd fixHtt 8hjikc*(«An ,., ^ 

Uocmt'i ronEnctad OMono of imnuig m ooloui •>-<•... 487 

III* Kptmi onf ufliglKiinil darh 4B8 

OitoiumtiiclMrOrcfk laofuivc • 49> 

icvi rONTKNTS. 

Creek pbUoacplif nf a>]our ,, ,-- ..• 4^ 

Acifc (Mi Kvai'os ttiui j^oA^^f, 

Mcnoiiigv Tor aiat/ot hvnlofMV Biifrffflltart .,....,, ..^pp.,... 49O 

Proh«h3y n nmvc blw*. r^nrbonue i>f 4?af>per. 497 

XnXiiiit to be LUHlcTBtouil u hirileiivil miipcr ,.-....-•»«. .ix 491^ 

Jiom^r and tonbo t^hlt tucct^Mift in Mpit Pottr^ ; gmftifid^tf 

Milk^n't ptarv unnnic Bjnc {yH>lii 5im 

UiAictiU^ cif «jTnpurinfl hjm with tinmer , spi 

TIm ■DiriE' B» l<r ttiLiitc _.........., ............ ...* ADI 

.Koad nnd ILiaclj tbar r«»n>b]aacai nod contniU s« 

Uitaloguc m the Iliad uid in tho -€nc>d ■■.«*«■■....■ 51D4 

niJirii.*lCT of .^EncM in (ho .ftn*id .,,.- gfi^ 

CliBTacwt vf .'KuNia III ihtf lllut 503 

'Jli^ fine rliarnrier of Tuniim ..........••■■ £cfi 

'|'h« faltc jKXiliOTi i:f Virgil U^forp AtiguMut . . . . i • ■•■•■hi.*. ^0^ 

Dtf^niU)' iif lfurni]i|7 Llic |vtRL ffipiii ihr imrmi- -..-,. ^10 

llift Cotta poiil'ion » Ij] relifp^n, liberty, and nationalitr 5l> 

UntniUJuIam henn mulUJig jIA 

HarDH U ui)itii|JtJii?bnidGi1 tlimuiEli ViruH ...,,,•*•,•.>..... 513 

In nitnoT iMlUrfli c-g. Simoii ELcd SoauiKadef .■■■,.!•.*.,.■ 51^ 

S<^uta of HumM inil of Vn]g;i] , , jij 

Elhno1n|;l(u1 uni) genMliigiisd diilocBUOiu ..,,..,.,..,,..... £|6 

Actiot^ oftbc Twrlftb jI^dcliI ■■!■■/■... *.^... >. gio 

irnfailhfLjl imilDltDni of deuiln ■.-......*«*.■ 5>i 

Maltivatmciit r>f ih<r Huniehc (rbaratttf* .,..,,.,...,.. , ^7) 

Aiulof tlic lltancncMTtbatcvTtAdEtbicf S'A 

£mmhoi] Uido m thft Kb&d«i 1>«n«Mb ^i^ 

ft:* wonun diarmcun of HuTUet iiiJ ViriiU .,,.,, j^- 

Vinrir* imulticimt cftreof minor prophetiu ...,.,...,, 536 

Aitd of lb« ordir of odtnnJ pb«DomDaa 54^ 

tlm of pvKfncffmuun in Elninrr and in Virgil j^ 

Ccntrut of iirmriir^ i^iini ropctttdy ^t 

OnniMcr «1 the t^ont : not louod in Virnpl j^| 

F<i«t- Hfimrri^ rhjinjt^ if 1 lh# idw nf Ihr PtHf '« oIEm r;^ 

Vir^l'i fiodic^l d^uu]«'«rLtKjr'* JJU 

[CompnriHJD o^ 


CeiDptfkaa of tbe TrajRn WAr«nih ih4 Cru«ndu» •, 535 

Rlittldouiil AchiUrt jjj 

Sufiisr«iiv(iaOtbii1k ill llomer And in TuMO 536 

Mr, Halbm'q jucJ^mcQloo t^ JcruMleta ,.,. ^^ 

Tn^H jMwUcbl dlkiti^rsntagfa , , ^fi 

lie nuD AdiUlnin rcbtum to ihc iLiad $^ 

iibcnlioii of lliv Sepulchre m rd*Uon to Ae GfrwafenMW , . . . 540 

lQiniidf>Tl of infE^r^iErijfiuic flsm^no , ....^.,.,'--4.-'. '141 

ItebnvspntDilccnceDf TannvilUnii Klndklo 543 

Tbc WomiiD-cliBrmctm<pf Tui« ....x 54^ 

Tbe Ariniilxir TbiBo ^ 

Her rnvioMtucM and mrcriorilj Ut Dtdo. - ■••■■.•..,,■ (f5 

0vr psMtOo lU-anBtaiarJ ....,■.■.■.,..* ...-- 5|6 

ObtRHtvwntft of thfl RirutdFV cltm^ni ,..,,...... i^ 

Tbfl Aflhjst of GenuDdo 549 

DtfktvQcc IB iDodva of 4c^hbjn^ pcrsoaaim. .■•, ■•■.. jgi 

fianlnand KinOnofTMV CC* 

InfcriofUy uf thr HcIutd in tliD Ofrmn^emmt ....>,,,,,,,.,,, 553 

'I^Ho't ^t>'<;btiic«i ciocpE an c«iQpiirf4 wilb Hoidct 5J4 

£mM pfiiiafMi ffonyinc. Chettaeimt* m Tray. 

HoiflCT'i rhanciffr-<ln«iniT power ••••••>.. 55g 

CufiutitkiD of ihtf IbJci Lt^iiUtiuii. ...••..... .>>i.«i«.**t>i.t 556 

WLf kpeeltUy d«flracUva iti hii (Atr • > £57 

Hiir«'« tiMLitiffne of tlie HoEnciii? chnnu'Urii 5^ 

Tbc chancier of lltrtot «el gtf vlth gfaomlitM. ■ ■...■•••..•. ^B 

It b«ama ihr kaam for ihu.i oi OtUado 554 

Tb* OVUtdl hfraatn of Hf<li>r Brcrmd-rate . ...,>. ,.- 55^ 

Ilia W^tl/uiuca* Il)h viit)r Eiiirnd fault ■*>*<.... i.«*** 5fSl 

llecuirmi; and Kodomonuding, ..i.... ^6A 

HtMfir'h *an*t of ih« Huili «nd ittamo of F^r^ ..,.,... 563 

HJa roi|ioi)iibi]il;» beyond h.'n iLrrn^tli .•.•••>. 565 

BiighLAcn of [iu duractcr u Ipo tbc lUfccuona ■■.*-. 567 

Hiapocay. gaittknnt. lod cquhj 568 

Liaquililj ctf bis rltarairUr aia irboU 56g 

Ai^vsnt KMon for it BO9 

OppoalM v^t1na(tht rUararler oT lldvn ■ 571 

Ikna'a intcnUon niih itapect tt> it ST' 

TWoadrvnt mccuii>na #4 iwr onlf . .... ....«4fe>«t<i ■< ■«■«<• 574 



Homsr^s ofnthtti and nmilB for Helen. 575 

Tho cue of BaUisheba 576 

As to the free agency of Helen > 577 

Picture of Helen in II. lii. .....>.,.......... ........> 579 

In II. vi., n. xxir^ Od. ir ^81 

The menuge with Deipbobos 583 

Genend eatjmate of the Homerio Helen 584 

The charmcter of Puib 585 

Hie apalhy, lerity, and BdABhneaa 586 

Ulh place in thu War 587 

Relation of his intfiUect to hU morality 588 


The dadeittion o/the greal Homeric Oharaattm 
in the later Tradition. 

Physical conations of Che Greek Thntre ................... 590 

Absolute dependence on the popular taate 59a 

General obliteration of the finer dktinction* . ....,>..,,. 59^ 

Mutilation of the Helen of Homer ........................ 593 

The Helen of EuripideB 595 

Of Isocratee andof Virgi] 597 

Chaiacten of Achilles and Ulyaeet in Homer. 598 

MntilatJon of the Ulysies of Homer Gq] 

Of the AchiDefl of Homer £q« 

The AchiltcB of Sutiua G04 

Homeiic chHractera in Seneca- 605 

New relative poeition of Trqjane and Greeks 606 

Tnijani«m in England 608 

Inutataona of Homeric characters by Taaao 609 

The IVtHlus and Cressida fiio 

Shirley's Ajax and Ulysaes --.......-... 613 

Racine's Iphig^nie - > ' -....- 613 

Racine's Andromaque -....-..-.-.....-..... 614 

Conclusion 615 

[1. ACOBjfc. 

I. AGORi;. 


It is eoroplainod. and perhapa not without fonDdation, 
that the sUidy of the ancient hietoTianfl doc* not supply 
th<> yoiuli of Eiiglatic] wiUi good politk-iil riiodrlv: t^liiit, 
if wo tul^mi oar sympathka and aiitl|>nthlcft according 
to t)u3 divj^oii of i>Qrtto9 and claaacs offerad to our 
view in Home, Athenp. or Sparta, ther i«iil not be cast 
Tij AH Engli»li mould, hm will conir nut in the cruder 
fonii« of oligarchic or domocmtic prt^iidico. Now I do 
not wait to inquire how far the»c ilcfi*ct« may be sufv 
plied by the pohlical philoaopher^i, and in partieutAr br 
thr adiniiBhJe troatise of Ari§totle. And it certaiuly i(> 
fru«, that in ^ooral thoy prutfont to uy a Gtste of poli- 
ttcnl ideoa and roomli greatly deranged: the choJoo liei« 
Iretweeii evil on ttii» filde in one form, and tm th»t f<idu in 
aiioCtjer form : the characters, uho can he reoonmended 
aM exaiDples, are commonly in a lainority or in exile. 
Xor do I ask bo\r for wo ought to be content, having an 
admirable lange, su to apeak, of anatomical uiudeh in our 
faanils lo hiy aside tlie Idea of altaidiin^ otir Hymputhl*-)! 
to what we see. I would rather incite the objector to 


2 1. A^ori: tJ(^ P^Utw t^ flu Honteric a^. 

examine and ju<lf*c vrlictber we iray not Biiil iin lut- 

nirnhlt? ArUi»iil of piilily, nnd M^r it.M ftiiiiliuiii^riUil ifU^nx 

txliibiiedtindor the truest Am) larffosl formalin flqunrtor 

tvliere perhaps it would be the least ©xpectod, namely, 

ill the writings of Homer. 

A» rospectfi rtOigif>n. &rit^, titiil matm<fI'^ the GriTckff' 
of tho heroic age tnny be compared with cthor nocietiet 
ill the infancy of niaii. But as roflpeclR political scioneo 
ill itA eiisential nKlimeittH. and as reapecta tlie Applica- 
tion of thosEj |)riiicij)ies by way of art I*) the g-o^^ni' 
ment of ciankin'h wl* may say with almost literal trutl 
timt thL>y an^ the fathoi-s nf it; and ifomcr invites tboi 
who ftliuiy him to come ami vii^w it in it» cradle, whe] 
tliLi infant carrien every Itiieanmut in miniatin'e, that we 
ejui rea^nably dc»^r(f to Bee developed in mnnhood. 

I cannot but deprecate th(; a8>^ociation ofitabliehod, 
pfxIiRiM iiniiUvntiiyimlly, by Grol^, where, tlirowing 
Homer aft be doe« Into hotch-pot, »o a* Bpejik, miUl the 
■ legendary age,' be expresaoB himself in his Preface*, 
as fellon'fi. 'It must be confessed that the scutimcnl 
attributes of the fireek mind' — ^its r*'ligious and poetical 
vt>iii — here up[H'Jir in di^prnportionate relief, a* einn- 
pared with itK more r{£oroit8 and infl«eulino cairaeitles 
—with those powers ofat'ting, orgmiiKin^, jndging. and 
jipeculaiing. which will be ii^vealed in the Ibrthconiing 
volumes.' If the sentimental attribute is to be contrri'- 
di&tin;^ishcd from the powers, I will not *ay of »jH>e«- 
lating, but of acting. oi^niKing, and judging;, tbun 
know of nnthiiig ]i.*j«* Kirniimvnljil in lht« iirt4;ivhiHtor\ nf 
Greece than the chnmctor* of Achilles and Uht&o«, 
than the relationf« of ihe (iroek chiefe to one another 
and to their people^ than the Htrength &n<l simplicity 
which laid in those early times the fomidation-stonee of 
^ Ignite xvii. 

Shrimp *^t'i'etapm4nf f/fft^itifaf ititas. 

th« Greek riAtionAl ckaracu^r Ktid iiiHtituttonv, »ri(t 
inftde tliotik in tlio eo^H&l onicr the just coutilvrjHirtj^ nf 
tb« mfttcrial Htmcturc^ tlmt «rc now ay<^rilx-(l to the 
Petu^iaoa; uiruple indeed in llieir eleiuerilft, 1>uL «g 
durable and ni&eeive in tlieir combination, n^ to be tho 
marvel of all time. ITjo influences derived Irom thcso 
sour«H.<s wvm of siicli vitality nnil citfjttli, tlint they 
seeurt-d to nn jiiNgnifioatit eounlrj' a pre<U;iiiiiiiUiiig 
power for centuries uiatlc oin; liltio point of tlic Wc^t an 
eftectire bulwark i\gskiutit Uic Kvt, aiiH cAiML-d (trcee<* 
to throw out, to tlie rjglit and left, »o manv brancb(»« 
each j^reater than tbc trunk. ICven when tbe flun of lier 
glory bnd sot, tbcro was yet l«ft behind an innnortni 
apark of the atieient vitality, wliicli, enduiin^ through 
all \'ict«»iludvv, kiiiftleil intu a blaze aftL*r t^o UjouT<and 
je(U>; and wo oF thiH day Imvo eeeii « Grrok nation, 
founded fliiew by it* own uncrgie:*, Uecoiiie a ceutrc of 
deaire and hnpc; nl U'Uftl tit Ka-iti^ni ('brthtf'iuloiii. Thij 
Englifb arc not adbamed to own their poliiical fore- 
fethers id the for<tsla of the Northward European Con- 
tinent ; and the laler atatesinen with the lawgivers iif 
Greece were in tiieir day glad, and with reasnii glad, to 
ttsco the bold outlino and solid rudioientH of tJioir 01411 
their country '« greatne^ in the |>a«ms of Momer, 
Totaling lit UxMt? pitt-iikH {jtlr-rH itself, to nie Ht lea^t* as 
orw remarkable, than the deep caning of The po1itii.-al 
chankctera; and what is still more, the iutoii^o poUiicol 
spirit wliicli per%adcjs tfactn. 1 will venture cog fttcp 
&rlhcr, jinil ^ly thut, of nil iho oinintnen uf thr rlvill^rd 
world, there U no one of which the inhahitaj]t» ought 
to find that spirit bo intelligible and acooBSible bs the 
Englitth : bccaiuc it 10 a spirit, that still largely liTCJt and 
brevtiies tit our owit iiL?<t!luLion^ und« if I mistake not, 
even in the peculiarities of ihofhC Inetituttonf^ There 


ve find tbe gnM «anliiinl r(!oin«, which lie at the very 
femidAtion of nil enli^htiued govcnimont : and thou \ve 
fiml, tcio, the men foriiiftd under tbe influence of sUcU 
itWu; 48 one ainoug ouiBeheB, nho hun ilnink itiui 
thoir «pirit« tt^Ils ui;; 

Sa^Acbu^ men vi iroii^ wakhfu], firm, 

Aguiust Hurprisc wn*X PudUeu pzuuc pruof- < 

Ad(I ngain. 

The »ombrc ihspfMit of itmjostio t'urcj, 
Uf fioliUi'y thoU(»Ut, imslisrt'U roeolvoK 

\t w»» Kurd/ tt hcalthrtil iiigp of th» vtjrkliijj of 1 
Itttodorn, ilint in that curly uj^, deB|>ite th» )>n>vu1cnc(l 
of |iimcy, even tijut tikn tif i^olitical justico tiiiij |iab1io 
right, wbic!) ia ihe gyrm of tho Inw of nations, ^as 
not imknowD Cc the Greeks. It would appear that war 
could not be made without an approiinate cause, and 
that Ihe oiler of redrew rmdo it the duty oK the injured 
to coino to turnipt. Floiice tlju ofler of Paris in iho 
Third Iliait i» at once roa<niy ac'coptotl : aivl Iit^nc4% 
oven aflcr iho hn^Hi of the Vmi, mmv^ -Agamciimon'* 
Fi-ar, at the moment vthen he anlici|int^^ tht: cleath of 
MeiielsLus that bj that etent the claim la tbe ronlora- 
tion oflMen will bo practically disposed of, and the 
Greeks will imvc to return homo without reparatioti 
for ft wrong, of wliicb tbe c&r/*us, as it werr, will haro 
diKappeart^d ^. 

Beforo proceeding lo sketch tho Cireck inatitutiona 
aa they aro exhibited in Homer, I will g:ive a &kctcll 
of the tntcTe^tinj^ account of them wtiich is ^iiipplied 
by Grotp, I ciu* it more for contrast than for cou- 
currtrnco ; but it will ii^int materially in hrin^^uj^ out 
into clour relief tbe points which arc of the greatest 
^ MttO|^ . hy >[Mtlicw AraoM, pp^ 94. 1.IS- * H 1^- 160-83. 

Oroit's tM*w>une t^fthe ilrrvic Potitte^. 


The Creek States of tlic Iiistoric iigo9, mja Urote, 
alwaVTi prpRent to n^ ijoniething in tlie nature of a con- 
stitution, as ttie poiidition of popular n*spoct towards 
ihe govcrniTiL'rt, Rnd of the eciifto of an obligation to 
obcjr if^- Tbo man who liroke down tliis constitution, 
however ^i*4»?Iy hft niiglit don-i^to hU lU gatt4.'ii imwcr, 
vas branded br tbo nAme of T^^ai-tos, or despot, " ns nn 
object of mingled ft*Qr nnd dislike." But in the lieroic 
age ihcTc ia no nj-ateni, still less any r&ipoi»ibilitj*; 
obtdionee *lppen(ls on pereonal rovc*ri?nc(.* loirards tlie 
ling or chief. It^to thora 'j^rx'&t imlividnal per^oiiali- 
tieSt the race or uatioo 11^ tibsorbedV Publicity in- 
ilei^iK tliroiigh F.litf iiteaiiH fif i\u^ rotinril ami aHHVtibiy» 
cnvntiallr perrailes tho whole f>j'£t4!m(E; but it is a 
publicity withotit consequences; for tho people, when 
iliey have heard, ftimply obey the nrdcra of the king"'* 
Either rcKintanep or criticisin i»; girninilly exbihiteH as 
odioui^ ftnd i< never heard of at alt ( Xivpt from tho«o 
«ho am at the Ica'i^t mibaUcni chiefs: thoii^rh the 
conncil ami aMtembly vronhl in jiractice comt* to ho rc-- 
straiiiifl upon the king, they are not so exhibiti^cl fn 
Hofuer', but are simple infyrha for supplying him with 
infonnatiou. aiid for promul^ting his rcsolvca'^. The 
people may li«beii and sympnthii^e, but no more. In 
tho msetnbly of the Second Iliad, a 'repnUlt'e picture' 
is prewnted to m of 'the degmdatton of the mn«s of 
llie jieopte before the chiefs^ For becaufie Iho corn- 
on noldiery, in conformity witli the * unaccountable 
6ncy' which Ap;arromnon hsd propoundod, made ready 
to go home, Ulys&cs belabours them with blows and 

4 Orale*ii Hiiil OrcfCBt viiL iL 
■ IIihL p. 84. 

t UiiiL fK 101. 

h Iliid. p. »6. 

" Ibid, pp, 50, 10* 

fc Ibid p.9J, I lliul. p. 95. 

IS ]. Aj^ort .- rA« Polities tif the iJoifieric u^ 

cov«Tn< tlir-ni ^rtli Aromfiil iT-i>n>r>rii"' ; auul the uikj)0|iii- 
lurity of » |iro»iiin{>tii()UK ctitU\ evt>n ulieii li« is in aiib- 
Manco rigbtT is Mio^^n, imrlW by the slrokeH that Ulymtcs 
inflicts upon 'lliersiU-s Imt iitill more by tho hidcoaa 
defurniitiea ^jtb whioh Homer ban IorHi^cI lirtii. 

It IB. r think, ill happy i iiccmtjiHlenoy ivitli ihaav- re- 
p roster tat ions, ihat'thc lii^turtaii pructHHJ^ U> sa^, that 
by nirauH of tli(? liovXh and ^Ayvph wo nrc cnsbli'^l to 
trocn tlw employment of public Mpeukiii^, m* rbt; sUmd- 
fn^ online of government ami ihit proxiniflto caune of 
olx"(ii<'nct^. 'up to tbc wicinl infuncy <A' the nation"/ 
But if, in unlcr t<> miike this wfntenrH liArnionixe wIlIi 
what precedes and foHowa k. wo nxe to understand that 
tli{? Homorio poomn prcsont to nu no more tlian the dry 
fiict that public speaking wtt» in use, ami are to infer 
that it did not ai^nire its prurticul meanini: and power 
TWtil a later date, then I maet include it Ju the geneiBt 
protest vbich I beg Iravo to record a;rttinat tlio f,'reiitt>r 
"partof tbc foregoing propoftitionfl. in tht^ir letter nnd in 
thinr spirit, jih bctti^ nt^itlmr in Lite viiy of 
inference frora Homer, nor In any munnor coniiittent 
with the nndent&ble facta of the pouins. 

FcT«ODal reverence fi'om the i>frople to the wTereign, 
associated with the duties he discharge^ with the high 
attributes he does or should possess, and witli the divine 
farour, or %nth a reputed relationsliip to the fiOcI«, at- 
taching to him, ctmniiUitcK tlio pi'iinifivc; form in which I 
tbe ftilation of the prinoo am) tljc sultjcct is very com- , 
monly cost in the early fltA|:os of society elsowbero I 
tbui among the (in^ekit. What is senCinienta). ro* 
maiitie, anJiftie, or patriarchal in the Hoinene |lolitie^ 
is common to them uith many other patriarchal or 

■ Or^U'v tli*l, Ofioc«, vol ii, pp, i^. 96> 
n lUd. p. 105, 

Their mm <ifPMicitjf <mi PttituuiQn. 7 

highland gOTernment^. But tbat vhtch is bcjonci everjr 
tiiitig 4it^tiji€live not of Greece only, but iff Hoinerie 
{Greece, is, U)&t &)on^ mth an outline of eovereij^nty ami 
imblic institutions highly ]mtnarchal. we find tho fuil» 
contitant, and eHcciivo uac^ of two grcAt in«trumcnts of 
gijvunnnuut, vJiic^ uud Ktill wu ('xt<rTiNi>vI/ in uboyanc^y 
suton^ DiAiikiml ; nomcly. publicity and pcKua«iou. J 
Dame tUeee two great fcaturra of the politico and Jimti- 
iiit]on« of tlie Leniir a^. In onltr to runcerttrat** u|mi« 
Item die mark<Kl attention wUicli 1 tliirik they deservo. 
And I venture to give to this |>aper tho name of the 
'Ayofiit, because it wa« tbc Urcck Amcinbly of tl]04>c 
%\k\h^ uliirU in;iJiily Impiirti-rl L<> llit* <*xiKtiiig |iiili(ii*K 
tlioir H^>ecific 9i>int as woll as features. .^Jiilil unde- 
veloped idco^t ruilo methods, imperfect orj^ni^ationr 
and liabjjity t^ the frequent intrusion of the strong 
hftijtl, tbere lii-» in thrni tin- i-KMeni-r of a popular prin- 
ciple of jj^veninion^wbit^h canTwt, I bolievt^, plend on its 
behalf auf other precedent ao ancient and »o venerable. 
As ia tlie boy, m> is the man. A« h the need, an is 
the plant. The dove neither begettf, nor yet gron^ into 
the (ragle. How cauio it that the pnme pliiloeophers 
of foll-grovu Greece gave to Lho science of Politics 
the very highest place in the scale of himiaEi know- 
leiige? ^riiat tliey, kings in the region of abstract 
lboQght> for tho lirst and perhaps the only timo in the 
bistory of tbc worM, came to tliink (hey discerned in 
the turbid rddu:J« of fitate aHaim clio image of tho 
poblosfc thing fur man, the nublust that i>pecubtion as 
vrdi aa aetion could provide for him? Aritttotle says 
thai, of ail Acienees, ilo\trtKi! ia ') mfptutrarn vol tid\iirT*j. 
^^tTfi^Twrni : and that elhicsl science constitntes but 
« Ar, Kth, Nit. L >. 

B I, Ai/arr : ih* Ptttitirn of the Humm^e a^. 

a bmncli r*f it, xcX^Ttiri t^p oJirn, Wlienre, r ask, rlH 
Itiii; Gr(H.-k iduu come t It w not tlio Greocer ^*'>t it is, 
Ihc RoDio of t»*lt>ry, whic!> tlic jiidgmcnt and cxpcri-' 
cii*rc of the worl<l lins tnkr^n tiA itt great tc^ichcr in tlio 
iiM?re liiisiiifiss of law ami |Mili[imI or^nuBtion. For 90 
lofty a theory (a theory without cioobt cxaggomtod) 
from BO j^rnclical a pornoii asAmtotk, woninAt aASiime 
fi corrc-?»| >o 11 (I ing devutfoii of ftotircc. I cannot help 
bclivviiijf (hui Iht' MJUrrc ih «i he foiitiil rntlier in the 
Infmioy, thiui in thf? nmtnnty, of Grfi-k sooioty. As 
I h^ail ilonuT, the roal fii^t fi>uiLilAtioii!t r>f politicnl 
fuHeiice were Inhl hi the )i(>rcMC age, vi\i\\ n rlt^jith and 
kiv&ilili vxc^eiliiijEf ill ilieir (troportioim any rnbnCf how- 
ever inf|iofting, that iho aftcr-tiine of Grocco was able 
Ifj rear \\\m\\ ihem. That aftci-limc was in Iriitli iii- 
fi^t-U-i] with a H]jirii of jHilltiml i.tx»ggi>nitii)n» from 
M'hieli the h<*rtnc ago was free. 

Wo Miali Imvo to examine Llie political picture |irc- 
centcd hy the heroic aj^c with rirftrenee to tlie vanoun 
claswj« into wlii^^h ^(kcif^ty yii\% AhimgwmUcA in its boiv 
nml »tncc of pc-nco : to the or);aijiznUoTi of the artny in 
war. and its mixture of trivil \y\x\i mitilary niatioiiii: 
lo the Jnitilntion.i nhich enihiHlinl the inarhinrry of 
government, and to the powers by which that mm- 
chinorj' wa« kept in motion. 

Lt^t ufl bc^n with the Kin^; who conilituteil at 
onru t.h43 highL-r^t clavi Jii socii'ty, and tlic centre of itt 

The political i^giinen of Greece, at iho period imnn 
dialely jireceding tlir Tmjau \yxkv. iipponm to hft\e l>ecn 
ibaL ^leM^nhed hy Tlnn^ydides, wherj he wavi that th« 
tyranniei^, which had come in with the inereaso 
ncftltb, wcrv |Hccedcd hy hereditary monarchies with 

Ntnitod pre^galivea^ : vp^rtpto' ^ ^^rof «t! prfrw^ yw* 
pavi •wxtTptxttt SmvtXfiat, AiiO agnin by AiiMotle ; 
jScnr/Xtiu . . . j mpi tovk iptait^ovv \poyoui: . . * rfv invvrtnv 
ftfy, fTi T4fTi if w*i<T/<«Vf3* p" irrptiT'jyo^ yap iv ra* mKtim^ 
o fiarrtXti^^ sw Tir^ rtp'i Toitf Brovf KVpw^. TIlG thl'OcfflUl 

fuLti'tioh of tlio K\ng wfi» lo command the nm)y> t<> 
jiiliTiinifttf^ jiiHtio' cbiuflr, tlimigli uoi cxclinivrlr. be- 
IwctMi mnn nu<l innii. And to conduct the rites of 

Independently of aovcrei^tiea puivJy I*kaI, we find 
ill Hntner tmces of a D>antime Ci'etaii empm\ viliicli 
biul ri'cvntly pa«8c*d away: «nd ne find n ttubftistinff 
Pciopid emjrtrc, wliic!> nppcars to have b<^cn the first 
vflts kind, At Ictt?^ OD tbc (.irec'k nmiiilnnd. For tbo 
Pelripid *coptr© wa« not oi»e taken over fVom tlw Per- 
Mids: it was obtained tlirough Mcreiti-y, tliat k pro- 
bably tbn:»ii;:h contnvance. from .liipitcr; and the 
diHerGnco probabty con^ustc-d in otic or bath of thcftc 
iwn [wnirtiUn*. It conipHn^nil^^d tlio wbnJe nm^o nf 
coiilincntnl Gr«ee<i^ »«*' "A^^of, to wbicli cro nddii^f, 
dther at once or in ito pm^rcwivc o7ttcn?(ion. the 
oXXfi! tfiatM (IT. ii. loil) of On*- Whumti iL'ni|>irr-- llir-* 
^de0 ibift, it consiflte<l of a double sovei\-ignty : one, a 
WEcminty or miprtMnftcy over a number of chiofa, eacb 
of niiom conducted tbn ordini^iy government of bis 
own doniininns; tbe ntlier, & direct tbongb prrb:ipH 
tiol fil^niytf an cfl'ectjrc contToU not only over nn hcro- 
dltary tcnitory, but otcr tbc unclaimeil reyidiic of 
mtnnr ftr-flli-nnriiN nutl pnnri|)Hlitir-s( in iUp ronntrjr- 
TUb roference may, I ibink, be galbered from the fact 
tlMt we find the foi-ce of Apaii»eninon b^foro Troy 
(Imwn cxclasirely fmm hi? Myccnian dominions, whik- 
lie bad ckimft of tribute from tiftwn« in the 90iith-tire«t 

P llifcc L 13, 

1 Ar, I'll lU. *tv. XV. V. I, 


J. J</ofT; lAfl Politic of the Homntic o^. 

of Pclopoiin<wii6^ wiiicli Ittj' »t some <]ifttaiice from hi 
ceutre aF pnwt^r, ami which fl|)|mn>ntly fiimUhed n*' 
aid iu the w^r of Troy. 

The Pherie or Dioolee lay on ilie way from Pylos to 
Spnila : und Phcm is one of the towns ^^bicli A^a- 
iiji'iimuii promised to Arliilli^. It Khi>idd, lio^iuvcr, he 
hornu ill mhid tUnt, as thi> fjunlly of nainc'fi to uliich 
Plicrw bclon^d was one »o largely itispersed, we mustl 
not iHitiitivHy n.'^tiiiLe the identity of the two towns. 

Knigtihip in Homer iii Misceplible of degree: it ta 
ono tliinj; for the local eoverei^tieaf euch as those of 
Ncetor or Ulysses, and another for the ifrcot snpretnacy 
«f A^jfamL^nnioTi, which ov<?rrodr them. Still ihv Grcok 
fUirrt\ii**t iri (he fliaid i^oiiKiitiito il du^a hy itioniMjIves; 
n dnfi8 that uomprise^ the greater leaders nod warrior^ 
who immediately surround Agnitieinnon, the head of 
the Hrniy. 

Of by much the j^reater part even of chiefB and 
lenders of contingents, it is plain iTom the pooni t1 
though they were lords (ut^ATtv) of a ccrtAin tribe or 
t4;iTitory, they werta uot fiitfriK^tK or kiug«. 

These chiefft and Iord$aji;ain divide tliein«olve«< into two, 
clii^'^e^: one i» composed of those vho had immediMi 
local heads, such as Phcciiix, lord of the Dolojtesi iinderl 
PeleuB at Phtliia, probably Stheneltis under Diomed, 
and perhaps al-^o Merionee niidcr TdomoneuB : the ntlicr 
is the clfl«a of cliicftain?, to which order the great ma- 
jority Indon^r owning no suliordi nation to any pvinci 
exeept to Agfimemnon. Aruoitg the«^, a||;Hir, there ig 
proltnbiy a diatinctjon bctweon those sub-chiefe who 
o^^ned him a* a local sovereign, and those who were 
only subject to liim as the bead of tlie gn^^at 

It is probable tWt the MilM^Minatinn of the 9ub*ohieF; 

JkffTHV rit Kin(rihip ivm/ i#i LmtUhip. 


to hl» Tof»l 8ov€rclj];n was s closer tie tliaa that of tbe 
local flovcrei^ to the bead of Greece, For, aceorr)in|^ 
to the evidence supplied by tlie promisoa of Agamem- 
itoi] to AcliilEr3B^ tribute was payable by tlie lords of 
towii« to tlicir immediate {lolilicfll £u)>onor: not a 
tribute In coiucd inoiioy> which did nut exist, ri>r on« 
tixed in qii:u]tity; but A b(tfic^Toloiir« (iW/ttr), which miutt 
have coiifiiited in eoianjoditie^. M^uls. including the 
predouE tnetaU. would, Uowever, very comiRonJy be 
tUo medium of aiTquittaiiCQ. Again, wc find these sub- 
chirr* invr^tt-tl with dontinion by the local Moverei^n, 
residing nt hlti c^urC, hoMiTij^ n Hubalti^rn c-oninifLiul in 
his antiy. All the^e poiulfi arc combined Jn the caso of 
i'httDix. Un i\ie rrtliur luind, a« to positive duty or 
a^vicep we know of none that a sovereign like Nestor 
owed tf> Agsmemnon, except it were to take a part in 
enterprise^ of untional concern under his guidance. Bat 
the dialiijclioii of rank between thctn i« clear. Evt- 
dmitly on aeoniint of hi« rotation to Agantentnon, 
Menelaud b do^rXrc^^of, high'>r in mere kinship, or 
more a king, than the other chicBt : Agamcmncn 
bo&fltti' thai he in greatly tho hn|)t'nor of At^hillea, or 
of any oiio else tu the anny ; and in the Ninth Book 
Achillea ecoroe to rofer with stinging, nay, nithor with 
slaying imuy. to thi« claim of greater kinglinc^ for 
thft Pelopidw, vrhi?M h(* rujei'b* thi^ i.ifl»*r of tint hand of 
any one among Agamemnon'i daughtera; No ' lei him 
cboose anotbor aon-in-bw, who may be worthy of him, 
aod who 18 more a king tlian V : 

2#Tic oT T* ^T^<«, Km tit j6iKrtAfirr«p(f« i^T\y. 

But although one ^Sa^iXcv? might thua be higher 
than another, the rank of the whole body of Bn^iX^ 
i*, on tb« wliule, well and clearly marked oiT, by the 


I. Ar^orc ; ihf PuUti^m <^tht tumeric offPi 

eoimiMeiit laiignniice of flie DiaJ, fn»m ftl] iiiTc 
mnks: !\iid tfii@ <Tr>tnbinatioTt may rei:iiii<l iii< in «oiii^ 
<tcg:rc*c of the Briti&li pecmjfc, wliicli lia* its f^wii intcr-^ 
rial dwtihrtions of pmdc, Iwl wlnrh U fcvnude^^ <*wen* 
tiiifly ujHin pari ty> mil! i* jshiiqily S(*v(trocl frf>m all tJie 
other onIcms of th« com ni unity, We shall preeently 
ace how Ibis propojtitioii is made good. 

It thus for appears, that w^ Wm\ MibsUntially. tltough'] 
not verj" <letermiiutely> clititingiiidicl, this fullcv^-hi^ 
fnrtn« of Iiirjior aiid loteer Greek novcroignty: 

I, Th«t hM hy Agnmemnon, a» the IicatI of Greece, 

ILTli« html kings HfiTiir of r.!ki^rii<M>nsir]erAhle€iiOQgh 
to liavc other lords or princM (ai-^rn) irnder thtmi. 

ITT. Tlio minor ohieff^ of contin]C;ent4; wlio, tWa^b 
not kings, were [niriccs or lords (oi'iktc^), and governed 
Mi'pftniti- sintw rjf thcTr oT*n ; Mirli a* TlinM f«r .f^tolia, 
mid Monolhcns for Athene, 

IA'\ The petty mid scuttcruti chrufft of whom we «ui 
hardly tc?ll Iki\^ fjir iii»y arrnutit is l;iki'n tTi tlio ('iila* 
Icign?. but whr> b«>Ionged, in iome sense, to Agamemnon, 
by bdr>rfpiif* to no ono olao. 

Th(Mx* arc «gii»» contained in the Iliad itself, that 
tliA primiiivo irKinnrHiic-s the miiurr anrl K|Mrit. nf wliirli 
will pr4*9tintly bo oxaniinod, vroro hcgliming to give 
way even at tho lime of the expedition to Troy, The 
growth of the Pelopid **m|iirt> uas probably unfaronp-. 
able to their eoutinumiee. III any case, the nntc^ ol 
couimoiicing chanp;e will bo fonnd clont enouff^L 

Mino» had rak*d over all Crete as king ; but Idome- 
ncnii. bin ginndson, is iiowlierL' mentioned as tbr king 
of ilmt coimtry, of which ho nppeam to have governod 
ft part only. Amotig nbvlons tokens of this fact are 
tiK! following. The cities which ftinn^h the Cretan 
eoiitlnj^nC are alt i^mictkiiicil in a limited |itirti<in iy( 

Fi9*H tok<*^ ttfrhon^f in tittr Ht*i'i>tc Pt/trtitti^ 


thut iifUitd. Xovi\ altlioiigli gciioral words urc cni|il(kyc4 
(11. il. 649.) to Mgtiif/ timt tlie forrc wits not tlrawii 
from tlie«e eitiei* exHuavcly, yul Ilonic^r wmihl [ircu 
bably tiavo been more |»anicular. liaJ oiler places made 
any conRiderabio contribution, than to omil the name** 
of them &]L A^ain, Crete, thou^b m> lar{^ ami ricli, 
fiiriiiHTii'^ a wnTtllcT coiiiingi'ut (ban PylfW- Ami, iiiioi' 
more, if it had Urcii ntiiud in itxolf, it if; very doul>tl'iil 
whether any ruler of *<> cotiMderuble a coiuitry would 
bave been eonteiit that It slnnild maiuI only aa a pro- 
vJQtMj of the empire of Agametiinoa. In tie tn&ny 
^^^iMHigCS of either |to<;in wbieh mention Idomcsneus, I19 
h|9 never decoratod \k\xh a title implying, like that of 
MincM {Kp^ft MtHffios), that I10 ivHf niK-r of Xlm wbolt; 
ifilaud. iDdced, one )>ft»«aj£o at leoitt ap;icar» to boar 
pretty cerlain evidence to the conti'ary, For UlysKOPt 
in hiA fabuloni but of coufk aelf-con»]ftCeDt itarration 
to Mtncrva, «licu-it ut» that e^eti iht> Crt^tan force in 
Tjoy wa« not chorou;;hly united In allegiance to o 
aiDglo head, *Tbe ^11 of liloinencus,* bo mvs, 'en- 
deavoured to di-|iri%e mr nf my jiham nf ihr n^hiiI, 
bontiHe I did not obey his father in Troaa, but led 
A boiid of my ovm:' 


So ItkcwiftL* in the youtli of Nc*tor, two gent^rations 
back, Angelas a|i)M.Mr9 fU tbr^ i^nlc king of Uic Kpean» ; 
but^ En tho C»t4ilogL]t% hh gmndium Polyxehuis only 
command* ono out of the four E)>ean divMonB of ten 
riit|«eAcb, vntliout any £<i^n of superiority: of the other 
three* two are eonimaiided by generaU of the Aetorid 
family, which in the earlier legend appeara aa part of 
the court or following of Aug^;iaK°< And wherever we 

* Od xtil 7^5- > IL xl 701^ 3^ 50b 

14 I. A^ori : the Politiea of the Homeric age. 

find in the case of any considembLe Greek contingent 
the chief command divided amoug ]>erw>ns other than 
brothers, we may probably infer that there had been 
a breaking up of tbe old monarchical and patriarchal 
system. This point deserves more particular inquiry. 

In the Greek armament, there are twenty-nine con- 
tingents in all. 

Of these, twenty-three are under a single head ; 
with or without assistants who, where they appear, are 
described as having been secondary. 

I, Locrians with 40 ships. 

a. EubtBans 40 

3. Athenians 50 

4. Salaminians 12 

5. Argives 80 

6. Mycenians 100 

7. LacedfemonianB 60 

8. Pylians 90 

9. Arcadians 60 

£0. Dulichians &c 40 

11. Cephallenians la 

12. i^tolians 40 

13. Cretans 80 

14. Rhodians 9 

15. Symeans 3 

16. Myrmidons 50 

17. Pbthians of Phylace 40 

18. Phereans, &c 11 

19. Phthiana of Methone &c 7 

20- Ormeniana &c 40 

21. Argissans &c 40 

22. Cyphians &c 22 

23. Magnesians 40 

966 ships. 

Utiiler brocliers unltefl In ooinmnnit. tliore M-ert four 
njore conlingeiUs : 

I. Of Aepledoii and OrchomeiiuA, with 30 s^liijiflu 
1* Of Phodaiis 40 

3. Of Xieuros, Cos &c 30 

4, OfTric<^c&c 30 

130 sbipe. 

In all th666 come, compriHin^ tlie whole armcunent 
except from two states, the old form of government 
H^ms to liave continoeil. The ttro exceptions are: 
t. B«&o:ianH; witti jo Hhijm, under five? leaden, 
a, Eli&DS; ^tith 40 ships, under fonr leaders. 

It 19 qiitte cIcAr ihftt thc*c two divisiom^ yfere 
ac«plmloii«. A» to the Plliaii^ Kh-auho the Caitalo^io 
expreaal^ dWide^^ tho 40 tliips inlo four nquadroiifi, and 
places 000 wnder each leader, two of these heing of 
the Aetorid houfe, and a third dcsci-nded from Augcia.«. 
Ah to X\ie Bcpr>tiaDs, (he Cat»lo]^c iriHiealet tho orjualit}' 
of tho Icfidtn^ hj placing the tivc names in a »erio« 
under the same category. 

An SiMlrroct hnr ratht<r Htnin^r ronflmtnttoii \n aflTnnhffl 
bj the ]iiaMiige in the Thirteenth Book", where Hvo 
Greek races or divisions are on^ged in the endeavour 
to repel I[erU>r from the rampflrt. They are. 

r, Boeotians. 

1. Atbeiuflii« (or Tontaos), under MenoathenSi co- 
llided by Pheidm^ Sticbiov, and Biufi. 

3. lA)vrian^ 

4, Epeans (of DtiHclduDi &e.) under Mc^gw, von of 
PhjieUB, with Amphion, oud Dnikios. The addition of 
the patroDX^ii)*^ ^ Mege4 9C«»ib in ihi» pince to mark 

•* n. iifi. 685-700. 


L jt^i't : f/tr Pvlif\tA u/ thtf }!ait\tr'ie Ojgw. 

lim|KP»]lioii; wliicl is (IistiTictlytliati[ieda« tLe HiiofoDd 
in thv Catalogue, by tus bGiug; montioiiod tberu &toiHN 

5. PlitlibiiH, un<lcr Mcdon &n<l Podarcu'^ Tlii^sa 
HajifiltetN Iwo ronlhtgoiiU, itinnln-ml 17 n\M\ ig rfr^ittH^*. 
lively in )1io li«t jtiAt ^ivori; and tbey constituted SGjm- 
rale cotniTiantl^, Cliougli oflhe wime race. 

It uill lie rt^itmrkeil that the Poet enumerates tlii- 
ooEnmaiidera of the Allienmu^, Ejienns and PhlliiaiiH; 
but not of the Locriaiis and Boeotians, Obvinuslyj in tko 
CMC af ibc Locrians, tbc reason i«, tbat Oilcao ^Xjax, a 
king and rhief of tin; firnL rank, ami u |>iii>ni] fnnijliar 
10 uft in every (lage, was their leader. Sucb a [icfkiii 
lie novor mixes ou etjual toniiB ttitb &i><coiidary com- 
EUaniicra, or puts to secondary duties ; and the text im* 
nicdiatL^ly [»roce«'d» to tell us be »as witti tW Tt^Urnttiiiatl 
-\jax*. But why doe- ii not nanK? tbo BorotlCLti leoderi 
Probably, wc may conjecture, becanvc tbat fierce bai 
net oTie commaiuk-r \i\ tbirf, but vr<*re Jill ug^regAtioi 
ofindejii^ndent 1xi<]io«, v^hnni tlekiuf blood or iieigbbour- 
b<>od drt^w tngollier in tho armament and in action. 

Having thus ondeavotire<l to mark tbo partial and 
feDinll be^riniiTng^ of Ji-un'^anij^Lition in tbe ancient form 
of governinf?nr, let iif uow olwervc th« cliaracter of tho 
particular ^poU vkberc tbey atl' fOund. TliC9u districta 
by no means rcpreseul* in ihcir pbynical chanLct<,'nsticiw 
llio uv(MTtge eliHraeter of Greece. In ilie ftrst jdaro, tlwy 
ant boili on the hi^bwcy of the raovoment becvecn 
Nortb and South. In tbe second, tbey both ero ojiei 
and fertile countries ; a distinction wbicb, in certain lo< 
pof»iliou«, St certain otn;^ ofi^kciely, not only does m 
fiiTanr the attainment of jiollcical poner, but alm^ 
precludeft \i» po«sc»»ion. Tb« Etia of Homer is marki 

^ U xnL ;oi-d. 

luritndtd tiijiiJt tn the Ot'y/^jf. 


by fWQ epithets lift\'liif|r n iliroet rofvrenco to fvrtilitj 
of aoil; it is itryeoft^nou li<>r*c-foe(iiog, mid it is also 
rt'puj^ofiav. wid^*|HiceiI ot cipwK Again, iUe luenty-ninc 
towns a^I^ried in (!io Calfilogtte to the Boeotian* fur 
exceed in number tliose which are Darned for any ^tlivr 
di^i^ioi] of tjreoca Wo liaTO other parallel indiration.H; 
ffucliAstlievienkli ofOrrliomenoH*; and of Oirstins witli 
the varit'tpLtcd pirdl*^'. Ho dwok in Hyte^ ono of the 
twontj-Din(\ nmid^t other BojotimiA tth*> held a district 
of extreme ferlilitifS^, juaXu iriWa S^uov t^»irvt\. Now 
wtien vre find ^Igiia like these in Homer, tlitit EJtv nnd 
Bootia bftd Irtwn fin^t fjuhjeeted to revolmion, not in Iho 
shape of mere chan^ of d,vua»t)\ but in the dr^om- 
positior, so to iprnk, iif their ancient forms of iiMin:irrhy, 
vre mui^ a^in cnll to mind that Tbucydtdf^', wiwn he 
telle ufi that the best lands underwent th(» muf^t frcHjuciit 
ftocial chants bv tlic siiccc^f^ioris of new inhabitnnls, 
TtanicK r^<iH.»(iTi,2ui(l ' most nf Pt?hijii)iuieMi?i' as (^xanipW 
oT the kind of di«rrtet to which hi4 remark applied. 

Upati the whole, the orgritiiztttioo of the armament 
forTniysliow^nf^ the ancient monnrchicAl system intact 
in by far Ihr tfrcaUT jmrt. *it (Hn-i^rv. Uiil. uftcii wi? 
eo0>e 10 theOdN'«9ey, v'e find iiicrea^iin^iiignit of tenons 
changct ; whirh doubtle^o were ttien preparing the wtty, 
by the nvi-rtlmiw of old dynftsties, for the K'^^t Doriaji 
invasion. And it U hem i^onh while to n.'mHrk a 
f^Tcat diflTerence, The mero «uporvcnlion of ono meo 
upon another, tl»e chnnj^ from a lVla»giaii to an Hcl- 
Icnic ebarartcr dnf<4 not nppcnr to havf? mdJtihsl rdtc^nt* 
tiotw nearly «o fEulMtaiitiol in the character nnd fitablliiy 
uf Hellenic government, as did the Trojan expedition ; 
tthtcli, by drrprjving 8ocietieA of their natural heads, and 

> n. fix-jS 

I n. T. 707-10, 

» Thi»R I 2. 


I, Aym-i-: t/i'^ Politic cf tht iiont^i^ c^. 

of tlio l^fC^itiiij? niCTi of tluf |><>|m!utiQn, Teft an 
Bckl to tijc C|)urutic>n of iliwrgani^iiiK cau&ci*. 

Htmlm Iian a remarkable pa.<«»^, though one in 
which he n3ake§ no particular reference to Hoinvr. 
the subject of tUv in^iigioni; aii<1 (li^p1uG«mOf]t4B of oi 
rocu b^' DMother, These, he flapS bad iiKlcod 
lGtii>wti befnn* UiK Tnijaii ^tt^ir: but \l wau ImiiuHlialiTK 
upon the close of the war, ami llien after tba; ]ierioch 
that they ^tuod head ; fAQKt^ra fkiv oiv Kara t« T^ftajuri, 
Kul jurru TauTa, Tu^ r^cSo^ yintrOat KOt Tat ^irrarayrn- 

tbiT* tbc Udyseey aflbrtlft Bomi? cnrioiH iodic^atioTR. 

Ainon^ ntau)' alb^ged alhJ »(Hiie n>al shadcH of djf- 
ferettco between the poems, wl' may note two of a. 
«oti^derablo political &ij^niHcanoe : the word AVny in 
th« Od)^ey haa acquired a more lax wj^ihcalion, and 
tike W4>rd (^rifen, i]iiite unknown to tlie Iliad, \ia3 cm 
into free usi?. 

It will be sliowii liow strictlv, in the Iliad* tbc tci 
jdtKTfWif, with JLs jippropmtc cpii)ic:b<, h limited to t1 
wry ilrit persous of th** (JriH-lc nnniiineut. Now in th< 
Odyaioy tlicre ari? bnt two Stnto^, with Uig or^aniaatiCQ 
of which we have occnAion to bccomo in anv fh 
acipiaiuteil : one of them A'beriu, the oilier I 
Of the first we do not see a i^reat deal, and tbe foi 
of cbo cs^mplc is diminisliL'd bvtho urowedly mjtbical 
or romantic character of the deIineatio4i : but tbo ftct 
W worlhj? f>f note, that in Scheria v/v. find lln»re 
twelve kinji^ of the ountr)', with Aloinouft'^, the th{ 
teentb, na their superior and hcaiL It l» (or more ii 
portaiit Hiid biaLoric»ll| fti^nilieant tliat, in the limiteil 

■ ftKii6.*.^ft7a- 

^ M, I'm. 3^1. vL s*. 

n^WMttff 4tf ' fditg. 


and coTuinratiicly pot^r rlominions of Ul^-e^s, Uicic trc 
nnw inniiT kings. F*>r Ti'leifiBcliiiH says*V 

ffoAAot ir ifipiAx^ 't('«j(^. m'^i ^Af iniAajc^. 
Ills mcaninf^ inittt be to refer tn tlic iiuidIxt of nohles 
who w«rc i»>w c«1KtIc(I, from ('tr|rl>filEotiiii an*! lliu 
nthfT iloniiniiMiM of VIvhkc^. JiiUi ituit Htitm). T]w oli- 
tborvntion is mnde by him in roply ti> the Suitor Anti- 
iiouai, nltu had compJniiied of liis bold Inii;;^t3kj2;e, rikI 
hoped he never uocild he king in Itlmrn'^: 

It % I think. cle»r, thnt ia thit ptare ADtinrms ilofi* 
not mean merehv ' I bope you will not become one of 
ua,' which mi^ht ho said io referenco merely (o the 
contingency of bis ttssuming the contmul of hi» |»^temal 
e«taU'«, but tbi^t ho rvtvm to ihy novert'igiif y pm[icrly so 
mlled: for Tol^mwichns nftiT hnvin^j; «Li<l tlK-ri' iiiv 
martj ^<«<r<Avtv in Itltncii. proceeds to say, ' Let cue of 
tlu'in Ik^ Hioeien^ or *on& of tli^Hc^ may be c^hwtcn, Io 
•iicc^d Uly«M,*»;' 

rvir «^F fit r^ Txjlfrn^f ivil O&Ui %uit 'Ohv^ttvi. 

' I*iit K*t TDC,' he eonlirnirN ' be niawlpr of my ciwii hoiiT^e 
and propwrty/ Thu* m» Iwvo ^u^iXtiV bi»arir)jf two 
eenees in tho rerj' «anio pa^H^ngc- Firi^l, it mouDff tlio 
twUe, of whom there are many in the country, ami it, 
iii hi<re evidently nM-rl in an improper sense : aeeoiidlv, it 
meanK tbv iwrwrn who nile« the whote of them, and it 
b l»en? iva» cvi<lently a;mployM itt it« origii^al htkI proper 
ngnification. It ^ecm? very donbtfiil, howcTcr wjjcthcr 
*^n-n in the OdT*aey, (he relaxed seniie <^ver appears ii* a 
simple title in the sinfrular number. The only 9\^t of 
it arcthcM; Antiiious is told chat he \» Ukc a kinp^ in 

• O.L I 5^4' - (l"A 3W, J Od. x«i. 4'*- 

C ft 


I. Afford: the Pr4it\<M t^ the lhm<ric ajW- 

a|>|H.vira]ic<s mm no t« also uxprtwii jcallef) )3aa<Xn\ m Ike 
^trcin^ly find j^UTiemUy ttuvpeeteU i-^rccia of tlie Twenty- 
fourth Book'> ^90 liffiin, the kiu^lj epithet ^oT^>r^>^ 
b tif>i used ill the Niin^itUir for &nf one below the rank 
of a fio^jXtfip of the Nifid, (?xeejit once, whcrr, in ad- 
dressing Ajrelaus the Saitor, it is employed by M<'I»t*- 
tbius, tho goatherd, one of the subordinate tdhcrentsf 
and parasites of that party'. 

Till* r(!4]t3Cftiion hi tho *eii«e of ftafitK^^ dt^finile &n 
liinitcd Oil la itn applrc-ation in the Jliod. is uo tneou- 
fttderabte note of change. 

Ef|iia]lr, or more remarkaWe, is the introduction iu 
the Odytsey of the words iitrjs^uva and ftavi\*ia^ slid 

tho alt£?rud use of "vo^rtro. 

I. ^rWuiKu is applied, Od. iii. 403, to the vife of 
Piristratus^ win of N*-*tor; to Arete, queen of tho 
Phffftcians, OtK \iS. 53, 3+7; to Penelope. Od. xiv. 9, 

'£, amfraxi h apj>lie<l in the Iliad, xir. ji6. to CcnsB^H 
only ; bnt in thi? Odyjwi-y, ht*siiU^j< Mini?r^u. in Oil. iii. 
38o> Uiyfi?K7« ApplfeiE it cv-ieo to Nauftieao, In Od. vf. 
i49» 175: apiiaronlly in some douM \\hcther ahc ia ft 
divinity nr u nuiil^il. I would not however dwell 
strongly on this distinction between the poems; for we 
»e£m to find duh&latitially the hunmn dso of t)ie word 
ai-oaira in the nan^e of A ;F^meni lion's daughter, 'I 
patftr*i^ which ic iHed in fl- ix. 145. 

3, IWiAria IS U6ed many time* In the Ody£$ey; and 
i» fLj>plicd to 

a. Nanvivaa, Od. vi, 1 15. 

i. Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus. Od. xi. 258 ; hut 
only in tho phraso ^avlKcta yv^atievf, which seems to n- 

> Od. %m- 179. ' Od- xxii. 136. 

Nmv uatn* ^Qtitfn. 



c. Aj«te, queon of the PhreacfanA, Otl. xtiL 59. 

rf> Peiiclo|K>, Od. 3cvi, 33a, 7: and claewltcre. 
Now it cannot be said timt the ti.qe of tlic nord 19 
forl)tini4^ in tlie Iliad frciiri the vrutit of tit |icrooii« to 
beftr il; for Hectiba, as Cho wife of Priam, and Holcnit 
OS llic V'ifc of ParisH possibly ttlso Andromache, (tliougb 
tbin lA mtiHi miirv- dotilifftil',) vte.Tn all uf a i;iiik in have 
received k ; nor can we nccount for its absence by iheir 
appearing only as Trojans; for the tilb of 0at9i\w » 
fttMjacntly ap|dicd to l*riam. and it is likeMH^io aangned 
to Piiris- tTtougli to »o olhvr nicmtxT (if tho Tr^an 
royal family. 

We have nlao two otiicr ca^ca in tlio Iliad of women 
ulio were queers of some kiiuL One i» that of lly|i»i- 
|iyle, vrlio A]i|iartHitly exercised aii|»rem0 jfower'' in 
L^mnoK, bnt no are lofV to inference &s it* its clia- 
motor: the otlior i« the motlicr of Aiidroniachc^S 

was xrliat wo t<*nn b Qtieuii consort, for her Itn^band 
n w»« alivo at the time. In tlie Odj-ssf^y vm arc 

I told that Ctiloriv, whom Ndciis marrii.'il, n*i|;no<] at 
Pjloa; i a W^<»> fia(r!Xtt3f, Od. xi. 1H5. In llii« iilaoo 
iho word fi<i^tXntt9' may porliapt Imply the exorcise of 
•OTCreign po^xn Be thh as it may, tlic introduction of 
the novel title of Queen betokens political tnov^^mtnL 
There are otJtor nlgnH of hdvmM-ing eliango in the 
ehanwrter of king*tiip diftcennblo f^om the Odyjtwqr, 
which will be more coOTcnicntlj cftnsideretV hereafter- 
lu tlip dKNuiliine, the two which are already Itefore us 
$a0t it will be observed, exactly in the dh%ct»on we 
nl^lii ox]*ect from the nature of tho Trojan war, and 
from tbe tndition of 8trabo. Wo have before ns an 

f Secriiif. 'Ilkii.' ^ tl nl ^6y. 




1. A^t"^: the PoiitM 4if tll< lfmi\<ri<' <uft- 

eRort of tlic tfountrj umouiiHiig to % violent* itnJ nlfln an 
uniiadinillj' rnntirmi-d Ntntin; n \iTiAtntget\ nJisi-mt'. uf 
Its be»t liondit, iu ^U^ngcal nnni^ its mo«t voiierated 
AUthoriCtoH: wivea qiuI youn^ cliildren, infanta of n&- 
censity in niaiij ^-itj-esn remain at home. It was n^ual 
no iloubl fttr a rult^r, im leaviikg liis ciKtTitry, to »|>j>oint 
sonio jj^uardian to remain b^hiinl liiin. »h w *^9 from 
the caKC of A^mcninoii, |Od. iii. 167,) oiul from tho 
IfiDguu^e of TrIrm:icJni<, (Oil^tv, 8y); Init no n*gwnt, 
*lc|nity, or uilviK^r, i-anM lie <»f miiHi n«e in tliat «tn;(o 
of ftfjciety, A^in. in every class of every community, 
tbere arc tK»ya rapidly ]>na3in;: into ntanboocj ; tJiey form 
nnriuaroB n ntivr generation, ami llii^ lu'Ht of tliejr youn^ 
lilood, in tin* ftl>wi>nce of liironnH ami c«talili)^h<T<l coii- 
iroul, stirs, )niMiL-» fwwTiril, ami itinoratcii. Onco niofO» 
extreme ytmlli, w> olil ngc likewise wasi ordinarily $k\ 
i]1fti|imljf!ruti»ji fnr war. And jls we find LaerU>ii niiil] 
Peleim, and Mi^icrtiiiH. willt Adim"tn»«, iKitidis probably 
Other tovcTci^is wliom J lonnT Lia^ not iiamt^il to us left 
bcliind oil thi^ acooniit, ao Uit^re niuAt lia^t^ hvi\^} many 
irlderly inidll oftlietbisa of imbles ((ipjffT«j*^,#foj;;of RfJ^rr) 
ivho obtained exem|»tion from actual n^rvice in ihe war^ 
There is too ^very appearance that, in some if not 
the states of Greece, there had been ttio^e wbo ejieaped 
from «t>rvice nii olbor ^roundi* ; perliii^tK (^:b«-r from be- 
lODf^iiLj^ to tbo ehlor mce, wlileli waa mcri-* |>crnliarly 
akin to Troy, or from local jealouAi<% or fionj the love 
uf ease. For in Ithaca vre find old men. c?f>ntPtn|> 
rari^d and i^nurf^ uf lIlyK«ei», vbo bad taken no jiart In 
tlie ox|K.*dition ; and there nro various tovmf^ mentioned 
in diiRrcnt partn of the pocnij*, v»hic!i do not appear 
frnm the Caulogni- tn buve inmle t[UY contribntion to 
10 force. Such wenj |>o««ihly ibo vjiriou^ pht-e*! b©ar- 
\t\g Uie t3Ainc of Kphyre, and vritb higher likolihi 

IKfior^nuation caaagti hff the War* 


the towns oflcred by A^memnon lo be made aver to 

A^in, fl» Ciryres' lli<? nilur of Cyprus and Echo 
polue" the «on of AnctuMS obtnincil csomption by 
memift <>f gift* lo Agamemnon, ao may otlmrs both 
nili-rjt aiul private itidiviihiaU. have c!'>ije. Ilul tht^ two 
main causes win*-!! would probably opamte to create 
perturbatiou in connection with the fibscnco of tho 
army, were. vritht>ut much dotibt, fii-st, the nrriral (if 
a tww race of yuiulu* «t ai crmlo tiiid intt'titpt^nil;? 
mnfibmul; and aocondly, the iinadjufiti^ rolatioiis la 
ttomc phiccn of tlic old Foliisgtitn and tiio new Hellenic 
mtUeri. Thi-ir diHerenoon, whcEi ihc prpwiiiro of fhu 
blf|fb««t eslablishc*d aiilbunty IitkI Ih.'L'1i removed, ftould 
natumlLy in ninny placc-« spring; up iifrceh. Jn coii- 
formiiy wilb the fin«t of thuse causcn the Suitors aa a 
.body an> cstkd vi*ry rrjriiiiuiulv vfn) trrrpijvfiftftiVTts^ , 
f'Uie domine^^ring ynulba/ Au<i the dreuni»CAitooK 
under which IJI^'aacs finds him^df, when Ii4> lin* to 
tiinifd 10 [tUa^:^, appear U> coriDect tliemF^elvoAal-Hif iviih 
:be latter of the sbnu'-Tiaiiwd c&uhcs. But, whatever 

^ Tbrrt u * h^jnu of Itlcu At' 
favkt^ totlMi*F towiif that cxcit«c 
vui^icivD- It wuuV) hnvp ^nn in 

lo-ruUB may Iutc bcrn an ao<)iiit- 
tnnce of « miduc cf ili^bt stoad- 
iug over frvm the ungiucJ oSt^r 

Afpuai-[UjiiKi to vlT'.T lliriu tc tliv fMVL'<[i towiifi u|i|rr4ir tu liuvf- 

ActiUlvMi on Aci^oTiitl of tii« hav' 
lag «lnMly fiMiiui hi- cui^KI not 
o*iklrol tk«tD htiTLHlf. Ko one of 

Kor do WD trfor of tLmi id tbo 
Nia«tHaii& BogJ^. »IiE*a llie gifU 

pOMlbl** tll«t \\iV {\tKAi\iU- \\y 

l«D«lMto pr tlio liftod of Ik^* 
ilsa^trr HfTiiktittm t« Nf^opto- 

drupp«il by coniwnt of <tli piir- 

I Jl Ki. 30, 

Tbtf qiil1k«t w, 1 (btiikj ciActly 
rfn(!«rtt(L (>y anoUjor wonl vvtry 
iIIITIl'uIi it> trHfinTftt^ littif Kti^Lteh, 


L* jl^<W ; th^ Poltti*<^ i^tJM iiumerw 4^. 

Uw rOQHMie, It is plnin thai hi» position hnil bcootno 
extremely precarious. NotwitliHtanding tiis woaltli. 
ability, and Tamer Ug did not Teatnre to appeal to tbe 
piiiple till li(j Iiai1 utterly dtwtmyrd \\\» ikri^omim vue- 
ti)ii.-6: iirKi ovon thori it was o»1r by Ins prompUtutl^, 
fltrcii/;th or liniid, und indouiitnbie county, Uiut lie 
!vuf*4viir1rd in i|uH1ing a trioal fumiitlublit Militioii. 

Notbing, tlieii, could be more natural, tban tbat, ia 
tlie absence of ttw aovcmiij!!?, often combined with tlic 
infanry of tbvir cliildivn, thi2 niotlit^r ft1i4tidd bucoino 
tie (U'lWMtwy of nn nuthoricy, fnim wbicbt a» wo »oo 
by otlcr iiietftnceft, her sex doc* not nppc^ar to bat© 
excludi^l ber: and that ir, as is pn»bAl>If, tbe iiiAtanrea 
uvn^ iiiaiiy and Himult^nooiH. this sjrstrniatic rTinracter 
givo!L to t'enialo rule sUoiild fiave ite forniiil reeuk on 
]ntL^iiaj;;e m the creation of the \i'r>rd l^icein ruid tt9 
twin jdinwt' SSfj-vQim^tji ftltj-trvw*. Tbr o^U'iMiun oftbe 
u-cnl lii'ftT^ti fmm diviiutii^ijf to morlaK rni^ht resiill 
from e. ^ubalten1 opemtion of cht? same oauseB. 

In tbe verj SAmc nmniior, the diminished f{>rcc c>f 
anlbority at its centra nonld increase tbo relative pm* 
miiHNice of «iicb :nrioiig ilic nobler a* roniuinod at 
liome. On n<uolung to manhood, tht^y would in fiomo 
case^ as in Itlinca. find themselves pmetic&lly inde- 
prridt-iiL The natiiml rt^^dt woiihl be, that Imviag, 
thoiif^h on a »nml\ f^?aleT tlut la to «ay^ fio for pi»l)ably 
astlKiruwn propcrtioe and ncii^hhourhooiU rtspectivoly 
were concerned, ruucb of the substatiee of sovereignty 
fietually in ihvh hnnd«, thi.'T bbouhl |imct.'ed to arniptt^ 
its name. Hence (roitie the &avtX^ of fthaea and the 
islands near it; vomi* of them youu^ men* ubo had 
bLTunie iidiilt Hiriro tlnf di?|hirtiLn' of UlyMii-H, otluTiw oF 
tlieni old, who, remaining belnml him, had found their 

Aliffrd /r/ea i(fihe Khvji\j ojj^fr* 


ihioci ^ffectiveiy cUaii|^l, if i:ot hy tlic fact of lib de- 
'imrliir»», vet liy tlie prolon^tion of Ms nl^itrtce. 

Tbe rclaxoil use, lh*?ij, of the tt*rm ^a^iXre^ in tho 
Odjsveyk &»<! tlio Api^caranco of the term fin^iXtM and 
of atli(?r« in a siiuilar cau*gory, iict-il not qualify the pro- 
|)C»»itic>ii Jt1>ov(j ]nU\ down with re^'pcct t« the fivirtXAt 
of tl)!.* IIiimI. Hi', m v/e ^IihII «^'o from thu fact« af tlio 
poem, stands fn a <nt1Vrt*tit poftilif^i^ niifl |)rcfl€tit9 to 
ufl a living picture of tlie true horoio age", 

T1ii« ehnngc ia th« mi^fiiiinp; of the word Khi^ wss 
nccom)>oni<*4L by a corrcKpondhi^ change in tbo iilca of 
the grc&t otlice vrbicU it bL-tokoncd. it had dcr^ccnded 
fn^iii a tuoTV nobk^ hi k Ins^K iinhte tyJh^ I d{> imL iii««n 
by thifl that it lio'l now Urac Mibniitted to HmitAtioos, 
The ffuTiXtvs of the Orccka wa^ alwa^-s and cpseiitially 
linitt^l : Aiid hence probably it wa?s that the usurper of 
wilu ond Midf-linitu p»wi*r in ihe ainiv "wom Mit-sMfittially 
and diK'ply orlioti* to the (-reekfi, hecauso it u^a felt 
that lie bud plmidi-rc^d tliu |)cople of a trc?afiure. u&mely, 
free goreninieTit, nbich they ami ibcir early forefathers 
lisd jfosseseed frum time iuiniomonal. 

It 19 in tbe Odyssey that wo are firet i^tartlod by 
mectirv uQt only a wider dilluBion nnfl more lax uhc of 
the name uf kii% but to-^-tber n-itb tliis changi? another 
ono; iianiely, u lower eoneoption of the kingtyoflie^. 
The tplondour of it in tho Iliad [a always a^^oc^iatcfd 
with duty. In the simile where Homer apL^aks of 

^ I ctcd hvillj «xprc«» mj 
<UBmt fr^m the iiNwuiit i^ivva itT 
the tfoviXivi nDi\ iTnij in tin? aotf^ 

IL ^L 84. Tiicic (F no race iii 
TroMk mttod ftm^Ju^rratw. T,v«Ty 
SatiX^t w« an imf ; but mtay 

AU ^v£ WOfl Qot D iSuuaXtvi, ]t !> 
true thut ftU dvof fuighL be< Xm( 
ritHcr of (r«cni?a <ir of Htbv« ', 
Imt HO lie nn^lit of 1k*"W'* (dl, ) 
397). uf fi«Lt« (n. liiL Jd), urof 


I . Afford : the Politic *>f tke Uornt^ic o^f. 

corrupt governors, timt flraw ilowu th^t vengcnncu of 
lir>aveii oik a laiK) Liy I'l-iiukrrd jixlgrDentA, it ih vnrthjr 
of reinark* rbnt he avoids tlit^ uso of ibe word ^o^c- 

*A j3^; tff ^yt'fll ituvKUii K^%!fca'fi fi*fuirT<is. 

The Vi'itni tbln^ Mint !;« nvtfii hiiiUnl at lu williin lli« 
limits of ]>os^bi]iiy. Is slackness in the dischiirge of the 
office: it revcr de^coeretefl into an iDBtruinciit of op- 
prfwiion to oaankin^t* Hut In the Odyracy, \^-liich cvi* 
driiff}' ri'prewiil^with fukOify (he iJoliticHl rfindiliuii oK 
Gtveet^ aftQt tho great vihock of i\w Tiv^Jaii u'ftr, wij find 
that kingi^tii^i hm come to be viL'«-ed h}' ftomt* iHftinly 
with reference to the fitju)inciit of grt>at posftoiuiioiis 
it/hich it iiii]i]ied or brought, and as an object ou that 
acccniDt of mere ambitiom Not of wliat w© shoiuld 
call abeoIutcJy viciouB flmbition : it is not an absolute 
|iervcr>K)», but it }v n cWr di^-lc»Kroii i» tbc< idi^, th&t 
I here i&uek to note 

This ji^nernl view of the office »b one to bo held for 
thij personal enjojiiient of the incumbcut, is brvmdly 
di.stingi]if<bcd from liiieh a ca»c fis that in ttie llia<l, 
where Againemnoii, otTerhi^ ucvon cititw to Achille«'t 
e^trjveft to tempt him hulividmitly by a pnrticulsr in'- 
duceniefit, drawn froni hj^ owu Diidonbtcdly latbcr 
sonlid mind : 

The moral eausoe of this cliaiigc arc in a grrnt *lo- 
gTcc traceable lu the circninfetances of the wnr, and wft 

P n an, 386. 

9 OA 1 3^1-3. 

' IL Iju iss 

Fitstanee <f/a IkhI A7r$^ 


went to i»co how llic roTMrcjuifm nWvc ex|in.'*k'(l wam 
«ngemlerei1 ii> \hv mind of Mentor, alien he nhserves', 
tliat It is now uiH>te^ for a kiiip to ]>e wieo ami benoToIeDt 
Kke UlyK»es,who was ^titk- like a father to his |>coplei 
in order tliat, like Ulvs^s, he may he foi^nttcn : so 
Ihit htf may jufit as well he tawlem^ in chnnictrr, anil 
opproMrivo in action. Tho eamo iiloaf are itxtirca**^*! by 
MinvTVtt^ in tlii' xcry s:iinu uuitlis <il llic »econO (Hym- 
plan iiitft;lMig ill the Odywey. ft uitiiIiI ttierefure thus 
appear, that tbiA imrtlcular itlop do^iiwarda in the cba- 
mctcr of the gf>\t-rnTncMt*i of the heroic o^g was owing 
to the ceasation, thi"oiigli prolojigt'd nhseiicc, of the in- 
fluence of the lf>gittmMe sov^rei^pis, and to e(>uw;(]itont 
mcroadimt'nt upon thuir rnodcrate powers. 

Atwi )t is *uroly w-oll wortliy of remark that vu find 
in tliia viTT >Aiui* pniNn lIu' iir^t ext-iiiplint'Atldn of thr 
eliarairter of a bad and tyrannical monarchy in the-por- 
son of A certain king l'>betU9 ; of whom alt we know 
K iLut he lived «>!newh€re upon the coast of Epimi* 
and timl ho tias ihe p6*ft of all inortal« that he had to 
do with. With f(rGat propriety, it h Cho IjitMoes Suiton 
who are sho^n to h<^' in ^oinc kind of relation with him ; 
for in (hr Ki;;htirenrh Odyjisry they thn?alcn" to M-nd 
Inia, Hho had annoyed Liiem in hiM L-apaeity of a beggar, 
to kJD^ Kchetua, that he might havo h\s nose and ears 
cut off. and be otherwise mutilnted. The same thn^at 
i» re|jefl(c<! in the T%*eiity-fir<t Book agaiiT«t L'lvttva 
bluiftelf, aiul the linit tli»t convoys it rvappciirs aif onv of 
the Hontcrie fom*ul<e^ ; 

Probably this Echctu» wa8 n purchaser of alavee. It 

• fti iL 130-4. 
Od xviii A3-6 And 1 1 4- 

1 Uitv.8-1*. 
■ Od, uL 5O0- 


I. Aff<}i^ : thv PvUHtJ^ a/r/it Homeric <n?& 

is little Itkcijr tlmt tlic Suitors woiil<l bare taken tlio 
troitlile r>f M^ncllng Inin avray, I'atber \hnn fIi»|tiMi' i>f 
bim at liome, exec'i^t witli tlic hope of a |)Hee ; ns they 
eug;gv«t to TclciTkJLcliii.s to £lii]> oti' Tlieochmoiius and 
Ut>53eA (still (liAgiiiseti) to the Sicels, fuiiong whom 
tlii?y vill Hell wellf. 

Til© k[ii;r«hip, of wliioh the features were so boMl; 
jinJ fairly defined in tho Homeric age, soon pnaset 
iiway; ninl was Imnlly tv he fouml ro|>re»cntcfl l>y aijj 
thuig hi)t ilM *fi$i>ptt, tht' TLf^fivv^f or ik'«])i>Lisni, wlilelt 
neither reeo^iitn-d limit nor re»teJ upon rovcrenco or 
upon u^ige, hilt IijmI force f<»r its foiiiulution, was eeBen- 
tially ahbohitf^, nm\ eniihl nut, aeeonlin^ to the {xjikIi* 
tion^ of our imlure, do otli(>rwiBe tlian rapidly and 
ordinarily degenvratc iiitn the fositivc vices wliich 
liavo tnnde the nai^it; of tyrant 'n curst; and a hicAin^' 
citer th<* earth. In IIe*iod we find what Homer no 
whore ftirnifibes: an odtoug epithet attache*! to tbo^ 
whole clfliis of kin^a> The 0uin HatriX^e^ of the heroic' 
age have dif^ppcAred : they arc now somottmcs the 
Qtihtoi villi, htit s(Tnietiin«»v the ^»/)fJ(/>rtyo<, thu gifU 
greedy, fnt^ti^ad. They desire that litl^itior fhould in< 
erc&Be, fur the sake of the profit!^ timt it hni)g» them' ; 

The peoph* haa now to (.-scplato tho wkkwlp^'tw of the«e 
oornipted kin^s; 

A Shield of Achillea nmniifaetureil nftiT the fashiofi 
of the HeModic ngv, ^'onld not have ^Iveii oh, for tlto 
pattort) of a king, one who fitood ftiiiilii]|f in bia 6cld« 

Kin^thip at iht agt of Hmmod. 


beljind 111? r«iper* a» Chey fcllod th^ ^orn*. Vet wlilh* 
iloeiod mukL*« it plain that h« li»it seen kin^tiip ds- 
jp-arlifd br ahn«(T, tio Ln« also ^howti up, tlint liis iij^e 
retaiuod t!iciilctL» botli tliat juintirc vAsitedufv. and that 
|it*nit»iKiiiii wttKtlx* gmnd basis of lU fir^wtT. Por, &« lio 
8aj3 in ono of hi& few fine pMUf^^ At the i)inli of a 
kiogt tbo Musce pour (lew upovi his tongue, titnt lio 
m%Y have the gift of gentit? speef h. and may mlniiiiiHiirr 
itrict justice to the peoplt?. lie then, or the ancient 
vrritt?!' v'bo lio^ iutorpol&tcci him, ^v"A on to describe 
the work of royal omtiTv, in thougUta chicfiy boiroTved 
fmm tb«f [iopm« «f Homrr, But tht? irirn-aw of wraith^ 
UJd the muhi) 'ligation of ftfi kintl« throii);;li oommcTrc9» 
ixiocki^ltho tiiinplc ^taccof thc<Hir)y kiiigr<,niid tempted 
thetn into a rapacity, before whicli (hf barritirK of Ancimt 
eubtoni gave way : aiid so, kivr ThiiL^ydideft', to xoXXA 

»ov 7(7»o*i^w*v, The perm of this evil ifl just cti^cernihlo 
in the Agsinernnon of the Iliad : and it iv niarkoil by 
the epithet of AcbtUtr^, vrho» when angry, Ktill knows 
bow to strike nt the wcakent point of his cliometcr, by 
calling him itstxi^npot ^ao-iXci"*''. a king who tat iip» or 
impoverKliei), iboAe under his oonnnaiid. Wheilier the 
charge was in any great degree deferred or not, u-e <?Bn 
hatdly cay, Helen certainly gives to tiie Aehn^an king 
% bott«r charactCT*. But howcTcr that may be» tbo 
reproftch \xi^ altogether perMonnl to tbo man. The 
revorenco dtio and {luid to the office must have been 
tmmenMx when Ulysses, alone, und armed only vjth 
tbo Hoiiptm of Againt?ninoii, irould fiteni the torrent of 

' ILlasi, • &h1, 179, 


i. Ajfor^ : iAt I^i^iii^ i^ftht Hmmrie €t^. 

xhtt ffyVng eoldiery, and turn tbeni back upon tlie |i1iicq 
of meeting. 

Kvcn iu the tliaH, imieed.wescarrGlir find Ihc strictly 
iratmrclml kin^. Tiie cotislilntinTi of tin* fttnte has 
censccJ to bo moilcllcd in any dogU'O on tlie pattern of 
the family. Tbc different clasecs nrc unitcil together 
liv Evlatinciii whit'h, Lhou^li iiirli'flLkHd rimI unly nascent, 
are ycl [nirely jwlitical. Ijlysses, in liia chamcter of 
king, had hivn gentle «* a fatlicr'; but the idea nhicli 
iiiftkesi ilkt; king even metA|<honcallT the father of \\\^ 
]WOple IS ncwhpTY', I think, to be found in Homier: iL 
vat obtfoloto. Ethnicnl, looa). and drnfuttic changes, 
often brought nhout by war, had effaced the peculiar 
trails ofiTatriarclwil kin^hi|i, uilh ihn' exc*'pth»n oF tho 
ohi title of ixvii^ av&pat:, and Und itthstitnted thoso 
heroic monarchies which retainoil, '\\\ a larger develop- 
ment, so much of wiiat waft best in the still older sys- 
tem. As oven thi^se iiiomtrehies hfld hegiiit, before the 
Trojnn war, to be shaken here and there, and a« the 
Odjs«oy oxhibjte to m the state of thiiijifs wheu Appa- 
n-ntly tluTJT final knell had somnled, w>, in tho iigft of 
H(-M<^(1.that iron ngt», when C<inirtien'i* lind fairly settled 
in Greece^ and had brought f<jrth it»i oIdo«t'lK>rn child 
Competition^, they had become a thing of the past. Vet 
they were- still remenil*ert'd. ami still luidersiooil. And 
it might well be that, long after soHety had outgrown 
the fornix of patriATchal life, men miglit novertheleaa 
cling to it«t AMociatioBs; and so long as those asaoeia- 
liofo wt-nt n^pR'wrnU'd by i>lil lirn'ditflr}" «i.ivi'rcigiiliL>t 
holding either in full contiiiuiLy, or by \i\^$. and tratli- 
tions not absolutely broken, much cf the spirit of the 
ancient system might c.oiitiime to ?«iit)Kj?it; |Mdilical frecv 

r (M. iL 41, t Ut«icnL *i^ I7"34. 

I'^viemftdN hn*f iulA^riH^ io tfi^ namt. 


fom rcspcctmir tlio tree, iimlcr the alindon- of vhjcli it 

Il slioiilU U? ra^iT for tUo Etigltsli, tlian for llie iia* 
lirtiis of moat otiior coiintrk*». to m«kc Ibie j*ictiirc real 
to thetr own niind>i; for it Vf^ibi; vorjpktiirt.* IxTcre our 
ovfit eyes in our own time and (^oumry, ^li**nr \'i«iUlc 
traces of tlie pAtriarclmL mould atiU coexist in the na- 
tional inslitutioritt with political liberties of moro recent 
fiutbinn. bccuusi- tlicy tcteiti tUHr hold upon tlie general 
alfoct ioim. 

Aiid, ititlccd, tli^ro i» a ^i^^n, Ioti^ poKt^^rior Cn tliu 
accoonC given hy He^nod of the hennc uge, and diHinct 
iiIxorn>jiiibi?3kjifKin'ttLly rnvi»i]ridjh*iioLt(rr*hy1'hiicvdiiie4 
of the TarpKai 8afTt\<iat, ^thlch mijcht lead to the snp- 
p06Jtioa that the old immo of kin^ left a jifood character 
behinE) it. It is the reverence which cDnliTined to at- 
tend (bat niitne. iir'tuithstsndm^ the evil association, 
which ereiits ecuM not fail to i4;tfil>li«ih botw^^n it and 
the ij0iirpntion« (Tv^Lif»rd«r). For when the cfficc of tbc 
^rcfrAiiW bad vitbrr wholly disippcartHl, uh in AthenK, or 
Imii midorgone ew«ntla1 chanji^es, as in Sp^irla, fio tlmt 
^atrtKria no loiiper ap|>eara with the pliilosopbieal ana- 
lj»t« aa one of the regular kitnis of ^vcrnincnt, but 
^otrapj^la in sntiKtiEuted, f^till Uic natno miiainfd ^, aikI 
bore for lon^ lorif* sges tbtr triict'M of itp« pristine di^Ditv, 
like many another vencmblu aymbnl, with which wc 
are liKitb to part, even nfttT mv lirtvt? ic:»?ieii <^itln"r to 
nfpcct tbi* thing it >ignilieii(, or perbiLp-i u-vt-n to nndcF' 
fttjuid itA ftlgntfioanco. 

6tich 18 ft nido otitlme of the htatorr of the office. 

*• Tho title itf «t4t^ to havir fL^riuobiiiiotLfi StJUtt4T#rfEW«UTi^n, 
facm Biipliccl In Ati';ni Fvm lo h iL p. 70. 
t^ doccQDiAJ ftr^hood. TlttoiftTio, 

3a LAf^^: the Pctiiin ^ tite ttttmft'ic t^^ 

Let iifl now endeavour to tniro tlm jmrtnih of it vliicli 
liofi bccti <lrawti in tlio llmil nf JIi^iikt. 

U Tlje clnw of ^io-iXir? lias the ei>illiet Brtou wliirli 
Ift nnver iwinl Uy Hiiiiic*r rxro|it U^ place the subject of 
it ill some upeoinl rolntion with deity ; w for (a) khig*, 
(i) bafdB, (<^) the two protnp^ni^te. Achillea flud UlnM% 
((/) scTeral of the heroes vrhii prccfeceaiwd tJie w*r, 
{h) the ImtuM ill Ih iv. i c;^ ; wh(», like an aiiih;Lft»Ach>r 
in nioiloni timt'n. F>orftonft11y repre^iits the sovert'lgii, 
auil is tJjerefare A*o* ay7*Xof *;5i ^cai at-^pwc, Ih i. 334. 

1L. Tlii» rrliL'^A ia iitaikinl hj the exclusive Application 
to it of the titular epithet A\oTpfpiti which, Uy this 
relatione ^itli Jupitor wincli it cxprcitse^, ilonot<'ft tlie 
flivjiic orfgin of prjvcrcigti power. The word htoyttift 
htis a hcnriiij^ A&iniilar to t1t»L of Afor/ic^ov. but appa- 
renllj' rnther It** exc]ii«ke. Although at lirst sight 
this niny seem einpilar, ami v/e ehouhl porhapa ox]x^t 
tlie onltTof the two word a to he rcvcfHid, it i* really 
io keeping: fiir ihe gnils hn*l many n-piileil w>ii» nf 
wlioni ihcy took tio hc^eih uu<\ to he hroiight up UDcU^r 
tlio cflre of JupiliT wa^ Ih/^rxTdrc ft fir hi^'her nscriptiou, 
than merely to he b<Trn or ilc^cemlcii from lim. 

3, To the ftttmXtv^t and to no one eW, is it saiil that 
Jupiter has tntriutefl the sceptre, the tynibcl of nu* 
thority, together with tjie pr^^rojjativcs of^isliccl Tlic 
areptro 01 MaH' wne the t^mhluizi of n'gsil povivr aa a 
vbole. Ilenc? tht* account of i\w origin ami Knetes»iv« 
deliveries of the aceptrc of AganiemiionK Hcihv 
Uljesc« ohtained the nee of it in order to chwk the 
Oroeka ami hring them hack to the nsHenihly, 11186. 
Ileoce WQ constantly hear of the sceptns aj carriiHj by 
kings : hence the epithet t«^ttocx^ is applied to them 

■ It iL »^^ 

fc tl, i\. lOt 

Niifv iffKiit^Mp ia the Uiatl* 

exclnsirdjr (n llomen and tht' scoptrc i« carrie*! by no 
ntlMT [H>r«aiis *'Ttn.'|it hy jiidgvs mid hy lieraUi-t^er- 
jeatits, n^ thojr deputies. 

4. Tbe j3curiA7<r are iu many pla<:<« spoken of as n 
claw or order b>- thcmac-lvcs ; anJ in lib cajMiaitj lliojr 
fonr* ilie ^o«*Xi or coniidl of llio anity. Tliiu wUvii 
Achillov <)Giacril)<:# the diKtrilmtlon of ]>nxes by A^- 
mcninoti to the principal persona of the amij', be wf^\ 

In this placo tbo PoH m.'c<mft nianifi'^tly to distinguisli 
between the t\f\^^ of king.'' and tbat of chiois. 

When he han o<icasion to ^p^ak of the higher onler 
of rbfffH nlio ii«i]all; nivt in roiiTK'il, Iio oall* lho»n tliv 
7*^vTff"', or tho /Ju/TiX^«": but whoi: hu i-peaks of iho 
leaders more iiC hrgc. be calls them by other iiumi;?^ ns 
at the cooiraen cement of the Catalogue, they are i^pypi, 

yifftii6vt^t or Kt}if^tivm: and, again, np^rr^rv", In two 
places, indtHxl, he flppUcs thi^ phraf»o la«t-imniod to tbe 

'UMMnbcn of that »elect clasi» of chict^ wlio were hI»o 
kiiig«: but there the expn^iwion is u(itfrvm lIamx°Jl^l'^ 
B phrue of which tbe efleet t« probably much tbe same 
as ^*7-(Xfl*? 'AxW'f : the meaning eeemg to be Llioee 
wbo were ehicf oi^r all ordcra of the <jr(ek?«» tbat 10 
to Miy, cbiefft evoa among chicfn. TXxm Agunieoinon 
WODJd have been pn^porly the only /So^A/i-c Wain^tuwr. 
The eatne diEtinction is marked in the proceeding 
of l-lyHfCK when he mJlica the dieperBcit Assembly: 
for he addrramnl rnaxingly, 

Crrua fiiv ^ettrik^a tai tf9\ttv Jj»5^a '^X'^'h 
w\mU "» king or Ica^ling man bo chanced to oYertakc % 

F S u. 404, nad vii. J27. Ou 
t-h(t forL^ of nav;^aid, h« A^^tilsbi, 
f>r Gtluiolvgy, pL 430. 

"« IL ii, tSS. 


I, Afford: th4 PQUtit^ of the li&m^rU aff4. 

5. The rank of the (ireek ^aatka^ is tnflrkod Id tbe 
Catalogue bv this trail; that no cither j^erson sceiuft 
^M'v to W iiT^saciateil with tbetn ou an ^qtial footing in 
the ooniinftiic] of the force, ereu whoro it was euch ae 
to t-oquirc sulmltern conjmnnd<jr*, AgumcmMon, Menc- 
laua* Ne*<tcpr, t M^Kf^eai, tlje two Ajaxen, Acliillc^^ are «acb 
namect alone. Idomeneua b named alcwie as leaOer in 
openirir; the account of the Cretans, ii 645, though, 
Vk'hcii h(; is i)nmc<l a^&in, Mcrionc^ alao appear?* (650, i), 
vt\\xv\\ urniiigi.*irK*iit serm« lo |)iiiiiL to him a» only at 
most a c|ua»i-cr>ll«aj^u^r an<l Jirawv. 8thonclus and 
Euryalus are nameJ after Dioincd [563-6), but it U 
expressly ndded. 

Thus his higher rank h not obscured. A^in, we ki>ow 
that, in the caao of AHiillos, lher(? were fivu penoii?*, 
each commaiicTjiig t^n of his fifty Khlpo (11. xr'u 171)^ of 
whom no notieo i# token in the Catolo^uo (681-94), 
though it begins with a promise to enumerate ail those 
who wuro in command of the fleet (49J). 

d^^otv aS I'^BV ip(at i^f rt TftoTtdaa^ ; 

and 111 tbe eaae of tbe Elians be names four leaders 
who hnd oxoetly the name command, each ovor ten 
fthijfft(r>i]{>. It thM8 appean^ natural to refer his silence 
lilwut the Ave to the rank lield hy Achill«>s as a king, 

So much for the notes of this clas^* in tho Iliad. 

Though wo arc not bound to suppose, that isomer 
bad so rigid a definition of the chi» of kmgs' before his 
mind im exi!ilH in the ciweoftbe more modem forms 
of title, it is clear in very nearly every individual cosq 
of a Greek chieftain of the Ibad, vrhctbcr be vraa a fia^ 

The clasfl clearly comprehends: 

TV yiiu OiYdt Kin^ <iftfi^ //>W. 
J. Agotiicnittot), II. i.9, nml in many places 
1. Menelati9 


3. Ne»l/ir 
3. Idoincneus 


from ll.xix.3 10,3 11, where Uieyro* 
main with AcluUcs. while tbcochcr 
So^iXflFf, Ter. 309. arft sent ftwa/- 
AIho forUlyracfi, «i-«i xiv.379; mill 
vArious places in tlio OfljMuy. 

6. A^hlllvN, II. 1.331. xvLaii. 

7- Diomi^J, 11 xiv, 27, compared with 29 and 379. 

8. Ajux Tdamonius, Il.Tii.32E oonnt'cli^l with 344. 

9. Ajflx, son nf OileiiH. 

Among i\w indicntion«, by wlndi the Wt-tiainofl chief 
k fhown t(> hiiv« b(^cn a pfi^iXilv, uro thoM> wbicli foU 
lotv. He i^ summoned by Agamemnon (11. ii. 404-6) 
amoDg the yril>oyT€K ipiartjvv llayti)(aio>v : >vliei'e all tlifi 
sboveDftmed peT«>iii» ap[)ear (I'xcept Achillea), and no 
otheis. Xow tlio yiffofTTv or etJ<jr« sro summoned be- 
fore in TCf'-53 of the ramc book, and ure called in vor. 
86 lhi5 tTxrtvTnv^ot AirT(\?*f. .Aijothor proof of tlio rank 
of OiIedQ AJAx is ihe fanUliar manner in uhic^h liift 
namo is asAociated on torma of equality, ihrou^hoiiC tiio 
poein^ nrith that of Ajax TcJamoniu-s. 

Bill ihr jiart oftht^ poeni^ uhicb Kupplien th(* mt^^t 
pointed U^timoiiy as a whole with rE^poct to the com- 
position of tlic cJa94 of k'mgs, jh the Tenth Dook. 

Here wo Ivegin with tho meeting of Agnnivinuon 
aim) MenMaiH (ver 34). Next, MimiuIuuh ^uvs lo i^jII 
the ;n^ater AJax and Idomeneua (33), and Agamemnon 
to call Nf*slor(j4,74). Ncf^tor awakens Uly&n[?s(i37U 
aod thon Oiomoil (157). wliom he i^ikU to call Oitoan 
Ajuc, logvlher with M<"gi«» ('75)- Tboy then t^tm- 
jointly vim: Ihn t^oXoiitct or watch, eomniandod by TLm- 
synecteA, Mi^rione^nnd othf:ra(ix.8o. x.^j-g), Nefitor 
f^rtf^ tliR waitrb All exhortaUoii to b*^ on the alert, and 

D 3 


I, A'^fw^: M^ P^tiri/^ 45/fA< UtM\mc. age. 

tbcD reenters within the tiench* ToUowed by iUe Ar^eiaii 
king* (194,5); 

TIjh r<>rL'e of Uic irrm fiit^t\rim, n* marking offn wrtain 
claKa, in en1iam*iod 1»j llio lin<^ wlik^h follow, utid wTiicli 
tell us thnt witii tbop), tbe kin^ (tm^ J* a^a). went 
Morioncs and Thrasymcdea by special invitation 

Now in tlim nnrmtivc it is not etfttct) (bat cacb of 
tbe poraons, who ha<l bcf^n cailcf), joiijcd tbc coni[)iiny 
wbicli visited tlip \i'£Lte)i : hut all vhfi ilid join it are 
eviilcutly /^uTf^ijflc. Rut we are certain that Oilean 
Ajfix wn* amorij; llicin, because he is mcntfonod in vcr. 
Z38 a» one of those in the Oouncil. who were anxioufl 
to AcruTif|iiitiy Okinied on bis enterpriMc 

Ajnx Oikn^ dKrc/brc makoB ilw ninth King on tbe 
Grc^-k «i<]e i» the Jliad. 

Tbc^M> [tiiiii Kh]g<dii4'r>, riruminii* with tbii t^xreption 
of Adiilles. appear fn every Conncil, and appear eicbor 
absolutely or almost alone. 

The line between them, and at] the other ebiefs, is on 
tlie wholif pr<»iti!»rvi.*(i with gresU prtH'i"i*>n Tbere are, 
however, n very few |M^r«oTi«, with regrml (o whom tho 
question may jiossibly be raiaed wljotlicr ihcy |>Q»dc<l iU 

t. Klege^. Ron of PbyleuA, and commaikder of tbe 
Dulichian Epu^n^, w^as not in the firvt mnk of warriors; 
Ji>r he was not ono of the ten who, incluilicpf Menehiti^ 
wore ready to accept Hector's challenge'. Neither waa 
he A tnemWr of the ordinary Council ; Luton one ncca- 
doruthat of the Night-council, he is summoned- Tbo^e 
who attended on ihie occasion are also, as we have 

' It vil i6T';o. 

Cfftain *i<itibtfvl otur^. 


veeti, called khif^\ An<l we have aeen tlmt tlio t«rrn 
lias tio oppcamnuo of having been loosely used: since, 
after saving that the king^ followed Nestor ^> the 
council, it adds, tl&t with tbem went M4?rioneii and 

But vLeri DioiTicd proce^Hls to avk for a compntitoD 
oa hiH cxf sedition, !<ix iier.tonn tire mentioned (127— ji)^ 
having been desirous to attend biin. Tbey are the two 
*Ajttxes» -Morion*?*, ThraMymcdoH, Mcn«lnuK, and Ulj*ftiOi&. 
IdomcDCUK and Kcs'l<irarc of ctmrsu exccptuil tm account 
of age. U H.'«iiiv fdritn, huweven that [lomcr8 intnii- 
lion wa5 to iuelude the uhok oonk^any, with thoiie ex- 
Ctptione onlr. lie could nut mean that one and od« 
only of the ab]e-hodji.'d wurriars present hun^ back. 
Yet Mogev h noL nit^nlionecl ; tlie only onu of the jier- 
MJftii tunimonetl, who h not Accounted for I thervforv 
infer thnt Homer did not mean to repreoeiit him ar 
liaviD^ attended : and consequently he is io all likeli* 
hood not inolndrd anion*; the ^J«<Tf\^ by v, 195, 

a. Pli<rnix, th(5 tutor nnd friend of AchHIcK, Is care«8- 
Ingly cftllcd l>y him At(tTpt<]>'tf** in the Ninth Book ; but 
the ]>etting imd famihar character of the speech, and 
of the whole i^Ialion l>etween them, uoidil make it 
ba£vrlou« to huUd utiy thing upon this evidence. 

Ill the Ninth Book it may R|>[>cnr proT>aldi; that bo 
wa* among the ehicr* who to'»k counsel with Agamem- 
non about the mlshion to AchlJIed, but it i& nut posi- 
tively stated; and, «\'en if it were, hts relation to that 
great cbit^ain would account for hi» baririj- appeared 
tiicrc on tbia occasion only (II. ix. 168). It i» remark- 
able timt, at thill single juiiHiiri^ Homer tell« tm timt 
Ajfomemnon coltected irot Mimply the yrp^>fr€V, but tlio 

H 1. 175. nHMiei:t<.-d fiilli J95. < IL x- ti)5, 7. 

» ri in- tio: 


r. Af^ori ; the Poiitien tj/'tiie ffomrrtc ttpiA 

ytpotrrtt <lo^AHf, EA If lliore were jTeniohit [»rvseDt, wbo 
di«) not belong: to t!ie onJInan' CnuncU (11. ix. 89). 

AgniD, ill (lie Nineteenth Book, we are tald (v. 303) 
that tlio yppuvTtv *Aj^niotu &8«temh1ed in the cnr&in]v* 
HK'iit of Achillea that tliej might urge him to cut. He 
rofuRixI ; am} he wnt nway Ih*- *oth<*r kingtt ;" but tbi^re 
renminbi behind tlie two Atrcida\ Ulysses, Nestor, and 
Mometieua, 'and the old chariot-*! riTing Ph<Enix.' Tlie 
others an.' ireiittoned without tjiichrrn pmbRbly WrRti«#j 
th^fv hiuljiiHt bi>eii described ntt khi^a; mid Plianix ft 
in all Itkeltliocxl described hy tbe^e epithet^ tV>r the 
reason tbAb the term flafTiXrjrv wonid not hichide him 
(six, 3o:i-ta). 

On tbo ^holo then, and tnkinj* Into our view that 
Pha-tiix ^as as a lord, or tlvn^, flubordhifitcr to IVleus, 
n\u] tlint H(* w}i« n MilMTfmimAnditr in tin? ntJittingT'iit of 
AeblJle^t, we may bo pretty sure that he was not a /3inn- 
Xm ; if tliAl woi^l had, m hiiA 1 think been auSicieutly 
ithown, a determinate nieanuig. 

3, Tlmugh Patrocluswas m the firat mtiV of vp-arriom 
hts ]& nowhera cnUod ^trAfn or ^toi-pc^if ; but only 
AKf^fi^^v, which is a word fip|iur<'ntly n»d wilh rather 
moi*e latilnde. The siihoidinntti |)o&ition of Mencrtius, 
the father of Patroclus, makes It impnkliMUh- that lio 
should Htand a« a km^ in the Iliad. He apjK!nr« to 
have been lieutenant to AcUillctt o\er the whole bodj 
of Myrmidon*'- 

4. Kurypylus son of Kuieu]on\ cotnmaiider of a 
continjt^t of forty Bbi|>ft, and one of the ten acceptors 
of the ohallcnge, is in one place aiMre«(4cd a^ ^itjTpnf>it, 
It ii ilotibtfiil whether hi? wa?( rni-ant U* \k e^chibiU'd 
M a fiurriX^v^^ or whether this h a lax uae of the epl- 
tlwt ; If it is *o. it forms the only exception <M]>art from 

■ II 117^^7. vii, 1^7. 1K19. 

Conditiorui of Kin^Mp in f JW IHad^ 


ix. 607) to the n]le est^bliabed hj above thirty paiwgeA 
oftbt- Tliiid. 

Upon the wholo, then divovidoiiccof tho Iliad clearly 
tendfi to show thnt the title 0a<Tt\t!v^ \tiis a definite otic 
in the firetfk army, aihI that It w-ts iMnlbu^d to iiiike 
per90U£ ; iierbape uitli some sli^rlil indistinctncfis on tho 
queetion, wbetlior th^ro w&s or w&s not a elaiin to tbat 
FEak 00 tbe part of one or two pcr^on^ more. 

Upon \u;vti:ig iha coinposi'tinn of llii- tUkh of Kiing^ 
whether we include in it or not sueh easen qs those of 
Mege« or Eurypj'lus, it scetne to rc&t upon the eom- 
bined basJA of 

1. Real |HjTitH*iil wTereigiilj, km dUtin^iiMlied from 

tubaltcm ehiefftfaip; 

2. Marked per»Dn&l \ij<:oiir ; and 

3. Eithtr^ a. Considerable t^rriforial posBcaaionB, as 
ill tbo ea»i? uf Idomoncus an<] Oil^n 
Ajax ; 

6. Ejctraordinury abilities though with 
small lioniinions, &b in the ca^e of 
Ulymes; or, at th<r least, 
c. Preeminent person&l strength and va- 
lour* accepted in like niatiner as a 
com|>eTBaation for defective jiolitical 
weight, as in th^ eaw of Telamonlan 

Although the comliliou of conmianding eon»iderablo 
for€«s is, as we see, by no tneiLns Absolute, yet, on the 
other hnnd, every commander of as largo a forco «« fifty 
riiipa tv a p<M^t\tlu CKccpt MeiiL'^heus only, an except 
tion which jirobably ha« a moantTig. Aga[>enor indeed 
baa BJXty shipe ; but then lie Is ini mediately dependent 
on Agamemnon. The Bceotians too have tlfty ; but (hey 
arc divided amonjf 6\c leaden. 


I. .If/nvv^-' iiif PqUHm ofikr Hautrrie ttffm^ 

Aiiioji^ tlie lioilitv 'pialitit^ of llonieric prinru^i, we 
muy 1ir?l note beiiuty. Tfiis attribute i« ihjU I tliiiik, 
]iointc(tly n^^cnbcd iu the poems to atij pcrsoti, c:c£X*i)t 
UiQso of princely nink* It is nectllcKA tu rolkct all the 
iiwtanooA iiiwliirit it iv tliuv ]Lr;i£r|(iii-fi, Or^aiiieoftlieQi, 
wh<^re tl)e dcHcrijiiloii i* miii-ked, and the per54>nH in* 
6i^LiH*"jiiit, like Ku|iIiorl)u?i ami Nireus', wc may be llic 
more per^imtled, that IloDier vraA following ail cxtont 
tradition. Of the Trojan royal fiiniily it \tt Uid cniineiic 
and jtcoidinrcliai-actiTbti^*: and it roniaitis^ toau observ- 
able di-grcc even in the case oi' llic a^ffd Fmm'. 
Donier is earffnl' U> iLSM'ft it of his prinit? Iierckefl ; 
Acbillefi sur|jaA«es even NIreua; Ulysses {tossebMs it 
nbujidatitly, tboup^b in a Ic^ markod di'frreo; it \i ox- 
prevsly ass<:rtcd uf AguniE^'mnoi); and nf AJatl, wLq, in 
die OdyvHcy, in vlmnnL brouglit int/i cijin|M!U'ti(>ii nitb 
Nircu» for tbo Hi'cond bummt^ ; the terms of de6crip* 
tj{>h are, however. di^tizt^uiKlmble one from the other. 

AgKtii, with rrstjHrt Lu |it>iiiurml vigour an a eondl* 
tlon of sovereignty, ii la obsened by Grate'* that ' an 
old chief, Bticb as Peleus and LaeKev^ cannot rotoiu 
Ills position/ Tbero appears to have been m>iiie divcrsitj, 
of pnuttiev. Ni<«t«r, in very adiftneitd iigt*« and when 
unnble to flgUt, litiU cocupies bia throne. The j^wage 
<)uoted by Grote to upliokl hia oasertton with ro^oct 
to PeleuK falls short of the mark ; for it is !^iiii]>ly an 
inquiry by the spirit of Achilles, whether Uk 6Uhifr is 
ttill on the tlirouo, or has been set aside on aecotint 
of ag«\ and the qncstiou itself sbo«« that, during the 
uhule time uf tlin life nf Achilles*, P<rlt?ti», tiiou^b old, 
lia^ not been kimun to have n^igued tlie »dauui&tnu 

r It iviL $1- ii 67^- 

iii tf4, m6% 9vA, sad Od iL 

VvHam of rf*i/Ht(wi^ in old ape* 


tion of the gt^Tcnamcnt. Indec^t \m retention of It 
apirexnt tci bv |rrt-«uiiiL-<l iii the Ix'stutiful H|feec)i of 
Prmm to Adillk^ <IL i^xiv. 486-92). 

At the fiutie time, tliorc Ik Mitliuivnt evidence EtupplieJ 
by liomcr to slio^v. tU»t it ^as tlie more u^ual custom 
for ihe Tiovereigi), na ht' gr<*\« old, t^itlier Ut AHsttcinlG lua 
*on Willi bim in his care*, or to K>ltre. The practice 
of Troy, where vrc eeo llcctor mainly cxeroUjng the 
active dntic« oF tho pfovornmcnt — for he feeds the 
LriH)|in^, ui wi-ll iin roiiirriniuU llti'in — iLpjH.'ur>t to have 
cemwponded with ihnl of Greece. Achillefls in the 
XjQtIj Iliad. plainJy i[ii|>lie» that he hitDBcIf was not. aa 
a goneraf tjie men? deU-j^ate of bis fatlior ; HincG he 111- 
yhv^ Phtpiiix to come and fibare hib kin^iloru \tit)i hitu. 

But the <lut>e« of coun^ft continued atler tboee of 
action bftd been doToWcd: for PriatQ presidios in the 
Tfcyan ayopls, aitd appt-nn* ttfiitn llu* ujilfs Hiirniiiiidod 
l^tlie titpoy*po^t^f whf} were, apparonlly, tttJIl itn pHn- 
oipnl speakers and its guides. And Achilles*', when in 
comma&d liefereTn^y, stjll loofct'd to Pclcua to proTido 
him with a wifi\ 

1 Ami & clear proof of the general eustoni of retire- 
ment, probably a ^daal one, in the application to 
ioverei^nft of the term uf^o"'- TIii» word h cnnunonly 
oonstnied in Honicrnfl moanin;^ youths: but ihe real 
mcautnf^ of it is that which in humble Jtfe we convey 
by tlio terra able-bodied ; that is to say, those who arc 
oeJtbef ill boyhood nor old age. but in tho entire 
Wjfour of manhood. Thi^ niiiftako a« to the »cnat; of 
the term has create*! difiicuUie.s about its origin, and 
hvt led I>(>deflcin tn flerivc it from aWta, with rufbr- 
ettce, T suppose, to the heat of yotUh, tiiHtc-AcI of the 
more obvions derivation form <i »nd i^^iu, exprejp«ing 


xm. fX5. 

<i II u. J94^ 

*J I. Atfot-e : ihe Polities ^the Ift/ntvric arj^. 

Uw lietglit of vit-U ]K>wrr. A Hiigic [TflWtngB? will. T 
thinks fluflieu 1o slmw that the wiml ciri^r;oc lias tliU 
m^uiitjr: which is also rcpreftentod In two places by 
llic |>ara|>brastic cxpreaf^ioii oi'^jjfof Qf^/>*, In the Six- 
U^Dth liiaiK Apollo appearH to Itet^tor uiidi^r the; form 
of A^U8 (716): 

Kon the A»iu?i ill (juef^tion xvas full brother to Hecuba. 
the mother of Hector and ci^htocti other chitdren ; and 
bfl canuot. therefore, be supposed to have been & youth, 
Tlie nit^aning of the Poet appears clearly to be to pre- 
vent th«i fitippn^itioa, wliich v.-ould atberwi»o havo buun 
ft imturul one in regard to Iloctor'e iincle> thdt thU 
Asiue, in whose likcn<;sa Apollo the unshorn fipi>c&red, 
wiiA |i»iit the a^e of vigonr niiil manly beauty, which is 
designated by the word a'i'(^t-o^. 

There is not a single pa8Ba|:e, whore this word is 
used with any indication of mcanin;:^ youths ns contra* 
iliMutgiiiKht'd fnitti iiintun^ iiii-it. Hut tlk^n? tTt it ]tar' 
ticular pruaago which precisely illuRlnttes the meaning 
that has now been given to at^nos. In Uio Cnt&log^uo 
wc lire loM that Hercules carried off Astyoclie ' : 
W/7cr<i« Acrrca noAA^ Aiorpfftiviv <uOjwi»i 

Pope rcndcra this in words which, whatever be their 
intrinsic iticHt, are, a» a translation, at oiic^' difTusc and 

defective : 

' Where mij^hlj lewua in ruiuft iijvuad llm ^Mu, 
Aud BKivr their bWniing irArrior* curly tUin.' 

Cowper wholly omila Iho Itisl Irnlf of tlio lini% and 
*AIW fiiU many u dty lud in dut' .... 

' II rvil,5»o. Od Ju.B^. 

r U. n. 660, 

/Wtw vftht term aK^t* 48 

Cliftpmatu right aa to the epithet^ givea the erroi^eona 
mofuiing to the BuhMAntive: 

' Wlicre nunjr towns of pnncclv routlas lie Icrcllod nith 
the grOiiiMl/ 

Vot!<, Accurate ha umia!, of^pt-ars to carry the full 
meaoing : 

* M«Id StkdC austllgend der gcttboeelifEtcn ^lannor,' 

Thi* line, iti tnitb, afibnis an ndmiraLiIo toacti&totiu for 
the iiK^Riiiiig of twii Hn|>nrLaiit Homeric words, Tfio 
vtil^r mi*siiiiij^ t'lii^w ^ifiTpt*p€ti>v ait^tjoM' us fdmjily flltiH* 
trious voutliBp What could Tlouicr lucoi) by cities of 
illiisrrious youths? U it tb<;)r ^ovcrei^ns or their fijpht- 
ing poiHEltition? Wen? tljrir »ovrrvigii» aII youths? 
Were thoir fiifhtiup i»r)|mlaLio» «!1 [11n«trioiu? In no 
other pWo throughout tho Iliad, oxcept one, whcro 
the rival r^ailmg apiridoov \» evideutly to bo n4o|)ted, 
does the Poet apply AiOT/x'pic lo a itihss of meoF, If, 
ihvnp the fiovcrei^is be me&tit, it is plain lliat they 
could not all be youth?;, niid therefore vt^ijoi doc« not 
mean ii yonth, Hut now let us take Aiot/m^^v in it8 
Btnct iktiJHtT jia H myii] title only; thi<o Irt iiH rL-moiiilwr 
thftt thrones wore only asfiumed on coming to nioii- 
hood, as id plain from the case of TelemtuThuf^ who, 
though bis fnther, as it was fciLred, was dead, was not 
in po»4i»noii of tbu Huver^-ign ptjwvr. * May Jtipiu-r/ 
fliys Aniinou« to him, * nuv<,*T make ynu tho ^Su<T*-Wf 
in itlioca: whicli i^ your nglu/or 'which would full to 
you by WrLh*:* 

When Tclemacha<i anftw^re* by proposing that one of the 

f Nor i« it appljrtl in the of Bchcrift^ Od. t. 37B ; «Dd to 
OJjf ij to ahv IhhIIm mcj-t nil- tluin in tbr irhAnwUr of luDgH. 


1. Aifori .' the Poiitie¥ qftfte HomGric a^ 

uobtes «bo«ild asaiiiiie Ujc ^ovcruigntX' lastly* upun 
(Wi^liitiiig irtUi nid aj^, it wk*<, for the nm^t jmrl, ciUit-r 
lis to (Ue more active cartas, or else entirety, reHiiquiahed. 
Then the eeDae of IVii.66o will como out \ni|i llomer'A 
usual accuracy mid cumpletoncGe. It will be that 
llerciile«) Nicked many cititfs of prJiicMNwairiors, or 
vigorous ftiKl warlike princos- 

Thue» tlicn, it was rccjuisite that the Honwnc /?<i^i- 
\tv^ fihould he a kinjf, a koniff, a man of whom v/f. could 
fiay that ai*tuatly, ami iiul con vcntioi] ally Jiloiie, lie evjA, 
both hi mind and |>orM>n. 8uoh wais the tbecry and 
t«ueh the (iroctice of the Homerir agu. TlierD is not a 
siTij^le <9reek sovereigru. with the houocirnble t.'ACi-|itiGai 
of Nestor, who doeK not lead hifi <iiihjeet»t Into tmtll& ; 
rot one who does not excel theui all in strou|:ch of 
hand, scarcely any who docs not alao ^vo proofs of 
superior intelWt, wheru scopt? is allowed for it hy tlio 
action of the poem. Over and aUive the work of 
battle, the prince id likowiDie |keerle»A In the (icmes- 
(If the ei^hl conteale of the Twenty-third Honk, seven 
arc eondiietcd only by the princes of the armament. 
The thij^le exception in n-markublo: it \% tho boxing 
match, wJiich Homer oalls wy^a^iti aXtyafrf^ t^n epi- 
Cbet that lie ajipltes to no other of the matches except 
the wrestling. 

But hiB low esitimation of the boxing conies out in 
another form, the value of the prizes. The first ]\rizo 
is an unbroken mole : the ik.-coml, & double-bowled 
nip, to which tu> epithet Hi^iiifyiii^ vjdue in attached. 
But for the wrestlers (a contest less dangerous, and not 
therefore rc^juirioj;, on this score, jueater inducement 
to be proTided.) the fir^t prise was a tripod, worth twelve 
oxen; and U>e si^-oiid, a wrmmu sUvt^, worth four. 

Avf^mplijthnneittM ofi/tt Kitk^. 


Wlitt. t)]«ii» ttiis tlie relative value of %x% ox and a 
mole not yet brc»koti \ Mulo?, like oxen, voro om- 
ploycd simply for traction. They wtre hettw, becoa^e 
more ^peeily in ilniHri^ tli*- |>U>ugli'' ; Imr., ihi-ii, iix**ii 
were ;Uw availalle for food, and we have no indication 
that Ihe fonnor wi?ix> of greator value. Without tbero- 
fore reifCin^ too strictly on tho nunilicr twelve, we may 
iwy thai the |iriy4- nf un^KlTtii^ ^kiih KOvi^riLl tinii*^ ))ior» 
rataable than that of boxing. Agaht, the AD<;i>iid priz^ 
of tbe foot^rnrc y^t,» a hiri^cand fut ox, cqnal, firobably, 
to tlic tirat [iri/j? of the boxing-match ', lv|>eufs who 
win* ilw b(>xir;^'ni»tch nganiKt (he jjrinn? Enrvslns, third 
leadt-r of tliu ^^'ivcs, was eri'lcntly n person of traili- 
liorndfamcfron] the victory be obtains ovor an adversary 
of bi^h rank. Itiit Il[>ninr ha^ taken rare tn hrJnnrr 
this by introducing a <*onfo4Aion from the month of 
Epetia httt)»e)f, thai he wa» gt>od for nothing tn 

m MrpresMon which, 1 think, the Poet ha3 uwd. In 
all liLriibood, fen the ^ery purpose of Nbieldiiig tbr- 
superiority of bis priucecs by nhowiu;; that tbts gift of 
Epou» was a sln>;tc, and m it were brutal, accompliab- 

Av uith lh<- jj^mpft, HI with tho nionf rt-ftiit'd arroin- 
filifthmentA. There Are but four caees in which we 
bear of the ti«c of munic and song from Honior» except 
Uie instances of the proft-^sMonal hard?«. One oP tliene 
is tbe boy. who upon llir Shit-hl of Arhilh.-* pliiyn inid 
eii^v, in conducting tbe youths and maidens as they 
pofs from the vinuyaitl with the gra^K-n. It \^ tho bard. 
who plnyii £n ihc* dnnivrv ; but lii^ dt^iiity, JlthI tho 
cninpoaun; alwayg njt«igiied to him, probably would not 


1. A<fQri : tfiC Piftiti^ o/th^ Hom4rk a^. 

allow of Ilia flpiwaritip in moti-in witb suoh a boJy, ftiid 
on tins account the TraU may be subatitLited ; of wbo80 
rank we know imllihig. Tn tliu oUitr ojwtw, tlu? tlinew 
|>&rfion« mentioned are tU priocc*: Paris \% tho finit, 
who btt<l tbc lighter and exienml |mrt& of tbc character 
of a ^rciitleitian, and who ^^aa of the tiighc^^t rank, yet 
lo iihoiD it tDflV be observed oilIv the iiiMtrunii^iit i« 
aBsigneti, and uot the son^;. Tbo eecoiid js the i^ublimo 
Achilles, whose powerful tiatur^j, rarjfin"; like that of 
bis Poet throiigti evury eburd of thr litiiiiuo mind find 
beurt, ]>r^ni{>t>i him to boj^uEle an unoA«y «oUtude hy the 
Muso; and who iu found in tlio Ninth lha«t" by tlie 
Envoys, aoothing his moody spirit with the lyre, and 
«ingiog, to ritraiim of h\^ own, the arhieTenisrCs of by- 
gone heroes. Again, thirdly^ thin lyre ilSdtf, liko tho 
iron globo of the Twenty-third Dook, had becib among 
the spoils of King Eetien. 

But the royal and Iiltoic eljanieter must with HomOT» 
at least wbon exhibited at its climax, be all oompr©^ 
bon^ivo. As it »>arB to every thiiif; above, eo, without 
stooping, must it ho mn^ter of every thing beneath it. 
Accordingly, tht* Poet bn^ given it tho bi^t toueh in the 
&cooin|ilif)hinent9 of (Jlysse*. Aa bo provcg hiin«elf a 
wood-cutter and ^bip-builder in the i?^!aml of Calypso*' 
eo hf? is no stntnger to the jibMigh and tlie ^rvtbis and 
lio fairly rballengeH" Euryinachiis the Suitor lo tiy 
wbieb of them would iooiK*«1 clear tbe meadow of ita 
grass which drive tbe ^tmigbtcflt furrow dowo n fi>«i> 
acre tiehl. 

So much for the coq^orenl aeoomplishincnw of th« 
Greek kingrt and princes; of their ini<.-]lcctual powern 
we Miall hare to treat in coiuidering tbt? cbanultTr of 
tl)e gn\ ernnu'irtji of tlw heroic age. 

iTi'ity^ Of UtiUi^tm. 


But lhe»e accoin)flisl]menta» rnenul and bodily, are 
not vulgarly bea|ie<I upon liU cbaractei? by iiomcr, Oi 
if they wer« (.letailed in a bonnliiig-M^-ljunl vutHlngne. 
Tlie Homeric kinjj stiould liave tb«t wbioh tncorjionilo* 
and bnnnoiiixcs them all: be shonbl be eiupbntically a 
geiitldUBui, iirtd Omi In i\ ^vn.^^. not fnr frum tbe one 
foBiUiartotlieChmtiaii ckilizaiionof Europe. \c»srnr. 
DioueiJ. MeDelauB, are in a marked manner j*enllem<»n, 
Ag:ain4:niDon is less so; but bcrc Homer Tflion'8 ]m 
itHiial di«rrin]inatioii, f(>r in A^niomnoii ilxvw is a 
wrdJd vein, uliirh ttio^i nf nil mars this peoaliar tone of 
cb&f^cter It iw, however, in the two superlative beroea 
of tbe pocioB, tbat we see tbe &lroDge*it development of 
tlium? babiU of re^^liiig nnd nctioiii ^bicb beli>ng to tb«s 
geiitk^nutn. It villi be admitted tbat f>nc of tbem' tmit* 
is tbe love of tbat which is ^traiglitforwar*!, trntbfuT, 
uid abore^boArd. AccortiiDg to tlie vulgar conception 
of tlie cbiiriieler of tJlvAse-4, he ha^ no credit for tins 
qtuUity. But wbntovcr tbe Ulysttes 6f Virgil or of 
Euripides may be. tbe Ulygees of Homer, tbiiugh fnll 
ofcircum^ection, reserve, and even stratagem tn denl- 
ing wilb 4Titcmi<-ft and t'traitgerv, hnsi nntliitig about lilm 
of what is selftali, tricky, or faitble^t^ Am], accordingly, 
it ifi iuto bis moutb tbat Homer boa put tbe few and 
nmple wtirdi. wliicb rebuke llie rbaraetcT of tbe in- 
former and tbe tfile-bearer, ^itU a seventy greater 
perkapg even than, under the circunitstunce^, ^^tta ueces- 
iiry. XVben be ia rccogni^d by Euryclen, be strictly 
enjoins upon her tlit? KSk^nn-, ufi wliirb all tb<*ir bvi^s at 
tile moment dependinl. Hurt by tbe supposition that 
she could (in oar homely phrase) bo likely to blab, »ho 
ro]>1ie« tbat Bbe nill hold herself in, hard as Atone or 
99 iron. She addjs Ibat isbc wil! pohit ouf. la Itlm which 
of cbc womei) bi the imluce arp faithful, and nhicb ore 

guilty. No, litf ivj»!l«< ; I will observe diem for 
myself; that is not your 1>ii»li€shP: 

<£ mr Kol ui^uv ^yui <ppA*roiMu ical croo^* Jku'Jttji'' 

Aft Homer has ttiu^ sliurply Dxhiliitcd Ulysses in tho 
charaf^ter of a gbiitlKman with respcel to trutlii, so be 
bsjf maile tbe same exbibitioTi for AcbillcH with r4.-i<;|K«t 
to <?ourtc*y: protostini-, as it worot in tblft nmnnor 
by anticipatioii ugainat the (kgaitrato conocptions of 
tbofte i^]iiraf^tj*r<. wbicli weiv la m|ir(Hbtee aod render 
current through the world AcbilleB vs a brute, and 
Lilyeses us a lhoroug:h knave. But let us soo the re- 
sidue of ihe proof. 

In tile lir«t Iliad. M'lien the wr&th h in i\w fiT%i fliisb 
of Its heat, iho hemhls TaltfiTbiuft ami Kurybfites are 
9i>nt to hU encamp HI CI it, witli the iqipallin^ ccmmis^on 
to brinj^ away BnsetH. On entering, they remain awe* 
struck a»d silent^ Tbouglj, mj mucli later times. He 
know tliat 

Tbo mom^nQor of ovtl tiding* 
Hath but It loiing office, 

he fit once relieves them fronj tli^^ir enibarranment, 
and bid^ them persotially welcome; 

And he devtroe Pntroclu^ to bring forth the obJ4?ct 
of their (|ueftt. More cxtmonliTiary ;ielf-command and 

r Od, xIl goo-i 

4 Ia OiL xxij. 417, he «j>|>l]^v 

to Ftirvrli^ Tur rlii* iiifnnniiltJHi, 
wliirli L<* hftci th^fori- ilrclin-'^t 
ThU h »ft« the rrifti of tJtfl 
How : the oILm wu^ bcfoii^ il 

wua jiiMjKiHsl, BiTiii vrlipn |)tc 
Chief probni^ly rvckoJi^il on lur- 
ing liiin^i'Jf mvn |im« for o!>- 
Arntvtion ihaTi [>ri>vKl to be tlt« 

ArAiUfiji an ir Qtntietrtat; 


€Oinid«?rat^nf-w>i tlian thiK, nt>vpr hats be<?it &«rrili^d 1»t 
uif nullior to nny dmmctcr. 

Again, vlieD in tlio Ninth Ifook lie it^ aurpn^^'d in 
liia,^ecluAioti by the envoj-s Pliu^uix, UIyssck and ^Vj^^- 
though he h |"re|jjiTecl to reit»<?t every offor, he hulU them 
all |>oi%omi1I>\ witljoiit vaitiuj; to be? ili1<Utsm?<I »iu1 with 
ttio utmost kiiidncAt«\ a» of nU the C>rccka the dearest 
to hini tfvi!ii in hln ^mth ; ho nfrfttirMt- pnicrM-ilw to nnler 
on i>ittcrrnfriment fnr thorn. But the most rt'fiiu'd of ftll 
hifl Attc'tkttons is tlmt Miown to AgAitieinuoEi in the 
Twonty*thinl Book, lufrrior to i\jnj. Uiomeil, iuid 
Ul^vces^ AganuMiinon cruihl not enter into the |>riiirij>a1 
^mots ^o t>e heaten \>y any abler conip<>tfcor. nithotit 
dj»]>nnigc^Ri«i)t to \m oflicc: wbilo there vh-otild also 
have be«n a 6«nouft di^tiai-Agi^ment of unmhor kind in 
his con t<*n ding with a R^eondary person. AceonIiii^]y» 
Achilla at the clofie makes & nominal nmtirh for the 
UtfO of tbo sliJip— of which wg never hear ehcwhcrc in 
tltt poema^^and, ]nter|>o«ing nf^er the c-nnilidateH arn 
tmnouiiecd, but bcA^ru thu aetn»1 cciute«t, b<> pre^enU 
the chief prixo to Agunieinnoiu with this c^DpIimcnt ; 
that there need bt- no iHaU a» cvcr)^ one 14 aware 
already licw much he ext'eU nil uthen in the ext>r- 

Yet thc&& great cbtef^ so strong and bravo and wii4e. 
ftD proud &n<i Htera. 50 r(|fiip[>ed in arts, manneri. and 
arcomplislinietitv, t'un upon oce^a^ioti \rer.*p like a woman 
or a child. Ulywtu«. in tlje island of CulyjiKo dnil^ pouts 
forlb his ' wateiiloods' a9 lie stminu hi« rjmn over the 
aea; and ho rnvt-nc np lil^ Iumu) in ttm Indt;* uf AldomJH, 
while Demodocus U singing, that his tears ntay flow 
uiiob«ervcd> And so Achilles, frenh fri>m his fierce 

a te. If;. 


S6 T, Aff&r^t tlm Pctitif^ of tftt IIi>jn^c age. 

reiifreaDce on the corpse of Hector, yet, wbeu tlio 
IVojan kiiig^ baa calJcd up before his mind tlic lwnf(0 
of liis father Peleus, at tlio thought n^w of hia aged 
paretitr and now of liis eUtigbter^il fik'iid, vIii^hIh ttiorv 
n£ tcDcIcr as tlioso of PrJani for his son, and lots lii« 
gricfe overflow in a deep comimssion for the ag:e<1 sup- 
pliant iHiftiri^ him. N<ir la it onlj in florrow that vre 
may remark a high susceptibilitj-. The Greiik chief- 
tfline in ^eiionil aro acutely sensible of pnti£0 and of 
blAme. TclL*nmchu»" la di'lightcd when /Kgyptiu* eom- 
ineiiJtt liim iiK >t likidy looking yunlh : tinil v%rn V}y%- 
M0, first ftmonj^ them all In Kctf-oonimam), is deeply 
stnnji; by the renmrk of the aaucy IMia^acian on his ftp* 
peararce. Bnd rcj»Iiea npon the olfbnder \Tith excellent 
»eln»l.^ bnt witli an extniordhiwry pungeiiey*. A virntlar 
temper l» shown in nil tho answers of the ehientL{n» to 
Agamemnon when lie gr»e» the round of the Army^, 

The heri.*(Iitary L-hiiriicter of thu royal oflrec i* Htain|ie 
upon nhnoAt ovcry page of the poemst ; a« nearly all tho 
cliie^ whctte linengo we are ab!o to trace, have appa- 
rently succeeded their father? in power, 'i'he only 
i'xeepti*>n in t\w urdt-r, of \\hifh wcnie infortnefU is ono 
wliere, probably on necouiit of \\iq infuney of tfa(^ hcdrt 
tho brotlier of Uie deceased aovoi'ci^n asauines hi» 
fweptre. In thift way Threateii, uncle to Agamemnon, 
succoedeil his father Atrens, and then, evidently without 
nny breach of regularity, transmitted it to A^^amemnon. 

And auch is probably the roa«on why, Orc»ti)» bciujf 
a mere child*, n part of the diji^nity of Agamemnon ia 
conimnnieati^d to Menebus. For in the Hind he ha$ 
a c]aalilicd »tipremaey ; receives jointly with Aga- 

> Od. viii. 159 HTid vet\q. 

Riyhu of JinritiUtrjf Sncrp-naiiin^ 


tiieinnan llio pn^ficnt of Eiiu^-uh; i« morr myul, tiiglier 
in mnk. Uinii \hi* atlior (rlik'Huiiis: \ro urv nUo tfUd of 
bim*, ^<t«ya ir«rT<ij*''A/>yftW S^'m"'"; an J l»ecamc lo llic 
wconci moclin^ of ^Jpomv in the Stjcoiul Book atru- 
fitiTac, wStliout the furii^iiliiv of a summons. 

In a ttui'.^ like tliat of Thyei^tcK, if ^vc mny Ju<1ge 
&otE ^liat actimfly liapjxtned. the tincie vroiild |>oHiAp» 
succeed instead of the miuor, wlioHe liereditaiy right 
would III such cas? be posrpoDed until the next turn. 

The case of Telemnchus in the OJvssuy 13 inter- 
^mg in roanj wap, as unfolding to ua the relaticns of 
tlio &th)ly lift- of tlu' |mriod. Among otlK-r ]>ointH 
which U l11u#tmt«A, i* that of tho ttucccsKJon to snvc- 
reignly. It vas a^foiittod by tlie Suitors, that it dc* 
scended to hira from hTs lather*'- Yet there evidently 
was fiome special, if not formal ut-t to be dorie, without 
which he could not bo king. For Antiiioue cxprcssos 
hiii bopo that Jupiter will ilcvlt iimko Tcluninchus 
king of Ithai.'A- Not because ihn tlirmie ^an full, for, 
on tlw> contrary, the dcatli of Uly8»efi wa* nduiittcd or 
iiMumcd to hnvc occurred*; but npjiarcntly boLiiute 
this act, whailevcr it was had not bteu jierfonnud in his 


Perhapft tlie ex|>ref«jons of Antinous imply that ancli 
a proceeding Ma«i much more than formal, and timt tho 
acce^sTon of Tclemachus to the fcUprcuiir digntly might 
bo ajT«j«U?d hy iho divHont of tho nobl^*. The answer 
too of Ihi: young prince'' {rofv icitf r<c toT t-x^/nv) socnis 
Ic b« «t X^'fuA in harmony with Che idea tlmt a practice, 
either approaching to election, or in some way involving 
B voluntary action on the part of th^^ subjecU or of a 

< Od-L 396- iLt8a. * Od Lj^l 

K 2 


Aifttrt: ikf PuirtiM of tfi^ Hfntnrif m^. 

portion of tliLMn, tiAil to U<? goiw ttiroiigh. But the 
[ii-rtton:il i)ii2;iiftj "f llie non of I'lyssea wa*i uiiquestionr^tl. 
Kvi^n the $tiitor« {my a ocrtniii regard to it in tbo midet 
of their tnwlentTu: and vrlien tlio young prinoe goc* 
iotn the place of nsemuMy^^ lie tukos his plari^ upini liiH 
father's seat, the elders spontaiieouily making way for 
him to o^i^un^e it. 

It may, liQwever, be said with truth, iliatTelenmoluiA 
vna an only son, and that ac<rording1y we cannot judge 
from \\U ca*e whoUior it was the right of the oldest to 
sneered. Wiiclhrr the rights of primogcnitunr were 
a(^kno\i'hHlgi'd aiiinrig iho (IrotfkK fif thif htToie Hgt\ ih « 
qucRtion of much interrtit to our own. For, on the one 
liand. there is a ditipi^hir>u to caovaita and to diHpat<? 
those rights. On the otht'r hmid. we lUe in a ^tate of 
society, to which they probubty have contributed more 
largoly than any other tfiedfie euuse. allorthc Christian 
religion, to i^ve it?* spccitio form. Homer has supfdied 
LiK with htjt fr*w ruM-H of hruthrrhoiHl uimtiig hiH gn-nliT 
charaeters. W© Bee. however, Ibat ^Vgatnemnon evt^ry- 
whete bears the character of the elder, and he appc&ni 
to have succeeded in that capacity to the throne of 
Atrpus. whilL* Menelaiis, Uk- younger, tokr* h\% inhvf 
ritanoe in virtue of bis wife. Tyro, in the E]«vcntli 
Odyssey. ]s said to have borne, on the baiik^ of the 
Kni|»eo^ the twins Pidtnn and NeJeus- In thi> ]iia,<4,-4n^e 
the order in which the phihtn-n am named i^ nioMt pro- 
bably that of agor We find Pe]ia» reigning in IiloI- 
euft, a part 'tf the original C4>niitry of the .f>)lids: 
while Nelena emlgra1e«, and, either by or before 
marrying Chloric becomes king of Pyloa in the south 
of (rreE-ee'. Of the two brothers Protcsilnus and 
Podarccf. the former, who is also the elder, com- 

• 0<i, ii. 8bh 

'CM. w. *54,^ 

V Oi. jci. iB 

HiphU t^fprimogeniturt. 


^V ntudfi tho fotro from Pliy1ttC<». He vrae. however, 
^V Imver. ojt ucll ii^ oMcr. This statement of tlic mcrils, 
SfCeis and |KjAitioii» of tire Lw» linjtIierH nirKi*->« a <|iic-Hlioii 
applicable fi other cases xihere two brotlieis are joiite<l 
without ostensible discrimination in conimantl* Of tbeac 
XhtTC arc four in tht Catalof*uc. Tic fij'st is thai of 
AN^Alajihti* nrid Ia1ni*>iiiiis Mhuiri thiMr mniher Avtyuclie 
bore chiidcfltiiiflv to Mar*, vvrptMov «jVawij94^a. 11)9 
erprcMion M>ems to )Tii|dy, [lint it wa» ai a »i>»gfc 
birth. Hut ev«n bj thin HUfj|iaHitioii we do not ^t rid 
of the idea of seniority in thi«i case; nor can wo sup- 
pose all thu |iaif« to bave been tmm. We naturally 
lbererr>rc ask> whether tlii» coujiirction implied equality 
in ocinimaTxH \Vi- nmy prol^hly veritnte lo ad^^^r, 
wltliont intieh doubt, tii tho noj^itivi^. On tho cno 
bandt there ifl nothing unlikely in ttic- biip|)o«iti<m that 
the lirst named of two hrothent w*-vs the eldest, and bad 
^H ti)o chief command. While itn i1i<^ hUkt liand it is 
^1 ccft^ii, that tbore i» no eaw* of two coequal commanders 
m oxoept It Ur aiDOn^ theee four, which are all eaacs of bro- 
iherv ; and « Inch, under the interj>retation which seems 
the ninst natural onc^ they ean re>ceiv<^, vrmilil bear frei^h 
leUimoiiy to tho pre^afeiice of the cut^lom of primo* 
^nrttire. Again, among the »on» of Nc-^tor, who are 
axhihiletl Iouh ii* 4>orr(» tin ding hiin in t lit- Third Od^'Mey, 
we may perhaps fiuci, from the otTieeti aligned to thorn 
at the Kdemn sacrifice and otherwrse, decisive signs 
«f primo^iitiirc. Pisi*tmtuft steps forward to greet 
Tek'itiarhiif* on hiv arrival, an<1 leads bim U) his seat**, 
i^lvapt near him under tho portieo, luid aeooniparden 
him on big journey. Hut thv»c futictiout^ appertain t^) 
him lioeaute be was iht? harht-Iur (irfdroc) of tho family. 


Arfort : th^ Poftti^ ^if^*^ fhmerit (^, 

itt iv« nre n|»[>ropmtcfy toUl in reference to liis Ijikiiig 
iL cone)] nc-or the guc^t, xtIiiIc the mnrriod pereom al- 
waj'» !*lf[)t in si>me sejmrate and niore private |>art of the 
JJaW'^^ Pinii^Li'^itus, tlierc^Tor^^was |ir(>1>a1>lv tUe yoimg^t 
son. But it is aUo jirttly clear that Thmsyniod<»8 was 
tho eltlcet. For in tlio McriHco ho strlkotr the fntnl blow 
at the ex: while Stmtius nnd Echcplirou bring it up, 
AivtEt9 holds iho irwiT jlthI hiixni, IVntviiH hnldt* lUd 
Uinibt Pisi«trtttiis cut* op tlio animal and Nosior per- 
fonnn the rcliginu« riU-» of prayer and wiorificc''* 

And ai^hi, when Pi-^UtriituH hrin;^^ n|» Tfilemaclnis 
anil the disguised Mhiervst. hi» ))kc;e»L ihem, evutentljas 
in the seat of honour, ' botHlo hiw Irothur Thrrwynjc<lcfl 
and his father/ 

Thf» is in pt^rfL-ct cousoimnco with mir Rndnig Tlirmy* 
medo« only, to;i^t1ier with Antihicliim m'Iio foil, i^elocted 
for service in the Trojan war. 

Upon tliifi fjUL'Mion, again, lui inipi>rtnnt collntenLl 
lij^lic U catt hy Homer* itiyiholoi^Val an-an^eineuts. 
Tbey are, in fact, quita canchiHlve on the eubject of 
primogeniture AnLO[ig the Hellenes. 'Hie OlTittpian 
order is foLindiuf upnn it^ It in an the ehlcf^t of the 
throe Kronld brothers, iind by no other title, that 
Jupilcr stands at the head of the Olympian community. 
Witb rpspeet to the lottery, he In but one of throe. 
His being the King of Atr niveau him -with no right 
to eommand tlio King of Sea- In (he Kift£x*nth Bo[>k, 
afi bft im of nearly eipial force, Neptune declines to 
obey b!ft onlers until reminded Ijy Iris of htft ijeniority. 
The Eiinueti, says the Messenger Goddes*, attend upon 
the elder. That \» to say, his righta lie at the fonnda- 
tion of tlie moral oilier. V[>on this suggestion, the 

> OcL itl 491. n. vi. J4f-5a ^ Od. iii. 439-4*^ nnd 454* 

Mf^eHon {^'thc Sin(/ ae Priest* 


rotr^tOTf deity at once vuecnmfae^ And, reciprocal ))-, 
Jupiter iti tho Thirteenth Odyssey recognises tlie claim 
of N<^>turM.' to reB[>ect as the olflesi ami best (of coitrfie 
after Uimwlf) of tbe ffods'", — 

Thtm exulted unr] ecvcrcd in rank, tlms Waiitiful 
in penKjDf thun jvnvt.Tfal in lianil oiitt mirid. thuf< oftHO- 
ettted vritb the ilivine fuiintaiii of nil liuitmu lioiioun, 
the Gre^k Htttr*\<vs of tho Iliad has other claims, too, 
to ho rc^rdcd as represientiTig, more ncurly pcrliaps 
than it has over bet»n repreflented by any othLT class of 
laonurrhtf, a bLmignant and almost ideal kingfthip. The 
light of tbcso great sUrs of heroic society ^nif no b^ 
uiild tbari it a^qb bnght; and tliey night w^-ll have 
atiipplit^d Mi(' IkihN n( that UU'Jx nf [lir ruval rb;inioh-r, 
nliieh has given Jt «o extraordinary a bold ov&r the 
mind of Shakspeore, and led him to adorn it by aucli 
noble efTiEsiunFi of Ids miifle. 

Tie nomerie King appeFint bt'forij \m In the Totir- 
folilpcliarflcter of Priests Judge, General, und Pro- 

It has alrcjidv iN.'un riinnrki'd^ l1i>il no jiru-^t apprarx 
aiuoiij^ the Groek« of the Troic ago ; and^ in confonnity 
with this view, wc find Agamemnon in the Itiad, and 
Nestor in the Odyssey, charged with the actual per- 
fonn«nce of the ntt? of sacntice; nor U it apparently 
commiited to sny other person than the head of the 
society* assisted by his Kip^fKt^t officer who acted as 
befnldft ntid im Hi^ijmmCs, or by hU Honn, 

But while thiw wan the ciwe in regard to what mjiy 
bo c«llcd state ttaoriAoes, which wcro alfto eonnnouly 
banquets, we likewise learn, a^ to those of a more 
priTata cijaraeter, that they nn)at have been performed 

* tL av, J04-T. 

■ Ud, liU, v^i. 


I. At/r/m: thr PidUieji af tire Hamta'if ittfr. 

hj the liEBil of tlie hnuraeltol^. To slay ait niiinial 
for fbof] i« in ^v^ry oa^^ la sacrifiet^ him fcr^fJciv) 
wlicthcT ill the €&m]\ the palace of Negator, the unniW 
companj of the Suitors, or tho poaccful cottage of 
KiinicluH ; and ovm* miiitial n^fidy f^r tli» knife w&s 
m\ivd itu (V^F/iW" 

Tlie jiidtcial office of the king i« nimlc known to iit«. 
firfit, by thir rharat'ttir of Ktiiiot^. Wliile oti fjirtli, Im 
liaJ direct coTniuimipationd from Jupiter^ which pro- 
bnhly pofen-cd io tlio administration of jiw*li<re; and, in 
lh« Shades beneflth. we find him actually expiri»ing tlie 
ofRvv of thr jndgi*. Nothing with which we Wcome 
ncfpiiihiled in lliimcr hai; ili« wnnhhiiif*v of oriminai 
jnAticu- c>:*^e|it tho Hnc» for hinnicidt-; nnil even thcac 
have nf> niort^ than l\w >H*t]ihhui<-tt only. '71u- punish- 
ment wa» inflicted, like other f!ne«, a» an udjustmanc or 
conipt^nsatioii" between man and maYi.and not ia satiR- 
faetion of tiio otlenci* a^hiat public monility, peace, or 
order. # 

In the Second Iliad, the remonstrance of Ulyaeeg 
with the oommonalty declares that it is the kinj^, and 
to the king niom', to whom Jupiter ha^ coinniitteil Uie 
ifcoptre and chv administrattou of justteet that by theco 
he may fulfil hi* rcgnl offico'' : 

Now tlio sceptre is properly the Rymhol of thv judicial 
ttnttiority, mn ne know from the oath of AcbiMes'i : 

■ Oi 3Li¥. 74 94> 
P It bj. lov 

« [1. xviiL 498. 
1 IL i. »37. 

Alt Jwfyt' ami as Oeueral 



FroDi tlie combined cfTi^et of the tt^o im^mi^^ it 
b dear that iTiedutie»of theJtidlcaLure, the<iet4^^nillll* 
tion of rclatlvi; ri^ht^ between tho membeni of tlie 
C4>titniiiiiilT, irfin^titiu.i*<l, ni least in great (lari, tbe 
primary funclifiii of ftrrtercignty. Htill the larger con- 
eeption of it, ^bicb ]ni:lu<le» the delibenitivc rxfiice, is 
tbat pn-scnted to u» in tUv BjieeHi of Ne^ttur u* Agit* 
ni«'mni>n> tm ttie iiccasion of the Couaci) uhkb fol- 
lowed the Night-oBSCiiibly'. 

«a( f o; Zfiit fyyhdKtftv 

The Judicial function nn*^hl, Iiow4>v<^r, ovcii in tho 
days of lloiaer, be exert^ined by lielegation. For in 
Ibe A««emMy j^raven fin the S1iit<ld, \ibili? the parties 
conU^nd, nnd tbc! people ^"mpathize eome witb one and 
some with tl»o oUier. it i« the yrpovrf<^ or elilcrp, who 
dcIirpT judgmt'iitV ()f lbe»e pcmon* each holds the 
Hcoptnr hi iii« biLn4l«. TIk* juduu^s IL i. ^37, Reein« to 
■pca^ of ruiA ftcepcro bold by many persoiiit: this flcoiie 
on ibe Hhi<;lil exhibits Uy u» several f»ceptres. In the 
Himi)*^ of tiie cmnkeil judgrnents. a plurality of juilgiw' 
are referred to. Bui aw ue n^^v^r hear of an original and 
independent autbority, like thai r>f II. ti. }04, in the 
seikBtora or noblc«. it »ceins iD08t hkely that tbcy acted 
judieially by an actuiJ or virtunl deli^giiLidn froNi ibo 

The duty of the l^ing to command bis troope ia 
inacnlied on erery page of tho Iliad; and tbe only 
limit to it ^em» to have W.>n, that nppn the nppniach 
of old age it vraa delcgntod to tho heir, or to moTOtiian 
ono of tho family, even before the entire wjthdmwal of 
the sire from puhlir rarni. The umrtinl chametttr of 

r IL U. 9«, 

• IL x-ntL S06. 

* a xyi 386- 

tbe Mvereign wb» indeed ideully rli^tinguUhablo fmm 
his regal one ; for AgunifinuKm was" 

titill, iimrtial excullciKC was expcctod of biin. Wkeii 
riippolochuA fKiSpatdieil his «ftn (ilaucua to "lYoy, ho 
utjjoinect bini aluaiyH to hi* vallinit, aiitl nlwaj^ to excel 
lii» CQinradoe in anna*, 

Lfi^iHy, ttic king was a pro|)rictor, Uly*!se8 had very 
largt? laniltnl |iro;>frtj', iiikI a» mnny Iwnlw and Hucks, 
s&ya Kumunia hi a Hiiirit i>( loyiil 4^ xaj^^t* ration, a*i 
any twenty chiete alive>* And Homer, who always 
reserves UIb best for the Lycinns. Uaa made Harpedon 
duclAn.\ in ati incomparable api^eeh, the vjrtusl cDnditaou 
oil whMx {.Htatctj like tbese were held. He desinM 
Glaucue to recolloct, why it is Unit lh;;y are lionotircd 
ill Lyciu>vjtlt prc^cetlviicc at bamiucta. aiid with greater 
]K>rtinn« than tlie rtjst, wliy loiiLcd upon it^ deitit?y. why 
endowed ^vilb ^reat esiaCea of pasture and corn land by 
tho bank» of Xauthus: it is tliat they may ihu nioro 
boldly face the buniing battle, and be great in the eyes 
liiuJ in the miiid^ of ibeir com pan ion 9. So entirely 
if) the idea of dignity and privilege in the Homeric 
king foimdi^d upon tlio auro ground of duty, of rc- 
spotiHibilityr and of loll'. 

What Hippolochnti taught, and Sarpedoti stated, id 
in oxact conespondonco witli the prfictical part of the 
narrative of tilaucus in the Sixth Hook. When Bellt?- 
rophon had fully approved hLniTff.df in Lycla by 1i» 
prowo^^ the kiiij* of tho country' ;^ve liim hit daii^ht^r 
in niarrja£*e. together with cue half of hi:^ kingdom; 
and ttte Lycian» pri*sent«.'d him vrith a great and fertile 

T OA. xrr. 9^ 

* !L vL 307, 

Aw prvpri^or ; Mf rc'^por- 


This cstAte U calleil r/^fi'or; a nnnie n«tver apiiHad 
in Ilcnicr but to llie properties of deities and of nilors. 
He uses the \roitt with reference to tho glebc-Iauds of 
8|>erclK'it]s II. xxiii. 148. 
WiiuR, Od< vrii, 36a* 
Ceres, IL ii, 696. 
JtijiiU'r^ II. vi>l. 4^1. 
Aiid to the doinains of 
Bellcn^piion, II, vi. 11*4. 
JEncns iproniiacd by the Trojan commtiiiitj if he 

Tihouhl 8l»jr Achilk*!*), )[. xx. 184. 
Mtflcagor II. ix. 574* 

The pa<n\<vi on (he ShitMj 11. xviiiV 550. 

IpbitJon {vo\ir»f ^ytjr^p Xa^^*-}, U. XX. 39I- 

AleinouB, <M. vj, ^95. 

LT|}-ase9, Od. x\, 1B4- and xvii, 2^9. 
On the other hand, th*; niLnvly rk-li iimn (Tl. xi. 6S] 
hiu» f;» upovpot not a rr/irj'oc; and the farn^ of Laertes is 
eallcil aypoft not reVi^of. Anrl why ? BccnuM; it wta a 
prii^te jM^eftMcn, ac-r|iiired by him ap|>ar(.TntIjr out of 
wtvingN (Od. xxiv. 206); 

TliL' »vn> T«Vvwp is [>n>hably from -rvuvw, or from 
tho t^Tiit> niot with that vt^rb, mid «]ginFi<-fi huid uhfoh, 
haviiij been c«t ofl' fmm the original <^i)tnttiou tttock, 
available for the nses nf |irivate [jer»i>ii.s \\nn \\«^\\ M?t 
apart for one of tlie tu-o great public [nirpoHoa, of 
pfOTcmnient or of roljpion- 

bcf^idcs their great estates, the kinga appcnr to have 
bud si b*Mt twf> othi^r wnir(*L'j of revenue. Oni^ of 
the>e ^3LS no| Vp-lihout retemblai^ce in form to what we 
novr caill enHloin^-dulicM, anrl uuy have contained their 


L. Aytfri; t^ Poiitif4 ^ the ffoitteric <ifft. 

liJHtoHcBl germ. In ibc Book of Gciicsis, whcTc tlio 
itofia of Jacob ^i> dnwn Ut \my mni in Hgv|»t, Hmy 
carry ukli llimn it present for ibe rtiler; ami clouhtleBB 
the object of tbis |>r:ictic© was lo concilial^ the |»rot«c- 
Uon to whicli, us forcignt^ns and {H.-Tlm]}» aa r^uepected 
per^otiM, avowt-dl^ Mvki?ig their own ^uii, tljcy viould 
not ctherwige have had a ctaiin. 'Tiik«- of the host 
fruita of thtf land in your vc^cls* and cany do^n the 
mail a ]>rt^t'»t ; a little balm, and a litth? honovr apii^e<i« 
Rtid myrrh, iiutA, and almnmU',* lit (<untoi'nt]ly with 
the practice thua exemplified, when Kuijoim In the 
Seventh Iliod dc!^}mtehcr4 hi» ships from Lemno9 to 
wdl wine t<> ihtt Crft-k army, in rt'tiini for winch tlwy 
ohUiiti «la^ei^ liidt% and oth(.<r ivnnmndiiif-j^ he seiidii 
a separate supply, ^'A'^ h<^p**y '^^ ^ pre«cnt to tbv 
two fiona of At^eufi^ Agrtmeninoit indeed 13, in the 
Ninth Book, ^lily twilteil by Nestor wilh the largpiipsa 
of the storee of wine, that he bad eontnved tn at-cu- 

So likewitto wc find that ciritain traders. tMiling to 
St'lu-nn, mwh- it jm.'vetit t« AlrhninH, u» the so^x-roigiit 
of the captive Kurymedusn, When we conijiarc this 
with tikc cafie of Knneu^ the gift ohvjotisly ap[Kiin to 
have T>een a conHideratinn for permiHAiun t4> tnidcf**. 

Tba other source of revenue traceable in the Dim! 
was* one sure to lead lo the extenflite corruptions, whicli 
must already have pr<?vailed in tlic tinie of IJcsiod. It 
eou«st»d in fees upon thv fLrhnitii^tmtinii of justice. 
Id the tuit dei*cribed upon tlio shieldt the matter at 
isfiuc is a fine for JioTnicidc» Hut quite a|urt, a? it 
would Ht.'seitt. fnim thi» fine, there hi? in the nndHt, duly 
* pikfd into eourt/ two talouu of yold, to be priveii &t 
tlie clofie to him. of all the Jud^'t, who t^hmild deliver 

* tSon. iliil 1 1. • II. viL 467-75. •* (3d. tti. 8-1 1. 

Hfwmi^ ami hurdfnit on t/t4m. 


tlio moKt uprif^Tit, ttmt U tho mcHt approvt^, judg- 

TiJ ^^^v ftf fitrh ratiTi htmtv ifitiTora fiKTir 
Howerer rjf^litocus the original mtenttoD of a iin^mcnt 
in this ff>rxiu it i» ca«j tocfclimatc itepmctkal tciideiicieB, 
and ciirioiiH to remark liow cnrly iu tti49 coni^e of time 
ihty were rtvJjxeJ, 

On the other li&Dd, tho ^roat poaftes«iona of tlie king 
were not ^veii him for Ma ovm u»e alore. Over &nrl 
above the general obligation of lioflptality to strangers, 
It tiiw hit) ftiity to entertain liborallythe principal persooB 
amoDj^ his subji-ct^. Uoubticsa this provifJed the cx- 
rit«v vfhich i.'tiM&\ tlio Sititorft to fi?n*t upon the- stores 
of UljRiii!!^, witfannt ilie ftliame, lii'tlie very oatwt» of 
abnolute rapane. And it woiilit appi^ar from thcOflyflHer 
tbat AIIHker^es' and other friends of the royal bouse, 
freqiLi^ntoil lliff table them nt\ vt-ll iih its eiieialt^ 
though not pcrhapH bo constantly. 

In tho Seventh Iliad, after hh fi^it with Hector, 
AjaK** nrpmrs, not itivtted, but ss if it ncrc a matter 
nf nninu*. In fthnii! th<< bohfiilJitity of Agnm^'tniivti, In 
the Ninth Book, Xoator urges Agamemnon to give a 
fcQSt to tlic cMors, A<L & duty of his otiioe : 


anil then to take their eounsel. But perhap» tho 
ordinary exercise of thi^i duty w best exhibited in the 
cnmy iif Alriinuiw, whci i>i diNCdvnvil by iru-^tsi-K on his 
ftrrlvnl entertaining \\\» brother kings in hb palace". 

I have not here taken apceifio notice of the Jm-mjf, 
or tribateR, which, as Agamumnon promised, Achillea 

« Orf tvii. fix 

d n. lil 3tj 
c <M, vii- 4g. io3. 


[. AffW^: the PoiiiiM c/th^ ffomn^ie a^f^ 

u'as to rcceivo, froni tlio Heveu citie% that it was pro- 
posed to place under tiie dominion* Tho expression m**, 

ol ttd i bv/rCi'jjTi OtGV £ii Ttfiijfrovtnpf 

(tai fll vffA iTiapntpiir Xmopht TtAi'oinTi rS^/iwraif, 

The cniitipclion of tlio Tdeai Jtl the tHo linen i^sp(H't- 
ivcly would ap(>t'iir lo kIiow, lliat the (Wii'<w may be no 
moro tlimi the fucs pajublc lo the sovereign on Uie ad- 
tnlniotrAtion of jupdice. 

Thwii then the king mtglit draw 1ds( onlhiary revenuPH 
mainly from tho followinK sources: 

First and principall/t tho public Tf^rcor. or dt^mcfino 

Xoxt, his own pjivate acquisitions, snch a« the fiy/>oc 
of Laertc». 

Thirdly, the fees on the adminHtnitlon of justice. 

Fourthly, the jirewenLn piiiil for Ii("ensp?i to trade. 

The po&ition of Agamemnon, the greatest king of 
the heroic age, constitutes in itself too considerable a 
feature of Greek polity at that period to lie dLKiDiMcd 
withotit f-Kptvinl nulirt'. 

Ho appears to have united iu himw>lf almost every 
advantage which could lend to raise regnl powLT to it* 
^CTiti. H(* wan ufn himii' imnliig tiin^iird In il» jlh ret 
unbroken career of accumulating grt'aniew: he waa 
the head of that hnu»e» sup|>nrlcd rn IjfLcedu.^nton by hia 
aflcctiimate brother Menelanti; and the double title of 
the two was foriified with twin siippnrts. by their mar* 
rioges with Clytemnostra and Helen ri'dpectively. T\m 
fiuniiy was at tfie bead of the cttcrjfetic race which 
ruled, and d<.*!^*?rvcil to nde, in the Greek peTiin»u1n; and 
which apimrently proiluced such large mid full devolo]>- 
ment$ of personal chamctor, tm the worl<^ has i^crer 

>^ 11 ijL 153. 

Tki fuNiiU&n of A^iHrtMWH. 


I, either beforo or since, at eo infantine a stof^c or 
civUiiEatioii* Thcrfi verc vnrioua kings in the annjr l>o 
fi»r«Tmj\I>ut Riiiong thoin all tlit- r«ci" of p4.'lc|ml* was 
the niOHt kiii^ly^ Agamomnon |K>ft»ee»ecI the cotirjijr(>, 
atrength, aitd »<kill oT a ^^urnor, in a dc'^rec* aurpuSBcd 
onlv by the >ery greiLte?*t ht.TCM',s of his »nti<»Ei ; aekI 
(ac4*ording to Homer) eridenlly exceeding that of 
Hootor, the chief Trojan irarrior opposed to himn Ho 
murt lifivc been still in the flower of his age; and 
thojgh tKMllifrr gifled with cxtmordinary talsiits, nor 
vflth the nioi4t popular or attrucllvo turn of cimracter. 
yet bo posseeeed in a high degree the politieal pipirit, the 
senee of public f^spoiie<ihJlity« the f^inulty uf iilt!iitifying 
himsolf with ilie general mind am! will, AviiritH? and 
irreeolution appear to have been the two moat faulty 
points in liia composition. 

IIiM dominioni! woro the largest which, up to that 
time, hiul bei'ii known in that portion of tlio Wi*rhl : in- 
cluding Orceoe, from Mount Olympuft to the Maleau 
Cape, reaching acrfw** to tht^ iiiilAnds on the coa»t of Asia 
IJinor. and even ca|jable i>f liein^ ln'hl to infihjde tUa 
iilaTid of Cj-prna- Before Troy. Ids troojw were toX^ 
-rXtimt ffoi ifn^Tci (II, Vf, 57;}, which miist imply, aa 
bis Bhipft were not greatly more numerous tlinn tlioso 
of »K)me other coDlingent*, lliat they wen? i>f Urgi! mw?; 
nud ho &]»o supplied the Arcadians who had none of 
tbtir own, (v. 6ta.) Lastly* he bore upon him the 
infllow hrightui^M of tlie jinlrmrehiil tigt\ »igntlSed by 
the lillo QKi^ ^i-ipifiv. 

Tlmcydide^ wa3 not an antictuarian, or he wculd have 
left on bifl biBlory more marks of bis rcAearcbce in that 
deporcmeut But he sei^nis to have formed with care 

I II. ^ 339, 


I, A^r^ : M# /*/Ji>*(*w nfihf Hm%fmf «fy*- 

tlie opinions wliicli lie exprewe^i on airclviitr (Jrecce. in 
tbe a<lmirabk introdtiction to hU jrreat work. Aidoii^ 
them lie aajh that as hc' conceives, ibc fear oK Aga* 
memnon operated more powerfulljr than tlic OAtli given 
to TyDtl&reas^, or tli&n ^od will) in tbo fonDatton of 
tlio coiifodoraoy vhieh iirdort.ook the war of IVoy, 

It seems clear from IloiDcr. tbat the name and fame 
[)f Af^mcitinuti were known fur beyoril iIk* IbiiitJt of 
Grdceo, and that the reputation of huing ooiniectod 
with liim wn* thought to liC of v«lno. Vox Mi^nt-Ina,*, 
on bin leturii from Plmms tn i'-gTpt. en>rt^il iXwrt* i\ 
fbneral mound in bis honour*, tv n^T^errritv «fX<op €tt)\ 
whicb bo would not havo don© in a country, to whose 
inli&bitants that monarch vras unknown. And npain, 
when l'ly«KL*s is cballenged Ijy ibe Gyebijw* to iteclarc. 
to what and to whom ho and iiiA er^vr b<>lon^, ho makes 
(he reply, tliut tliey arc the eubjocts of Agamemnoii, 

the noil of AtrriiH™; 

Urff h}^ i-Cu y* liJyirrritir iirovpAviov kA/o» itrrtu. 

UlyiBoe evidently conmvce tbo fame of the j;^at tno- 
liArv'h, tbu^ eidianccd by Hucccas to havis been likely to 
ftupply any our wlio helongin! to him with a defenee 
against ih& ftirmidable monster, before whom ho etood> 
Tbo i?itatoniont» of Homer re»|>ccling tl^c position of 
Agamemnon nnd th<? niotireH of the ^ar* fall nhort of, 
but are not wholly at variance with, ibe opinion Vp-hifb 
has been oxprceaed hy TbuoydideB. Of tb© oath to 
Tyndarcus Homer knows nothing : but bo tolls us of the 
()»vlb» hy which tbe Gre<?k ehief^niiiu had liniiiid tbem- 
st*\vv* to proHtK-nte tbe expedition. Betbre setting out, 
(hey IukI a solomn cei^monial alAuUs; tbcr offered 

k Thuf. i. ^. 

OJ, ir, ,184- 

»> I1<L it. 0*3, 

Ovffrmttff motit'ft of thf IVcir* 


if^ccB, tbey nmde libatioDS, thcj (^woro» iIkj |>lo<)gicil 
hiiud«'*, they saw n poricnt, liDfl hwl it tnlerprcu>d by 
Calchas^ But all this only shows ihat the Atreida: were 
iriBCjoiiH hn»' fiirtiildaliW an enturpnse tlicy Vkvxt' abr^uU 
how they doin*d ftt-coidingly thut thoir comjianTori 
kinjjs shoul^l, nft^T biivitig: oticc i^iiitmrked, be as riccply 
pledged Afl jKHi»jhle ti> go for^^Ard. ll doe6 noL tdl ua 
whni was tlip ori^nat inducement to etit<*r Jiifo i\w 
undercakiitj;. Again, ii doc« not appear Umt thaOnH'ke 
in getti^ral cared mucli about the ubiluctiou or cvi.n the 
reotoralian uf tli-U ii. 'Hu? »iiK piiMNA^* dirHrMj UJiicUing 
the |ioii»t is ilie one In which Agamemnon*' <?xj>res*s 
bEa (4»inioii that, if Monelaus should die of his u-onnd, 
tJio anny Hotild probably return home. It »ecm» as 
if Againeintioii ihtiii^Itt, tluit wtlhniit doubt th?y 
would then be in honour released from Iheir eiigiige- 
ment, and ibat they would at once avail theuiselvee 
of tlicir freedom. Tbo lope of booty, however, would 
do luucli ; and ihe nicinbc-n» of a cmiqtirring racu 
uoile together wiUi gfreat faeillty for purposes of war, 
through a tniscluro of old fellow -feetin;; and the love 
of advcntare, as well as through anticipatiou of spoil 
On the otber hand, it was evidently no »mull iimttvr 
to orgttulzo the ^fxpedition : much tlnio wa» couKumed; 
A friendly ombnMy to Troy had loen tried without 
tMLicretfa; the ablest primes, Neator and Ulyitats, were 
employed in olnaining coo|>eralion. The genu ml oon- 
clumn, I tbink, is, that a coinbiuHtion of hope, «yiii- 
pAtby. r%&pect, anit fear, hut certainly a very «trong 
iwrsnnal feeling, wh;vteTer ita precipe ingredieiita may 
liar« iMcri, towanl^ the Petupid house, must have ope^ 
mted largely in the matter And it is in tbie fipirit 
that we should construe the Tanou4 dcclarationa of 

• ILiLjo3-7. 339-4 

Ihid. 3o8,^>. P iLiT. i6^7J. 


I. Atfifrit the Po/iVt>* tj/M^ //<wifr»> *i«k- 

Ilomor roepectiog thof^e wba came to tlio ^ar, aa 
courting tlic Atreidx, and as acting: for their honour; 

'^yoiJiitoi't Jj>a ^poiT<(. II. tiir. 133. 

Boforo Troy, Agamemnon is always r^gpirded by 
others as re$j>onmble for tlio cx[>cditioti, and it ih }iluin 
that he mi regarils hitij^i'lf. Ilic itSL^ of his w.vplrc ity 
Ulywes ill ll]e great effort to stem the lor^^ent of the 
retiring; nmltitude, U bighly eignitioaiit of the iDftiiencG 
bclon^iDfi: to his station : and wIicmi Ulysses argncs wilh 
tliw hmdvr*, hr rests his enwp i>n thr ini[K)rtance of 
Iciicwiiig th<> alu>l<< mind nf AgiMiii;iniiou> while he 
strongly d^rollft on his royal authority, and on tho 
higher authcrity of heaven a^ ita foundation* 

His position, however, diil nut \Ai\ce him alwiYe the 
inflnencci of jealoUBV and fear : for be was gratilieil 
whwi ho «ftw Achilli^ and Ufys»cft» the liratof hi« cbiof- 
tains, at variance'^- And his weight and authority de- 
pended for tlieir eRh-ar-y on n^isoii, and 011 the free uill 
of the Gn*ek«- Agamemnon tskes Bdseis from Achillea 
by an net of force; hut he nowhoro Bt^ks to move the 
amny. or tlie iiidividuale composing it, upon thut prlnd- 
]Ao ; mir diies Ihi* prohju^ntioii of Ihn m*rvii't' ap|ifiir tn 
have iieen placed bt*yo«rI tl>e judgment of the parllculnr 
chiefs and of the Iroopft, Achillea not oolydecJarea thfil 
he will go, but says he will ndtiM^ others to go with 
him'ritiii! nyk* Phii'iiix to n*mnin in hU t(*T]t for the 
pur|M>se. Tlie defiTn.*nei» paid to i\n} IKfid i* a dofer- 
cnc3 according to nieo^uro ; and the measure ia that of 
Ilia grcaLcr responsibility, hia lieavier stake in the warV 

sOa.Tii7r 'll-ix. 356-^3' 4'I-«' ' tlir, *i5-.8. 

Prr/itnmt f^itraeter of At^tiinemtimt. 


\\U riinetTo:M in regard to the hnet &re. to tliiiik fnv 
atnl advl^f \i in ecmndl, iiiul to ntlinulaie it by vxlior- 
tation and exfttuplo in tlio Held. Tf vt may rely on 
Homer, it was essentially, so fnr as resided the rela- 
tion botwr^on the grmrml hi chief nnd tlio rent of (lie 
Ixxty, A froo inilltiiry itr^iiixutlon. 

The Agniremnon cf Homor does not apfiear to bt> 
intended bv tlic iVet for a man of genius Hut on 
tliU very account, the doniinaitc^e of |>oliti(?at ideas in 
Ids mind \% mure ri-ninrknble. On puliricid ^rcmtiilH lie 
Ib ready Hj (jivo up Cbryselii*, On politieal grounds be 
quells bifi own avarice, and iilays Tmjaiis in.^tcad of 
taking random for them". lie deeply focls the R-Bpoii- 
Mibilili<.^Mof hU «tation»niid cure bnidslii*^ tiiii »tb-<*p, Tlie 
amiakk' tmU in Ida ebanictor in biR »nv«ocion for Mene- 
Iaus. and in tliia, a9 in many otht^r reapectiii. lie recalls 
ibe Jii|mer of Homer, whose selfishncM in nowbcrc re* 
lieved, eicopt by patenml alfoction. 

Further, A|{amomiion, tbonj2:h without j^cnltis, U a 
Ijmclitioncr in lineiw.*- In bi? Inve i*f thj^ iwi^ I fear, 
li« riTA-mbltM the tribe 4»r later polltieiaits. lie renem- 
blev ibeiiK too, in outvntciiif^ himself by mean« of it: 
lio is • ttoibt u|*on his own [iclflrd.' Thi« Bccms to be, 
in ]inTt Bt Iraet, the explanation of \m uiihnppy device in 
thv Stfctind Tliad, to j)rc|knr« tlit? |ii'ophf for nit attack on 
Troy, by comiselllng lliem to go home fortbniib. Tbo 
1?r«ai£domi of bis schcnio is, o& it "ere, itio first-fruit* 
of retribution for bis ctt^ in the First Book- 

Aii. njion tho wbole;. tlirru \% nn UW of heHi*lMiw*s 
iiivoUi^d In the prefogatlvoif of Uio Homeric king, 90 li 
it clear tbfit^ except a*' against mere criniitsak there is 
no general idea of coercion. The Homeric king rei^rn* 
with the frpe ^wniit of his »ubJpc(»-^Bn nwi-nt intlr- 

* ILLiiT- %a^.4fl"**' 

P 2 

flfl Agori : the PotititM qf't^ Jioitttric ayr. 

torminftte, but real, aiirl in haih points slike reMmbling 
hif^ kingly jKiuer. The relation between ruler !%ii<l ruled 
ii fbtiDded in cbo hwg and coriditicn of our nature. 
Born in o stato of <icpca(U>ncc> mrin, when he ottaine 
to fioetlom atifl capurity for mrtion. imdn iiiniBelf tl»e 
debtor botli of liis |mretiUt and of Aociety at lar^^; and 
fi Justly liable to di8charj*e Uih debt by rendorinjr c«r- 
vice in Teton). Of this wo hare vnnoiw iiidicntiftiie ir 
Homer, with resfxct to jiarenlH in particular. Tho*c 
vf\io die 3'oungi, like ^mneifriiis by the band of AjIlx^ 
die before they hare i^paid to their parents tbc co«t, 
tbat U tbo cfvrc, of tbcir cducalicii (ft/>ffirr/>d). In a most 
remarkabli' ami characturiAtic pannage, Phwnix describes 
how, when h<> was young, m*«h^ deity restrained his 
wratJi acrainBt hU father, and ehon-s the infamy tliat 
would attend tl^e taking away of that life, in o. coun- 
try w^ore vohintary homicide, in general, waa ivgarded 
more aa a mtHfortunc than a crime": 

itv ^Tj TiaTpoijtdvxjv tiir 'Axatoiiriif JtoAfD^'fi'. 

The reciprocal obligBtionft of father and acn are 
beautifully shown by Andrornai^be in her InjDcnt over 
HecUw, when she epeake of her child* : 

icvt^, 'VdKTOp, iptiap. iml S^ftt, o^* <to2 oCros- 

As to the relation betwoon the eutgect and tbo «ot»-^ 
reign authority, it ficetns everywhere to be taken for 
gxanti^d- In i\h* Tviriity-fimrlh Oiljaaey, the ohjeet of 
those who inarch a;^ainst Cly380Ct is not to put down 
anthortty, but to arcnge tho deaths of their sons and 
brotlier?. But the*re appcara nowhere in Homer the 

' n- iv. 473-9- 
■ n. ftx(i. 4H$. 

" IL ix. 459^ 
Od iiir 4^4, 

jdt^ ihni iii thi« n>laiioii roiitO be tnvotvei] » dilTerBPce 
ofinCGrdfit, or eveu of opinion, bettreen clasA an<! claes, 
between governors and governed. Hie kiog or chief 
was uplifted to set ft high example, to Iea<t the common 
couDHdii to common ends, to conduct tfio |»ublic nnd 
common intorcour»o wjtii beavcn, to dcoido Uk fttrifoa 
of individuflU, Co defend the border? of the territory 
from in\aMon> Tlmt the community at home, or any 
r^^larJy ^ubtiigtin;; clarw of it, conid reqnirt.* rcpro^^ior) 
or restraint from tho icovoromeDl. was an idua happily 
tmknown to the llofticric tiotcQ. 

TlniHi* eI]iHM.'S inil*-t?d. wi*r« ft^w ami niniplt*. Tbert? 
wa9. first of all, the kin^ ; and round blm hla ^inily 
and his isnf>v^(u the Serjeants or beratds, vho were his 
immediate, and apparently his only immediate, agents. 
They rmivi.>y4.-d IiIh (bn1(>ni; thi-y aHHiKlril htm in ihi* 
Aisemhly^ in wienfico, and in bantiuotjK. They appfnar 
to be the Ofity executive oflieers that arc found in Ho- 
mer. With theso ^as the Bant, apparently also aa in* 
dMi«/n«ablH mcmlier of roval Im^isi'lioIdH, Both wt-re 
roougnised amon^ the o«tabli«hcd prafe»9ionft. 

Xoxl to the kinga and other sovereigns> wo must 
place the chief propriulors of the country. In the 
OdjBwy, wi-v find tbe member of the arislocracy hav- 
ing tlieir own 4^i»lc» and function^ and tmMiuniitg Uio 
part of 7r^MrK, or leaders in the .\*sembly. Tlie judU 
cial office, as vre have seen fnim the i^hield anil other- 
wisOt was in th^lr hands, probably by delegrttion, Bnt 
it wonid appear, that the drntinctiou betueon them and 
the ftovorutgn family wan rather n broad one ; eincc, in 
almost oTery ease, we seem to find the prince contract* 
ing a marriage beyond hia own bordt-rn. Laertes bringb 
Anttclea' from the noighbourfaood of Paxnaseus ; The- 

» iX\. jsi- 86- 

Afford: tht Poiitit^ o/fkf Homeric w/c 

Bcus Diftirics Ariadne from Crete; Agnmcmiion ntid 
Mfiit-liiiiH. fi<>1uitgirig Id M)'n.'Mn^, ure tinitei) to tlio 
daiightora of th€i king of Sparia ; of tlie two daughten 
nf Icarius,U!r9see in Ithant aiarricd Potiolope, and Eu- 
melus iu Pliei-ffi married Iphtliime (Od,iv,797); one of 
t\%v two. nt WuM, and prrlinim hntli, rtiiifti, linvi- nmrried 
from ncoiikideitible 'HAlanco; MciK-laufi eendii \\U beaa- 
tifiil dmiglitor Hc'riiLJoiK- to be x\\x^ wife of Ncoptoletnus 
111 Th«»aalj : and the Q11I7 in^latire, tven apjmreutlj in 
ttie opi^iGMte son>!kt*, seems \o te tliat of I1U smi Mcga- 
pentlio^, wlio iimriied a Spnrtan tlamse], th« dnui^litor 
of Alcctor* But tbcTi Mcgaj'cntlicH uos not Ic^itimaU;; 
Iii^ was horn of a ftbive-niotlirr. mid LlK-^ivli^Ttt lie wa« 
imt a pinit-e* All iliene fuels «t*i*m to *iho\r iis tbat 
the ToydX hou^oe formed a network nmoit^ them^^lvt-fl, 
spread over Greece, and keeping pretty distinct from 
t)ie tirirnitncnLejr : h cirninintnncc wliicb mny, in «oiiiu 
depfTi'e, bc'lp to explain tVicr wotidertnl jtalicftiec and 
ijonAtnncy of Penelope* 

Next to tbe nobles, and in the lliird place, w« 
may cln*4» wliat we !ihou1d now call trades and iirafes- 
tiiontt! obwervirj^j lirtwever, tlmt. in ll<»merV lime, Lotb 
tbe useful nns and the fine arU liad a soeliil dignity, 
a» cnmpt\red with tliat of wealth and station, which 
the rorraer have long ago lo*I, and whirfi the later 
have not r<^-lained in ais full mauiK'r a$ perhaps mi^ht 
he dcflirc'd, not for tUoir own aflvftntc^u mcrcl,T* hut to 
ircure due honour for labour, and thc'liumzLniEingofFcet 
of l1ii& kiufl of labour in jiaitiiruhir for MM-icty jd. lurge, 
t draw the proof of their estimation in ibe heroic age, 
firftl. from the manner in which they arv eombined 
\nider the common designation of e^rfitorfiytn, ' 

■ Od. IT. I 

0-1 >» 

Othfr chtJit9Ji offfiv ifumattiuittf. 



ranged in & mixed order, ttio |kr«forezice bdiig only given 
by a more emplmtic description to tlic bard* : 

ff iLol diffTti^f koihhv^ S ttir r/pTtrfati? atilt/ti' ; 

Here I take TfVrara ^ioupt^t to represent the entire 
clas^of arlfficen^ of whom many are named id Homers 
in a poor country like Ithaca, dcpetidin;^ very mtioli on 
the use of boats for t1^hinff and lor its communications, 
the carpi'iilers might naturally represent lite whole. 

And next, frum ih<^ manner hi which thove srls 
wore praciificd by princes, il jH-onift pttiHi that Uicn> wii« 
nothing in tlie pureuil of them Inconsistent with hi^h 
rank. The physiciaiks or ^iir^eoiiH mther^ of the Greek 
army, Podnl^riuv nnd Mach&on, were theme<^v«>fi princes 
ami commanderf of a contingent : and cv<tTi Pjiri^, who 
WQA nnt Iho man to d<*Tncnii himewlf by employmentA 
beneath hj^ station, «4'eniA la h^ive taken thechi«raharo 
in the 4jrcctlon of his orni palace^: 

^01' ivlTpolj^ ift^aXati rfitTovtt Av^pt^. 

Agmin, Uh; bard of AgtimemT)on ^jnaKi'- 
gtttrdEon" to ClyCcinn<'Ntrn in her Tiu»ih<ind'fl Al.>»enco: 
and Phrniius, the ban) of Uly^cs ^ proceeded (o Che 
Afiwmbly of the Twenty- fourth Odyitsey in cnler to 
present any tnmult^ to;-ether with Medon the herald, 
who addroMod tho people acc*orc]in;^lyp Tho heralds or 
Sexjeanta, arc also rtcogntscd as St/n.iotpyo!^. Again, Alt* 
ChrrsH?'^ Wing the fttit/Ttv or m*i>r of (ht? i^^laud, and uj)« 
parently the only one. takes part in the debates both 
of the Second and of the Twcnty-fonrili Book^ 

« M. ivft 38^ ti a tI 314, « Od Ul 26-j, 


I. A^ar^: i/a Patitiiv ttf'the Homeric Uf/c. 

The pmfEfisions, i\}vn, iIidb far nro Itvc: 

1. Hovr^^ 4. BurOn. 

2. Sur£(;ons< 5. Heralds. 

3. Artilicer9. 

W« liiaj n?mfirk iho alwtiico of i>riest« and mer- 
cliADlH, Noi tliEiL nierchaiitH were Linkrowitr v^e find 
tbero moutjfined by KuryaluB the Pluracian, a* Tr^qKri- 
prr, bat tlieir buBinoss v>%s a^ain^d sonJid; it too 
mucli ri.-fr<^iiibli.n1 tli&t of tliL* kidii;i|i|H*r or r(ui[HUer, 
mvl it i^ t}w rcpnmcli of ii<>eriiiiig U* U'lon^^ tn thiti c]mA 
that smaitty &tiik^'ff Ulyt^s^fi^ And evon tbe raL^rcbanc 
Mcnlcs >A'boac< form vka& assumed by Pallas bcloiiged to 
the Ta|>hiaiis a tribe af iiirntd^f^. Ah yt^'t, nt'illicr th» 
order of pric«t« woiiM «ooin to hiLVO bt'uii roni|dettdy 
taken over from thu Polut^^ians, nor tho class of ruer- 
chaiitA formed in iiniution of the Phoenicians. 

A ftertb« clashes ue have named, I-^^eu^^ the ^rent muiss 
of the popuJntion. wbg till tbc ^rr>und and lund the Viva 
stock for thonisclvcr* or their cni|dnyerB, if free, and for 
their lords if sUvcn- Tlio fivhermniu too. i« ditttiiictly 
uotiiH-d^ lit Ithncu. Mr. Orote idas*t*ft with tho free 
huF'haiidnien tbe artJiitRnft', and sefraTatea both of thom 
from tbo dvr<v, or hired liibourcni, and tho slaves It 
appears to tne, however^ that vre ought to dietioguiAh 
tha ardsans from tbe mere husbandmeii. m having been 
in a higher statioHn On the other band, T eoo no passage 
in Homer which clearly ^vcs to the liufbnndmcn as a 
clssK u conditioti HiifH:*rIor to timt. of tho liin*d w>riHnl«, 
or 4(ven, perhaps^ tbe ilavcs. The ovidenee of the 
pociDS is not clear as to the ostititonco or extent of a 
peasant piopHctary. We must beware of coofound- 
ing tbo«e conceptions of a slavery maintaine^i wholo- 

' Od. Till. 161. 

ffluw III M^ ffomeru-^ t^*^- 


«qU- for tlic piiqmnM of commercv, vrliich our ex* 
p«ri«nce fluppUes* vltli iU enrlli^C foim, in whfcb Um 
number of sbves \roul4 seem to havo been small, and 
tbcir rauke to U&ro been recruited principally by war» 
wiUi flight and cnnunl aid from kidn&pi^tig. Tn tltom 
times, i\\c liability to cajitlvtty would tieL<ni ti> hiive 
afi'ectcd all men alike, independently of all diecinctlcns 
wbcthcr in rank or in blood. Tbc sons of I'mm were 
mAi] into slavtTy liki^ any one cImb: Hk only dilTrrence 
wiift, tlinJ, ilk ;>n)]ionion to tbe wealth of tlie phrt-Tittf, 
there ^^ a b«.ttiT ebanee of ran^in. ft would appCMir 
that the riav^H of Hoiner were prfiperly, even vrben 
not indoor, yet domestic. The wameii di&t*liar^d tbe 
todoDr and houseliold offices: except that a few men 
|>crfortned strictly pcraoii a I services about their masters, 
as J^i|T-ri^v and a^ carver**' (iJ^pixuia* Mipaovt &uTpo~ 
trufitpr). But tbe men^laven were more lately em- 
ployed out of doors In tbe cnre of flocks and herds, 
tiotdt^ and Tincyarde. Tbn», the slaves wore in it differ- 
ent pontien apparently from the frvemcfi. for they setm 
to have been ^Uiert'd il« «ervaiilfi and attendantii wmid 
the Hob, It n-ould appear, how'ever, from'tbo case of 
Eanwns. wbo had a fibre of hts own, Mcsaulioa', thut 
tbey might hold property foi tbcmBclvi.i». Again, not 
Enmxiia only, but in tbr Twenty-fourth Oilyswy IWins 
and hia afjc scww, tit down to table toj^ther with Ulyssea, 
and fondlycla^fphifi hand^ They War arms too; and this 
ronbl uiit liave bet-ii very strange, for Homer deacribca 
the arming of the sons without r(*m&rk, while bu calla 
both the father and Ijaerre^, on account of their old ugQ'^, 

Od i>4l- Thrrv nrrc likcviM 'mutov of tbc ocrcmoiuo*,' (CM, 

in Srh^ru nmr mtnut^ai, vihct inii, 35R.) 

madeamajifcni'auF'oTthpdAneci < Od. xit. 449-59. 

niMfm«nuhli«aAirvnlA4/iioi) ■>> Od. uiv. 496. 

at^iyKuhti iroX«fMTTa/. Tho moml ilotoHoratLcin of slai 
H fioticei) very strongly hy Kumo^ua liinisftlf *". though 
not with refi-n*nef to liiinHt^ir Wi? have* however, do 
reA&oD lo eup|>ofie that their outvrarcl conditioJi ^119 
iuforior to that of the fr^^o laboiiring |io|>uhviK>n in anj 
thing, exoi^pt thut wv mu^t |>ro«umc thvy did not tttko 
part ill the n^iMt-uihlii^ ur In wnw U'h<ni Arhillt^ji'^ m 
the iufenml regions coni)mr^ the highest contUtiou 
thore witli the lowest on earth, he does not chooso the 
elave. hut ttic labourrr for hire {OnrtCtfivv ia his cx|in*a* 
f4K>ii), as the tv|>t^ of n ili-pres^ei1 coiiillLiim njion ejirlh. 
The Btate of the hired Bervant prahably resembled that 
of the) slave iu hv'm^ dependent upon otLcra, and fell 
lwiK.nth tt in the |ioinl of ^ecnritJ^ 'I'his im the inoro 
liki^ly, heeauM- tht? jtoirit t>f the ]tu?<su|ru tunu tm Lh« 
[loverly of the employer, 

cU'fpl -nap ^nA^pif. <p ^T) /3tcrr«f noKvi tUi, 
RS constituting the mi«erj' of Uk- fcrvniit- 

Indeed, if we consider the matter a little further, we 
shall perhaptf eee the greater reneon to tbink, that the 
exprc^ion dfjre^^ty hfla been chosen otherwise than at 
mndotu. What dn sn* mean hy a hired ^er^lri, at a 
period in the luovemeirl of society wlien money did not 
0X1*1? Wo can only mean one who was paid by food, 
clothes, and lodging, like a Mave, hnt who was not. liko 
a »lave« jiermanently attacdied to hiN na^iter or hia nm«- 
tQT'H mtuto. Tlio ditfcrenoo between the two woul<i 
thus lie in the ab^nce of the permanent tie : a differ- 
ence much more agair^t the d^r, than iu hih favour. 

Tlio pnitiiion, then, of the daves wa« probably analo- 
gous to that of domestic servants amonp ourwhea. who 
practically forfeit the active exercise of politieal privi- 
leges, but axe in many rexpei'tif h^HvT off than the 
• Od, ivii. 120^. • Od. xi 469-91 

Sirftpfy i^tnUUtir^ *rri'«^. 


miLM of tliom* n'hi> ilopcnd oii bodily IntHJitr. [t tloiiht-* 
\^w grew out ur th<< aUte of things in wliicli ilaves 
w«n* practice I J y serrants, and Nt^rvant^ uf tbt' rich, that 
ma^tL'm, or £^tfiKrtt\ were j^gardcd as confetti tutnig tlic 
wtakiiy clawH of tlin romitiuuity, 

I Hfjp for a moment to oUu^rve, that Uie vitrw here 
taken of tlio comiJnratively restricted uumberfl and 
Bjiliero of the slaves in hemic GrctTo may »CTvt in sonic 
df^^rce to an^wi^r tin* (lui-fttion. >s\\y Au wc not liear of 
LliEiii ill llie arn»y of ilie Iliad ? A^ iiit^n cife'iiial blooi] 
with the Greeks thomfieUe^ they would perhaps be 
daii^roua comrades in arm^. Aa persons cstabh«liod 
in dinr^ nf tbu pro|i«;rtv of the lonl, tbt-ru woul<] be a 
strong triotivo to Iwvo Mu'iii bdtind for it»» can*. It \n 
TOry (liRicult to jndjcc how far the fitato of heroic 
Greece bore any resenibbnco to the feudal HVftteni of 
the bier middle a^efi. and wlietlier it did not fireiieTU a 
mom «iibFtanCml oorra«poTideiict* with tbo nllodial syt»- 
tom of tho earlier. \Vc have bofore ns" u iitrgr number 
of independent proprietory each bound by ti«ago pro- 
Whly to ri-^ndef perNtinnI Hi/r^iiH*:, but Me bnvc; nothing 
tbAt resembles the obli^tioti to brinp w many re- 
lAini-r^ into tlie Held nitb reference to tlio ^izc of tbo 
e«tJite. And Qcconlin^ly, in the Iliad ^'c do not find 
niutiy merely perKonul n,'laiiLi*r». Tbij imiiial w_Tvi(*i> in 
the tent of Achillefl are perfomn^d by ibe noDien-ca(H 
tivcfi, or by I'atroclua in peiBon. After i'atrocluH wels 
i]pad, hia tent ^m attended only by Antotnc^on, bis 
chariotiwr, and by one other warrior- AganRDinon had 
no other male aUondant« that we hear of, except bis 
two Iu^mld-4>erjcftnt3, Talthybiua and Euryhatee, who 
'liwhargeil a double function": 

rat M iatkv r7/niK( «ai 6tpt\p^ SfpAnnvft, 
■ Od. 3Lui. uj. ^ IL i. 3ir, 

We may Infer from ihc |>ocin0, that each iodependent 
fkmil/ furnUbed one or more of iU menilKTrs, drawn by 
lot, lo BcrvG in Uio cjcpf^dition''. Sucb w the dQclont- 
tioii of the jwcudo-Myniiidoii to Prifttn: snd a^iii, ia 
the Odyssey wc find .1'!gjptiu»<i of hlioca had sent ooo 
80D to Troy, while he kept three at home. The itifor- 
encc ia slrengtheiied' by the negative evidence of the 
Twenty-fourth Odywiey- Thpn.?' DoIiuh che slavr np- 
pearg wiili no Ickv than «ix «oiis: but t^o mention it 
tnado of nny member of \t\» fumiEy lu hnviiij^ attetidcd 
Ulyraen lo Trov, although, if there had bt^m Nueh a 
p9rw>D, »ome refereuce to him here, in tlie pre&enee of 
Uly8M9 Juvt rcturnodt would huve boen mo»t appro- 
print^^. Indeerl, tlic nix arc introthicc*^ as 'the sons' of 
DuliciH, tvhirh uf ilsilf hIiikj^I eKcludLii tiin id«a ttf his 
having Bent any son lo the wnr. 

Again, wo bco that the whole moae of the soldiery 
attended the aflsemblics. and were there addressed by 
kttigii itiul chiefs in ternjH wliirli KLM5iER'd Xn imply a 
brotherhood. Thoy ar*> * fri«Rd«. Daniian heroes, *saiel- 
titos of Mof^V Qiid it 19 hard to suppose sueh words 
could be fiddrewod to persons held in slavery, hoveTer 
mild, r^niilin-r, or favourable. The enjplo)fncnt of these 
terms may ^K^ggQtft & comparison with our own mode* 
of public iLddn:«», according to which the word ' Gen- 
tloineit' would Iht commonly tiM-d, ttiougli the ^idience 
»hould be composed ici great {>art of the hunihler cIoj^m. 
But all ihcso words arc »o many proofs of cbat political 
freedom, pervading Che community and i\ut ^fiirit of its 
instihitiouff ss n whole, wliteh exaets this kind of liom- 
Ago fVom the great and wealthy on ptibTic occasions. 

• Od. iiiv, 387. 497, » IJ- li. lie. 

JUtoa i^tuM'U j/roprifiitry. 


It vrjut a natural aikI Iicaithrnl Hign of cho stato of 
poIilicAl fiocietr, thfit ^Uvcrr w&^t liel^ to bo odious. 
But it vms odtoua on a(?rount of its c^Rects on tlio 
mind, mid tint Wcmj^o it I'litailed oniplly nr iipjirfTdt- 
don. Thfro i« not, ! thtnk, a lalnglo pasftft^e In Cho 
poems ^bieh in any degree convoys the im|)r«8sion 
either of hardf^Iiip endured, or of resentment felt, by 
any slavp of tin- jicriod- 

Neltbi-r, ik« ling been said, ih thoro any thin;; in Homer, 
which clearly exlnliit^ to n« a peaaant-pri'ipneury ; or 
entitles tis poftiiirely to ti^st^rt thjii lUt^ Ijind vas culti- 
■rati.'d to a great extent by small propneiors, (?ach 
acting indei>ondotitly for biTnuelf. On tho one band, 
BA bits bci^n rcmarkod, vro do not find largo nuni1>cn of 
per^nftl retaiiit^T^ ;iiid iwrvnntn nbt^nt tlu? ^r<it iiivii : but. 
on the other hand, I lomcr does not paimt for u< a single 
picture of the independent peasant. In the similes, in 
the leg^d». on the Shield of Achilles, in Ithaca, wc hear 
much of lnf;gi' flock^* and hrnis nf gr&ii propriulnri*, of 
their harve3iC-l!eldfi and thktir vlnoyarda, hut nothing of 
the smiJI freeman, with property in land sufficient for 
bis family, anil no more. The rural labour, which ho 
shou-R tis in a>cliun. is organi/,>?d on a|j;e M^ale. 

Th4r <|ue»ition, v;hnt aft«r all iias the actual onditioii 
of the Gn*ck people in the ago of the JVofVtf* 19 thu4 
lelt in great obftrurity. It in indeed at once the capital 
point, and the one of which history, clironide, and 
poem commonly take the least notice. Upon the 
whole it would appear mo«t reasonable, while abstain- 
ing from too ronfidi-iit aftstertion. to $ap])o»c>, 

I, That, aa respec-tt^l jiriniogeiiiture and the disjio- 
aidom of landed property, society waa aristocratically 

3. That this anstocmtic organieatiou, l>cing founded 


1, A'joi-i: M* PtAitit* of the Moj 

i>n niilitAry occupatiori, cinbraccd a lutlKT v-iilo ningc 
of greater ami of smttUtr [tnijiririoi^. 

3> Tliat tlie^e prnprietore, by superior wealth, energy, 
nn^ infneiLoe, W the remainilor of the population. 

4* That tlicrc may have existed a peaaant-propnctary 
clftftft ill con*iHurulilc inimbcrv, rcithLT cxi^hiilnl fnnii 
poHiicMil privilegtj iior exempt from military service, 
btit yet not ronibinerf, uinler oniinarj circumsianeea, 
by any community of intcie*t or of hantsbip ; led. not 
niiwillingly, by t.hL* (JoininniU Aoh*can race ; and by no 
m^n» forming a social eltmicnt nf sudi intorojit or tx- 
Crnctiveness, in the view of the Poetf as to claim & 
marked place or vivid delineation* which tt certain); 
has not reCLrived, on hi« ranTa^i^i. 

5. Tliat the cultivnliun of tUti grciilrr (N^t^ waa 
«irno*l on by hired lalicnror» and by ^livcft. between 
wbich twfl clas.^^j!*, for that period, no very broad line of 
d in-line- 1 l<ni [mn he ilra\tn. 

It ifl not within tb© »cci|h? of this work to enter 
lofgely npf^n the 'political ceononiy" nf the Homeric 
A^. Bnt, a-H U'ing: itself an imporLaiU feature of 
|>olil}', it caimot \te alt(*gelln»r overlooked; And lliU 
appears to be tht> plact? for refurrinj* to it. 

There ha* bc^cn, of late years, debate and roseareh 
roepectin^ tlie name given tu the Imiiortant M:ietice, 
which trcfat< af ili^ eriNUion and dHtrlbulion of wealth. 
The phmao ' |>o1itica1 oeonomy/ w^hicli ha^ beon eftia- 
blisbed by lon^: usa^c. eaniLot be (k^feiidcd on lis 
iiK^ritH. Tiie name Chreiuati*'lie ha*i been devised in Its 
«tend; an nccurale, Init perhajw* rnthtT di*y difinition. 
which doee not> like the namcis UoXtrneij nnd 'Hfivi?. 
and like the exceptionable ttUe it i» meant to displace, 
tiike tLi«< hiiinan U'liig. hIki In th*^ n'fil ^tihjrrt of iht^ 
gcleii€«, into view, Ifomer has proMdod u< beforehand 

Pofilif^nl KeoHOiny oftf*^ Hotufrir nifr 


with n wmil wliitli, a» it »p|iears to me, retreiKliea the 
pfiroM ' eooDamy' pi^cisely io t)ie point where rttruiicli- 
ment U roqiiircrf. The Ulysses of the Fourteenth 
Ody^^er, iti one of his fabulous accounts of liim^cir z% 

ovb* oUu^tXif}, ^Tt Tpttjtti iiy^ah yitLva. 

Anil I b<?lic^v« tlial, wlto it not too Into to eliftiigo a 
noDic, *polili<"nl a-copliely' |>reci#ol/ cxpre«ftffl tlie ideii 
of tlio M:icrn(T. ^vliK'h, linviiig itft fotiiiCaia-litra^ in gooti 
UoiiBekoeping, ij-ealfl, when It has reached its expiiiuzou 
ac<1 maturity, of tlio ' Wealth of Nations/ 

It was not turpriaing, that the Grccke of tlic heroic 
ngo »hinihl huv'c \\ iinjne for x\\v- hiiMiuTw of j;niw'iiig 
weaJihy; for it was one to uhtch Hollenee, as well as 
Pelagians, afipear to have taken kindly. Of this we find 
various tokens, 'lliou^li the spirit of acquiftition had not 
yvt rt-arh*'*! i\w point, nt wliicli ii bertmirs injiirionti to 
the general tlevelopineiLi of man, wi- ;tp|H'itr w* have in 
the dial ingui^L 0(1 hou^e of tlio relo|iiH& at Xvn^l oiiu 
ifloiatod example of it^ excefis. We hat^e the friendly 
t«Htiniony of Nestor, as wpII as tlie tierce iii%4?fctive nf 
Arhille«*, to show that in Agafnoinnoti it eonstitutfHl n 
v^-eakneee : anil he H distinguishett in ivar from tho other 
great chicftainti\ by jiis habit of forthwith Btrippiug 
tliOM? whom hrhad stain. But IHysst^s aNo, td whom ue 
niny be eertaln [hat Homer did not nieurt in \\m matter 
to impute a faulty v^as, acci>rding to Kumtriia^f rieher 
tlian any twenty : j|[i<i after nmkin^ every allo\^aneo 
for fnVndly eXH^'^eration. we cnnnot dnnbt thai llonR-^r 
meant ns to undemaiid (hati in Uiv wealth of thmu* 

* OL liv. «9f. 

r Od xiT. 9^104. 


I. Agut^ : th< Poiitir* ofiftt. ilomrric <i^. 

dftpt, lie wafl \cry opulent. The acttlomcnt froiri ttine 
to timn of Ph<Fniri»ri« in firreci-, siid the n-fwiy ducilitj 
of the Hellene* in tlio art of nangntioi>T are signs to the 
same effect. The idea of wealth apiin is deeply in- 
volved in tbe name of D\/Jof, ivhich appears to mean a 
goiI-giT4<n fc-lii-Ity : and ^<Uofi is tlio upidiot !n commoij 
of cbegocl«, the rieb miLn, and the baj^py maTi\ Not 
that the (ireeka of tbosa lintea ^rero» io a greater 
dc;jrcTO than ourBolves, the alaves of wealth, but that 
iIh^v s\«i\ir. out ill their strnplrcitr, her*% as al«u with 
other EOntlorst, what we keep in tho fthado; und thii8 
they made a greater (<bow of particular propensltiedt 
even while they had lejis of tliem in reaiity. 

Rut, wen more than from parlicuUr signs,] estimatu 
Ibo ciipaeity of tbo llomorie Greekfi for ac(]u!i^!tion 
from the Mfilc of facts in the pocma. Here wc olwervc 
a remarkable ti^niiierancc. am) evc-n a dct47J4ta(ioii of 
exceaa, in all the enjojiiienia of the fteiL**es, eombined 
wiih the pofisesfiion, not only of a rode abundance to 
meat, com. and wine, hut with the prinHpIo of orna- 
ment, lorgelj, though inartificial ly, e?ttabiisbcd in tbeir 
greater Iioukcm and gardens; with coneiderabU' *rt.ore«i of 
the precious ait wc^ll aa tho ufioful metnK and of fine 
raiment; and with the posisef^ion of Komcwhat rich works 
of art, both in metal and eniljniiderv. This picture 
doeme to belong to a atage^ although a very early one. 
ilk a process of rapid advance to matona] wealth attd 
prosperity. Tho wcallL and the simplicity of manner*, 
taken together, \«oidd sci-m In imply thnt rJn*y bad not 
yet bad time to !>o corrupted by it, and eonsequently 
that, by their energy and prudence, they bad gathered 
it promptly and with ease. 

*Thrg;rfcrifi, n I, 599/f 41/iK T|jo rich ">*ii» 11. id. 69. 04,1. 417. 
Tfa« happ> man, i}4^ ri. iSJi. xu 4^2, II iii. 182, ixiv. 377 

2%tf ^tcictu PtetaU not a nwiture t^ i'alu^, 81 

The conmierr*ial inLfTrctmrw" oftht; iige, b«wov<^r, was 
still «ii intercouree of barter. Then> can Lardfy be a 
etron^r siyc of tUo rudeness of trading rdatious, thaa 
Hic Homeric use of the ftord )^tu^. It »]^ii[ic& both 
Uir ublignrJoii to ]my a ileht n-^jlitrly roiitnLclv^l for 
^"aliie received (OO. ili. 367), and tlic HabLlity to «u»tfiln 
rctaliatioD after oil act of rapiuc (II. xl 686, 8). Tbo 
^ pOBsewioo of tlic precious metals was probably condned 
t« u »ory few. Bolh ilir'W', uiid iron, wbidi uppan-iilly 
fttood next La tli(>m in v»hto, formed pn/v^ nt tbe 
Games; in vrljieli, tpcnktug geuemlly, only kings and 
cWufe loolt jHirU A ccitaiii ;i|>pTi)ximalioii bad been 
made towards tbe use of them as money, tbat is, as tbe 
measure of valuo for otber comnioditios. For, as tliey 
were diiidcd into fixed quantitiefi, tboso <)iiantitie» 
Were in all likt^Iilinod crrtilied by scitib mark or t^tamp 
upon tboui. Nor do wts ever find nicro un^rouglit 
gold mid Gilvcr it^tiiimtcd or priced U% any other com- 
njodity. The anna of Uliueti* are indeed «nroM' 
fiota\ and lliey arc ^^tvrca. llul lliis nutans gilded or 
adorned with gold ; an object made of gold would 
with licimer be Ttny^uuto^, Such arc llio tii''a*aior, the 
gold d»op» or ta»e)s of MitiiTVAH jF,gi«; each of which 
h wortb an bundR^d oxen. Tliu« goM, wlien maiful^c- 
turc^l, even if not when in ma*^ bad it* vnhio expressed 
in oxenK 

It is |KM^lile that goM iiad Mlvcr may, to a limited 
extent, have been UMcd ss a standard, or a£ a medium 
of exchange. Tfic |jflynient of the judges fee in the 
Kfghteenth Jliad ^ug^ot?^ though it dne» not ohso- 
liilelj rtiqniro, Omh srippiwit Inn. Like writing in tho 
HoTuerio ago, like printing when it waft exeeutcnl from 
a mould among the Ancicntif, tbe practice may liave 
■ II, Ti, 336, »• IL ii. 448,9. 


oxitttiHl ctMe Lit tall)', but iii a form aii<l on a scniu tbaC 
(lc)inv<;fl it or iniportniLcCf by liniitiug il6 extent. 

The arms of (jlaiictis und Dionu'd. itiul the <lrops of 
Mfiiervft's ^I'^i^ ure, lus wo hiivu svi^ii, vjilu^d or |<ni>wl 
in oxen. The tripod, which uas the first ptize for Uio 
^vrcstlors of tbo Tvrenty-tliird Book, niu! v&luei at 
tn'clvo oxcii: tlic oiptiTo wom:in. ^vho yrus lli^ m*- 
irond. accotuplisliL^d ia tvorka o^ imltietrjr, was irortli 

But Lnertca g^xvc for Huryclca no icK« tbuD ti>vciity 
OXt-i>, or ralllt^r tlie valuta (if f^vriil y own ^^^ijroT^/^j^ 3* 
tiaxcf, Oi3. i. 431). We need not lu^crilie tlic difrcr- 
once in costliness to tbo fiupcrior niorit of F^urydch; 
but 1TO msy presamo the explanatiou to be, ibab I La- 
ertes, ill tiuw of jH-aw, [inid for Euryclea tho lifgh 
price of an impi^rtin^ mark<?t; whereas lie Grceke, in 
a state of war before Troy, Imtl probably riiorc captives 
tban lbL7 knew bow lo fet^L Tlit-y wore, «t «riy nite, 
[q dio country of produccion: and the price was k>w 

Wb^-n we find it wdd tliat a womnn »!»vo vros e*ti- 
inatL^d at four i>X6n, we are not enabled at otice ut jiid^ 
from imcb a statement whether oxen were a measure of 
valuct or whether the mennin^ simply wn^i, that a niaii, 
who wanttnl aucb a sIavL\ wcinld givL* four oxen for 
Ikt. But the case of Kurydeu clears up thrs point, 
For what Uicrlcs garo was not llie twenty oxen, bnt 
aotncthing equal to tbeni, something in return ibr 
which they c<iuM ordiimrily be liad, Agiiin, Ljcuon 
brooglit Acliillefi the value of & hundred oxon, a hun* 
(Ircd oxcu's wortb^* In tbtB caae, then, oxen are n^ed. 
as a medium for tbc expression of value. 

[rt a |>a«saj;e of the Ody^ey, we iind that the Snitors, 
• I!. jcBiJ, 70*^5- * n xxL 79. 

Ojm I'n stntit df^rtf a uuttigrn'O tffvaUu, 


ulu'ri ll»;v Xxy U> iiiRke U.*riiiw with irivwws !n \m wraths 
promise nj fullows \>y tlie iiiotilh of Kuryma<;liufi'^ ; 

Tills has becu rcndcrcd as a doublo ciigagemeiit to 
pftf tho c>:ieii aiul the niet»ls. It seenis to me, from 
'Uio eonstrDctioii of itie i^asen^re* aa if it would be more 
properly undontooil to be a deolarattoiii tlmt they 
woulil each nf tlKtrt brin;; liini a coiiipniKiUKin uF the 
value of lHi»iiiy oxen Iti gt*l*l, ami in copjTcr- If EuLy- 
ni&cbus had meant to exj>n^$ the rc*7^toraliou of the Ilyo 
stock of Ulysses, it is u^t Itkc^ly that he would bavo 
Bpoken of oxen only, espeeialljr iti the goauret'din^ iiiul 
fiuitio-foediiig IlhaL'a, 

Tbero to ooollier peissogo in the pooniJSi m-UicIi scodib 
to carry a ffimibr tefltiinoDy ouc point further. When 
Kufjt^tiiL wfmU vliipK ^'il)i Vixim lo tho (irt*i<k i-fituji, the 
Greeks pay him for bi^ vino, soino with eoppi?r, sotho 
Mjth ifOQ, 9omo ^ith |]tclc9,somo with alavcs, aihI Aomo 
^Itb oxen. ShiTet^ as we have seen, would ]>mihably 
be reduudauc in thi? camp, Tlie tamo would be enit- 
noiitly tho case with rcsiwct to hides ; since tbcy would 
bo redundantly supplied by the aiiimalfl coutiuually 
ftbinghtc-n-d for thv HobHiT^truecr of tlui xrmy. Bvett m 
lo ilio nwtahs wo nwd not fi-el «iir|>rUo at the pnSKnjte; 
for ihoy VfTO nc^itilR^ largely by spoil, and not greatly 
iir«*4liM] by the force. »ilK<^ wc^ar and teat scarcely con- 
stitute an element ni the quefidon of &iipf>ly for tbo^e 
times. Rut it 14 certainly more startliitg that any of 
the Greeks nhciild have sold oxen to the crews of 
Euiieus. Neither in tlmt ago nor in t1iT« wouM any 
uercbaiita carry away oxen from a vast and crowdvd 


L Aifur^ : lA* Pviilii^ ffft^ Homme a^ 

atutp, xilicre iltcy would Iw ct'rtnin lo l*e in th<j liigltoftt 
J^muud. 1 tberefun> jireauuie tlie in^aiiiiig to bu as 
roHowB ; that iboso particular Greeks, wbo b&]>pened 
to bavc more oxen than tlicj wanted at tbo moment. 
hoh] thrill to tiic pcoplo »f tbo »hi|>ft; and tluit lUt? 
jR'0]iK> of die i«h1|ij^ took tlK'»c* oxcit, in excUau^^ for 
wino, not intending to carry tUem away^ but to sell 
tticiti again, ]>erli;ifis against bides or slaves on the 
Kjiot, an t\w \\y& cattle ixoiikl b^ cL*i'taiii to find a 
ri^ndy »nd advant^i^'omis market »nion^ ntlior Groeks 
t>f ibe arniy. 

Oxen Uiuroforc, in tbat a^c seem to bavo come 
uearvr, tbaii any t»*bcr commodity, (o tW disclinr^ of 
the functions no^r j»crformod by ilic prouious tnctidis : 
tor tliey were Itoiii ihcI to cxjiress vahie, and (irobably 
pnrchascMl not for uhk only, bnL alho with a xhivr to 
re-sale. Thus tbe Ilameiic evidence, with respect to 
thoni, is in conformity with tbe tcstimouy of .4<lsc]i>lu!t 
in the Agamemnon^ wbi* accma to represent tbe ox &s 
IbiT Bmt »ign trngirinled upon nunr.^j*. 

The precious tnetaU tbcm9cKc« wore niuMi cmployci-l 
for both personal ornament »nil fur nrt. Tbi-t hii^, no 
doubt, their |>roj)(^r and I'Sliibli-Hhed ajipUcjUiim ; and 
when they are stared, tbey are stored iu common wliJi" 
other motals not of the same clae£, and with a, view, in 
all likelihood, to manufacture. 

It appeare clear, frurn ibe ilommr jwpnM, (bat siKer 
wa« more mre tbnti gold. It iu u»ed. ^4hcn used at all, 
in smaller 4urintitied : end it much moiv rarely &p|K-ars 
in tbi? acamnta of stored*ii|i wcidtb. A like infemiico 
may b(^ draun, perhaps, frfiOi ihe bookA of AIoqms; and 
it eonvfiponds ^ith tbe antici])atiofis W4> ahonld reason- 
ably form from ilic fact that gold ia found in a native 

RfiitiiiM itrarcrtif ofuwtnU, 


le, aiidp ercu hIk^d mixed villi ottier material, is 
more readllv fittad for uro. The eactcoBive c-mployDieDt 
of silver only ^ttivcs, when society is more advanced, 
and when th<f use or money n more familiar aiiil mi- 
nuk', Piiyrneiitfl in thf.' procioii* nu^luls on ii :a»i»(;u'1i}U 
large «Cflle prococlo ttio^c fi>r smaller trnneactlon^. We 
Af« not however to infer, from Oie grenler rarity of 
silver, IIikL it wjiK iiKirv \;iIii:iIiK- llinn jrnUl ; tti<! valiH; 
ilejK'rding, not on the comparativi^ qnunlitiet only, but 
upon the compound mtio of tbo quantitiQd as comporod 
with tbe demand. It would iiowovcr appear from a 
|M»4a^ hi iho tteconnt of (Ik? fmn^nil ^^nmi-?^ llmt gold» 
If DOC silver, was ihon nmcli l<«s cflteomi-d than \t now 
u. For, wliilc a ^iker bowl was tlii> first prize of tlic 
foot-mce, A large and fttt ox (jjerliaps wortli tbree rirdi* 
nary ones) wos the second, and a half talent of gold 
was only the tbinl*. 

The pOAJtioi! of iron, however, relatively to Ihe other 
niL'labs was very difierent in the liemic &^ from what 
it now 19: ami probably iu j;roat rarity wuf due, like 
tlint of tiilver, to the difficulty of bringing tbe nKta) 
into a ulato fit for use; wbirh could inon? readily be 
Effeeted with copper, with tin, or with Kiava^ in what- 
ever seiue it ie to bo interpreted. Iron. howe\'cr, would 
appear to have been more valuable than then: mc4ab; 
greatly mare vnlnable, in ))articid;Lr, Uian eojijier.wbieb i^; 
J10W worth fixMTi 1ifte4>n to twenty timew as much uh ircm. 
A mafl» of crude iron is produced at the funeral pinion 
as a prise; and iron made into axe-heods forms another. 
Nootb«r metal, bfdow the rank of gold juid silver, is ever 
idmitarly employed in an unmanufactured state, — 

Let ufl now turn to a brief view of the polity anil 
Ofganivatton of tlie army, 

' 1). xxiiL 740-51. 


t. Aj/t>r^: the P^ittes <^ thf Ifii'mfrlc a^- 

Wc penN-ive tbo orgimizntimi of the Grtek couitnu* 
jiiilost in ft double fi^imi : both bs h communilv, properl}' 
60 cflllcrl, in limo of peace, a picture eupplied by tUe 
4}dyHHe^; ami likewJHc an ai] arm^'.ACCordiikj; to thodc- 
lineationfior the IVmA. 

The clifibrcncee are worth ootinp:: hut they do not 
ftccm t^ touch fimdanipnffll priucipJcs. A]^mciiinon 
governed th<? flrmy by the onlfimry political in^tni- 
lrront^ not hy the nilo* of niUitary r1i«cjpliiic. Arl- 
etollc' luolcs from the Iliiu! of Ins own doy ami place, 
aii<l as proceeding fmm the mouth of AgameDiiton, 

the wortla, 

nhp y^p t^i O^i^o-ritf' 

and f>roto founds upon ihU citation the remark, that 
' the Alexandrian rriiics cflhrod niaiiv traces nf the uUl 
iranuerB/ But was this really a trace of the old ninn- 
nors} Is thoro a single passage now roTnaining of tho 
Iliad, a »ng1c thought, a singlo word, which at all cor- 
renpiHnN viHi thc^ fdew tlmt Agiiinemnoii had irt im 
own hnn<U» Sn tho bha[>o of a defined prorf)ffative^ the 
power of capital pnnishmcnt! Arhtotlc certainly ae< 
cepto tho pawage, and co»tniJ*t* thi« militnry power of 
Agmnetnnen with iho rostrnirjts ii]joii him in ihft 
poncefnl sphere of the a-y^^joij ; but I am by no tncans 
Bnre that Englhh inGtittitiotiH do not aRorJ us the 
aid of fsiT more ivowerfnl nnalogiEW for ttppriTiating the 
real pedttical ^virit of tho Iir>merie poom^, than any 
that eveti Ariijtotlc could draw in bis own day froni 
the nrieiila! idling goveninietit uf AK-xandor I *lo iiol, 
iKiwcTor, so much ijite«tinn tho jHiswtgo, ft« the con- 
siriictloo jwit tipon it. Tlie prcr^^tivos of tho Greek 
Icings were founded in general duly and feeling, not in 
law. When ljly*Me» belaboured Tliersilefi, it was not 
c Pal uL M-5> 

dtod^ ^ifowmm^nc of the anuy, 

In the exerciie of n determlDatc rigtit, but io ohedioncc 
tu llic dicUtes of genrrnl |innfcnf<\ ivliicli, ii|»oii n bigli 

if JVgatnemnon tmd cauf^ht a ninnwny from the ntnVf, 
lio niij:ht have elain him; but is It eu|)po«ec) Lbot 
U]yBflc« niiifbt not? What i*'rts th<^ meniimg nf t]i*> 
liJviro of Ni^ior, Ut put the polli-ooiis in the middle of 
tbd niiikis but ttiai tlicir coaintdes about them ehoutd 
^car tbcm if thcjr should try to mn ? There is no 
cHfuiruil JTiMif<% in tlii* ]n\ijn*r voiigo of the tcnn, though 
there Ift civil justioo. in citlicr of tho Hovieric ]>o&me ; 
th« wron^ of man to man arc adj«(it<*d or requited by 
the latter form of i^medy, t>iJt the ideas on ^^hlcli the 
former rests were uiiknonii : then* h no king'* ]ienee, 
more than there is a kind's liighway : the eaneiioiw of 
force arc added upon occasion to the general aiUhority 
of ofliro by those who bciir it. accmtling to the nnggieH- 
thins of their eomnion schbi?. Ifad it been otherwise, 
L'lyssM Vfoiild never have put the wretched women in 
liit houMrhohl, who could nut. like the Suitora their 
panuTiourv, be politically formidable, to a death, which 
fully entitled him to say with the A^memnon of the 
citaliOD. -rap 7u;> rwo3 Biiraro^. The general reverence 
for rank and station, the snfcgnaTd of puhticity, and the 
influeuce of per-^uu^ion, nre tho ii«iml ami fiiinielcnt ii^ 
Ftmmeiit^ for governing tlic army, even as they govonKMi 
tho chil Aocktiee of Crceee. In the Aseombly of the 
umiy, iht* ijnarrel uitii Aehillefl lAke» place: in the As* 
cembty ariseR the tumultuarj' impulte to return home; 
in the Aflunnbly, chat impul$« having boon ehockedt it 
la dchbcvatcly rcnohed to ece vhat tUey can do by 
flglilin^: ill tlie A^Mniblv it 'n^ ih-termiJied to ask a 
tniGo for burials, and to erect the rampart : in the noc- 
tumiil Apsembly that Council h a|)))ointed to sit, which 

ficnits ttic nbortii'c rargi^icin to Achill(*e. Everj grc^t 

imi'AAurc ntTccliii^ tbe nbolo body is as wc sliall find, 
at1rj|ti(Hl 111 llu> A-isemblj" : anJ, finally, it is licrc tbat 
Ajrnniemnoii ex|ilicitl)- conr*?BSos atul lanicrnts liis fault, 
and that tlio reconciliation with Actiillcs ie mtifit^d. . 

Wc irftv thci'cf'oro lake Ibc politj, »o to vpoak, of 
th<T Orei'T^ army itiUi u rtntiniiiu view wiLli timl of the 
Ithftoan <iyafi^\ but tfrst it will be well to sketch its 
military organization. 

Next lo the ^a^A5« came (he ?Jo;^m at^^icr {II. ii, 
1 83), or a^ifTT^Kf of I bo On-ck army. They are [iretty 
clmrly digthiguUhcd Trorn tlio kinj^» in the egieeeh of 
Achillea (ix. 334) ; when. nftoT dcacribin^ Ibt; ni^gard- 
liiiefu) of AgameDinon ^ith respect to booty, tie goi;» 
on to say, 

which I tm<ler»tan<l to mean, he gave to those two 
ela^^es [irixefi tlitTereiit, i.e, proportioned to their re* 
s|>ective gtationff. 

The l£tn>;iifl^Q of the C^fttalogne pointedly marks tl« 
same dtntiiictioii ia other ivonfs. At tbt* begininng, the 
Poet iiivjic* tlio \hi^g to x^W him (rer 457)* 

olru/^ T^^r^j^r AafAjQu col unij^i^ru ifiTnv, 
and at the close he says {vt-r. 7<5o), 

Tbcsc two verscft appear to be in evident conwpon<i- 
CI3CO with each other; and if mh, rtft may th*- xuuio rutj- 
fidvtitly rely on the language ns carefully choseo to de-^ 
«cHbo the two elnttecd, first the kings as K^ipavpi (cf. IL 
ii. 2C4. ao7), and. se<^ondly, tho ^purrir^ bb iyejiowK. 

Thii< rlftw, it w pToh^ible, eonKii^d, 

Fint, of tlio leaders of ilio minor and less signifieant 

miUtary oomp<mtitm, 

Socoixllr* of lictitcnaiit^. or tlio«o v>\\o nro nnmcd in 
the Catalngiic n^ bolding inferior cnmrnn-nd^ iinrlor the 
gTX*at leaden (hucIi na Mt'mmt;.'), SUitrnelua, niul Eury- 

But, t)elow the iyefio^tt of Uio Catoloji^uc, tlioro 
\vft»M appi^r to bavo hctn several gnulo* of minor 
iiffi(*i'i>» III roniiimtif) of Mimlkr MibJivi<ioiJ» of llit? 
arm^, 7hv^ would seom to liavo boon d«8cHbetl by a 
general name, ^fftovtt. AVlien Nestor (ii. 36a) advises 
the distribution of ihft army accnnling to tjivKiz and 
tpp^poi^ it uill, be sajit, bave the advantage of sLowing 
not only tvlncb of the soldiers but ^bich of tbo officers 
wero good, and uhidi WL Probably therefore tbcro 
were oflic<^^l of each ifjvXoy^ if not even, under the«e» 
of each tpf^^Tfttf. 

Of tlie Greeks nine aro named in IK x\. 301-3, who 
wcro alain by Hector at once, before be went among 
the jirivales (ir>ij5r'c). Of ibesc nintj no oni.* in men* 
tionod in any oHier part of ilio poem ; and since at tbo 
rainc timo thoy arc cxprc*isly declared to be ^^(jUoVct, 
vre may aafely look n|>ou them an examples of Ibtj class 
of minor or seeomlfiry otTicent, From tbeir names, 
vbieh have a Urong Hellenio oolour\ wo may ven- 
ture at least lo conjcctnre, that tins class was chiefly 
Achvan, or of Achfcan rank, and that the Pehi>j^iaii 
Uood of (bo army was principally among the eommoii 

The maritime order of tbo armament, \rhich re- 
quired a eoimnander for endi vene), necefisarily iiH 
volvcd the existence of a class of wliat vre may call 
suleUcm oHiccrs. 

When Helen describes the chieftains to Priam from 

*» Vwl. Afbeii or Klbnotcigy^ p. 574- 

90 I. Agorh: the Polities of t/ie Homeric a^e. 

the tower, of wliom JJomeneus is one, sUe proceeds 
{II, iiL23i); 

Again, when Achilles went with fifty sliij>s to Troy, 
he divided bis 2500 men under five ^ye/mW, whom 
he appointed to give the word of coinmand {trrjfiatyftv} 
under him. The force thus arranged formed five trri-)^^^ 
or ranks, II. xvi. 168—72 : and here the private persons 
are expressly called h-aipoi (ver. 170). Most prohably 
these ayoi of the Cretans, and these five Myrmidon 
leaders, are to l>e considered as belonging to a class 
below the apitrrn^^, yet above the subalterns. 

Lastly, we have to notice the privates, so to speak, 
of the Greek army, who are called by the several 
names of Xaor (II. ii. 191. 1.54), S*ifio^ (ii. 198), and xXjt 
ffip (ii.278}. 

In their military character they are indeed a mass of 
atoms, un distinguishable from one another, but yet dis- 
tinguished by their silence and order, which was founded 
probably on confidence in their leaders. 

No private or nameless^ person of the Greek anny, 
however, on any occasion performs any feat, either great 
or small ; these are always achieved by the men of 
birth and station : and the three deaignations we have 
mentioned, the only ones which are used to designate 
the whole mass of the soldiery, represent them to us as 
a community bearing arms, rather than as an army in 
any sense that is technical or professional. 

AU these were entitled to attend the ayoplj^ or As- 
sembly, if they pleased. And accordingly, on the first 
Assembly that Achilles attended after renouncing his 

* Evim UiC instance, in II. juii. 21 1, of a nameless pcraon wliohad 
simply been wounde<l h n rare, if not indeed the single, exception. 

wrfttli, w© flod that, from tbo jfrertt intet^ttt of tlio oc- 
casion, even Uiose pcrsiona were present wlio <1ii| not 
u^ttll; a|ipcar: n^itin?!)', tlio pilots of the aln(ift, nml 
OttK'nt who probabW Imd eliar^ of them while a^lioro, 
togclhi'P with thoBo w!n> mannptid the provHionin^ of 
t^ic force (t(uui(u)» or. in our Inngungp, tlic coinmissamt 

In Ihcir irtricUy luHIinry cnpncity llioy wwe, ho«'ovi)r, 
divided into 

i» rxTH}<f, wh(^ fought in clianots, pomnionlj' (TL 
'*'"■ 334^-4^) *'^'' two }ion(ct». When thcue weru 
three (kvi. 467-75), the ontrunnw ^vas called ira^ic^^^ 
The chftriot of Hector wa* drnwn by four horses (viii. 
185), but wc IinTP no «iich r^t*. ntnoit^ the Orot^ks. 
Two penouB ur^nt in caHi chtiHoi; f>f uIlj^ih ibc Infe- 
rior (itnox^t drove, mid tho i^nptTrior (Tra^'j3»Tir*) etood 
bj him free tn fight. Hnt pmbably none of thene fv* 
irffx were of tlic mere ttX^^V of the army, or comttioii 

s. iaTt^Ttxit llio hcavy-finncd, of tho trraSti uciiiVji. 
Tbc-8G ti«? the tonger fipcHr^ thu sxc^ tbct Aword^ or tbc 

3. o^orr'irro*. nsinj tbc lighter *poar (IK XT. 709, 
xxiii. 621. Od. 3ciiiL i6t). 

4. Tt^roi (It ti. 710. til. 79). 

Agtin, the Tnen arc dbtin^tiii^hod by epithets &reord* 
irig to merit; each Wing t^o^ou f^^r^ttu or >^</j<ft^</ifK 
(II. xiL i/Sc)), or t-\«ii ■aw; mnd uitb tho Inst-tiamed 
tb« priKnntioti is taken to place tbem in the mid&t of 
Cbcir eotnnidos. 

The |H>]>cy of Nestor, which reeommctnlcd the nus- 
terof the vrhoh-nnny, uilh a y\<:-w U* aintugk-r mutual 
foppoft amoiijf thngo who hml iire-tiiliiT lies ^^^^ ^^* 
tircly in linrmony \\ith what we meet elsewhere in the 

\>oemB^ Fnr instance, in tlie defence of tlic mmpoTi 
m the Tliirteenth Dnok, ^e find B<i'ntiBiis Athctiiau!!, 
ntifl Li>i^rlan«\ vlio More neighbours, all nient&oned as! 
fij^litin^ ^kle by side. 

All raiikfl fipjiarently v-cnt to the Aspcmblics as frco- 
meUj aud were treated there by their KU|ierior¥ witli 
respect. It was not tbo^e of lIjo eommoii «ort in f^ 
neral. but only euch el$ wcro clamorous for tlic ttimul- 
tmwy hrenkrng np of tlic A**cinMy, ihtii \.'\v»&c^ went 
fio far a?* t<i liit (eXiiaTao-JCT) with the sinW he bore, tl»e 
supreme sceptre of Apatnemnon. In nddreednjE: them 
ho used the word ^atfionu the samo word ^Uicli lio 
i^tiiployeil to thnr Buperion:, tlie kings jind rhit'fji (Ihii. 
190,^00). When they heard a ^^jweeh that tiiey ap- 
proved of, they habitually and iiiimediutelj shoutei) in 
uppJAUde ^ 

'AfyttOi fH i^iy ltx\<iV 

and they eotnmented freely among thL^Hisclrca on wliat 
occurred (11, ii. 171 and eWwIien*). 

Tho modee of warfare in the heroic 9^ WM voiij^^ 
Binipio : the open battle wo^ a batthr '>f main forLT, as re- 
garded both thr ohirfl.iitiK find thir nieu, n^UE?>i-(T fnini 
limo to time by a ftprhikllng of jmnies. But besides 
tlic battle, there was another and a more distinguished 
nimlo of fifrhting: that of the \v\a^ or ambuscado. 
Aud the diflerent estimate of the two, nliicb n^versA 
tbo popular rJen\ ie omiuently illastrativc of the Creole 

In that epitome of hnninu lifi-, whieh Ilonu-r Iiak 

pre^entetl 10 u< on the Shield of Aehille:^ uiarciul o|io- 

rations are of eoureo included. Tlio colleetivc life of 

man 18 reprc.«3ontc<l by two citie^^ one lor peace and tlio 

* IK xiv. 4% ' IL il 33^. 

TAi« Xi^fi or ami/uMMit-i, 


otlier Tor war. Two atrmiee appear beneath the u-allt 
of the latter; nud oiio of those takcB its post in an 
ambusb"^^ AVIient'vcr pcrBonswcic to be apjKiinled ont 
of annntiy for i1iis duty, tho iiobli-st ami bravest were 
cboson- Hmtcc Aobillce lituiicber^ cbo double reproach 
a^iik9t Agamcmuon, that he li:;^ icuver bad spirit enough 
to arm either with the scjMiery at tnrge fnr Iwittb-, vr 
witb the cbiffii aJid prime warriors for anibiwcado^*. 
And the reason vrhj' the ambuscade stood thus high 
aa tb« dut}- and the pnvilt^gc of the best, is explaiiKHl 
in ail admirable Kpr.vr1i i>f ld<>mcii«^ufa. Ft U simply 
because it involves a higher trial, tliioii;;1i th3 patieiico 
It rcquiroKi of moral as opposed t<^ m:iiijnl coiiragc. 

The Cretan leader suppoaei iht; rase to have oc- 
curred, wlten all the flower of the army arc picked for 
an ambush. ' There/ he says, * is the true cntcriciD of 

ajid there it £<>on a|>pnirs who is the hero, and who the 
coward; for the flcdh of the poltroon tuni8 to one 
colour liiid ftiurtltrr, nor ulii ho Kotllu hiH mind tai a& la 
rit quiet* for his kn^» yield under him* and he shifYs 
from restiu^ on one foot to resting on the other; his 
heart is fluttering in bis breast, and his teeth chatter, 
as he givett hmi«elf up for lost: but the br;ivu mtiti, 
from the momt»tit ^hen lie tiikes hi* place in the am- 
bn«li. neither rlumges colour, nor is over nervous; but 
oiiljr |iiay» chnL the time mar soon eonie for him to 
ininfflo In tJie fearful flj:ht^' Then hv goeiA on to com- 
mend Mcnoneft as one eiiited for etich a trial 

In exact conformity with what vc abould expect 
fcwn tbtse d(werrpt)oni*, it- ugijHvrvi tlmt IMy***^ ^as 

■ D. xviii. 5fl9> 13, aa " H, i. tatk 

$i I. Affori : the P^Hiits of the ffomtric a^, 

iho wnrrior u'h« was pre^uj Incut in the Xd^oc. wtiflo 
Aehlllos toworcd »o jmmen«umbly abave all oihem iti 
the field. Wliou tbo Greeks were conccolod in the 
cavity of tbc Horse, and llelmi came tlo^vii from the 
e!ty imitating ttic voleoK of their ^tivr?<, ^r<>EielauA and 
Uiomet] wcro on tho point of cither jCfoing forth, or 
answering; but LMysaes restrained tbem, OiioAnticloa 
w-as still nnwillifig to be silent : and Ui/saes, resolutely 
gRg^ng lifni \titli }m luiiul, ' tiavcd iIil* livi.'« uf nil tha 
Achicans^/ In ull thi» wo aj;uiu «cu how tho poom9 
of lloDicr are. like the Shiehl, an epitome of life- All 
llm jKiiuts of rapital niul piiraniouiit exc^Ilenoi*, for 
which he could And no place in the hero of the ona 
poem, he has fully represented in the liero of the ether; 
and lie has so exhausted, between the two, the wv^ 
sourccnt of our nature, anil tfkewlse it^ ap|ilianceB as^ 
ihey woro then unJcretood, that, had lie produced yet 
a third Kjiic, not even he coidd have fuinishcJ a 
tlnnl pratagt^niHt to fitrni lie (*r;ntre, who »lioohl havo 
been \('orthy to count with Aohille^ and Uly«»e« among 
the undying ideale of hunmii g^rentiK'Sft- 

Wc tiavo now considered the tii^ek <;nniiTiumty of 
till? heroie age, :u it uah divided in time of peaee into 
dASHee, and as In time of war it resolved all its more 
potent and energetic elciDcnts into the form of a mili- 
tary order* 

Wo huvo aim) examined thcr positien and functions 
of the kxng\ who v-n^ at once a pcre<>n, a chi£«, and a 
i:rcat ))otitical in&titation. It remains to eoimdcr two 
other jtolitinil in>litiiti4>its of lR*roJc Greece, whleli not 
only, with the kin^, made up the whole machinery both 
of civil and military administration for thai period, but 
Kkcwift^ supplied the tj^sential genn* at least, of that 
P M. ir. a77-8». 

T^te Ofcd: BovKi) or VotturiK 


fonn of oonati<titioii, on which tho best governuients of 
Ujo coittiiicnt of Euro))e Lave, two of tliem ^litliiu ttio 
Ijixi qttuHrr of s (<pntiirjr, bwii moduIk^T, uith Kucb 
4lcvifttioti8 t» oxporictieo ha» recomrnendud, cr tho 
cliangc of tiiiie$ Ims recjuircd. 1 nioaa the form of 
govenLifki-Eit I>T a cliircfold lr<,'i>lntivc bmijr» hnviiig for 
one of its members, and for its bead, a sinjfle jiersou, 
ill wboflo bands the executive power of the state » 
Jodjcnl, Tbia form has bceD eminent!/ fnrouicd in 
Cbrifitinidom, in Euro{)e, and in Fnglnjid ; and it has 
OTOD bun'ivod the ptttui;^ of the AtlantiCi and the tmn^ 
ition. in the United States of Atncncti, to iiiHtitutidiis 
which arc not only n-}MihlImn, but highly deni<K*nitia 

Of ib^iio iwo Gixjek ii)btitutiuii«, wtt will exmnjiio 
fir»t tt>o ii<^k or CouiLcIL 

It viw the usage of tbe Greeks Co consider, in a small 
pn^lhiiiiLar/ meutfiig of ]>rinL'i|i:il inn^jnn, vhitrh was 
calW the^oi^Ajft of the measurcii to be tak«u in manag- 
injf tlH> Afgomblir, or ayt>p'). 

To tho [person?, who were summoned thither, the name 
ofT^/iovrprailwars to havf been official I J applied. Il hud 
Ihtis become (li«$ociated from the idea ef ajje. its orij^iUEil 
sijfDiHcotion : for Nestor was tlio onljr old man amoii^ 
ihe Gnx'k wnnlDn*. iiidii»il, xt^h n«ir ti|>on 
old njfo: Ulys^oa* wa* elderly {li^oy^pm'*^), ^ppaiently 
not nader fifiy. Tho majorily would aecm to Imvo been 
rather tinder middle life ; ao tliAt yr'/^orv was, when Chits 
employod, a title, not a deseription. 'Jlie pnvXif was 
eompo««d of tlie men of greiitest rank :inil ux'i^ht ; and 
no more recjuired an advanced a^ ftmunjj^ tbc qualdtca- 
tious for ii, than ducv the pre^bytrmte of the Christian 
Cburch, tbo^igti {| too Mgniftes eldenthip* 

Before tbe zreat assemblr of tho Second 

ibiy of 
a 11. xxUL ;9i 


I. Affori : fA* PoHiita ofiU HoM^e cj*. 

urv Cold* rot tlint Aguit>enitiJm Ll>oagbt it irould ho well, 
a« ic woro for ibc uoticOt to cou^ull t\w kings or eonion 
of tlie expedition; but. in laiigiis^ wliich indicates a 
fixed [ir^ielirt*, l.lint l1it^ dioirt? iif llii^ pliico f»r tli4» 
meeting wus on Hub occa«iob by the sliip of Nestor, 
v'hoNc great age poesibly cither made nearness eonvo- 
nieiit, or entitW him to this mark of honour: 

ThuBL* y*"poiTVf v'oro Hiiniruouod ' again by Agameuin4>]i 
l>eforQ tbe sfLcrificG of the Second Book, which pre- 
ceded the enumeialiiin. On i\uh tnTHtiUtu they nn; rn»t 
called a ^ovMi ; probably btniause they were not calJcd 
for consultation. 

The Council meeta again in the Ninth IWk', by »)»- 
foliitnient of the Avirembly, iind vendH ifie mission to 
AeMlIe^'. In thL> same ni^fht, and |H>rhape under tho 
4Minie authority, the expedition of Ulywc* «nd Uiomcd 
i» HiTjmgud- 

There l* no ^oi'\tj indeed in Hie Firat Dook, and nont^ 
in tUo great Assembly of thi? \in4Aceut]i: but thcQ- 
both of these were summoned by Achilles, not by Aga- 
tn«*nittonr and neither of them were ealle«l for jimjterly 
deliberative purpotics*^. 

A^iu, Ulysses, ill ur|*ing the Grecka not to quit the 
iwfleniblyof theSt'Cund Bowk prematnrL^ly, reminds (bem 
thut tbey ongbt to know fully the iiewi« of Aganieiu- 
Don, and that they have not all had the adt'anlage of 
leaniiug those views in ihe ^</JX*i. 

In thu Seventh Book, the Cnuncil held under the 
roof of A^rKinennmn forni« the plan for a jause to bury 
the deod, oud erect the nniiparU Accoixlijigly, when 

' n 11 405-8. 

• Tl, bt- 10- «^ 
*^ U L 54- JUS. 41, 

• 11.1, IS^J 

Thr jdv«Aq en tiwt i^jwnct^ 


just artenrnMfl a IwraW arrives with a proposal from 
Tmj, h*^fin«ln tl»f?Grtvkjiiii tlieir Asitc^riTbly, (Iciubtli'j^aii 
Aevembly hc>M io i^mL'tion tha project of ihe kinj^ 
ThiLt tills nmoLintol to aii int^titntimi of the; Gitn^k^, 
wi* miiv fnrllH^r jiirlgir froMi (lie ffinitliir niaoiier* in. 
whirl) Nonlor m4<iuioiit< it lu the (Klvsw^v to Telema- 
rbiKt, on treeing bim for tho lir^t timo, <0d. iii. 1^7). 
• Ulj-wcs and 1/ he soys. ' never differed:' owre tot «V 
nyam Sty f^tJ^o/tiVt ^'t rvt flitiiKji^. 

Amonj; utbpr i'aiJKt% wliicli iiii^lil trriid to promote 
the CBtftblj)!ihmcfit of tlio Grcik /^ci^Xii or Cuuiicil, we 
tn&y pcrlra^irn reckon nitb profiricty tlic inability of tbo 
olii In ilbtfrhnrgt' tlie ruH 'Imirs (if wtvemi|^ity In ilio 
teroic s^e. Bodily forco usually uiider^ot*it 11 cortdin 
Amount of decuy, before tbc mind has passed out of its 
ripepcas; and botb king» and flubordiimto lords, who 
had cimtH^ to |ki>^sl*(<>; ibif «tr<.'iigtlj tbiit tvax rv<|uifiite 
ft)j bt^riug tlK* ]irl»ci|)ul bunion* of ^vcrnmeiit, might 
fttill make their cx|icncni;c avAtbible for tbe public |;ood 
in the Council; even as vre iind ibat in Titmn tbv bra- 
tbers of PWam. uitb oibt^rt^ advaiiced in life, were Cbe 
priiH'ip«t adviHcra of tbo As^cinbly^. 

I ailndt that wc bare no example to giro of tbe uae 
«>f lliv fim^i Uy lli(? On-i'ks during pt-ju*!?, wi jms:»iTS(? km 
t1iot» wbicb the Iliail »u|j»tie$ for tiiiit* of war. But 
even in i^^ar ve do not find it cxocpt bofore Ae^enibllea, 
wbitb had dtrliberaiive bu-^iiuej^ to tniiisnct. tinw tbe 
ouIt delilwmtive Greek ^yop^ vhicb we meet witU in 
time of pea<N! is that of tbe Twetity-fourth Oilyetey. 
The abiwnce of asovticiRii iind a govcninient in Itliaca 
at that timi-, atid tbc iitfrr discord of tbv j>riiici|iul per* 
fonif, made a Oninell <)utte impoft^ible, and \oh nu mea- 
fure opi*ii except a direct apjK'al to tbe jicople. 
* It Tn. 3^4, jSr > n. iil- M*-S^ 




I. Affijti ; tA* I*otiiiifA ofth^ Hnm^t Offr. 

It ajjpoiirs lM>wer<*r clwir. timt the netfnu of tliG fiotXh 
W(w not confined to wur. For wo not only find the 
7V|»0KTflf on tlie Shield', who sit in tbea^crp^, cxcrci&injf 
exclusively the ofiRco (rf juHgcB, but thry arc aIiw dii- 
tinctly n<»ticc'd m u c\as< or orfU-r' in tho IihuoAn .Awwm- 
bly, who hai a ptiiec in it «ct OLpurt fi;r them^elvcH. Xor 
are we without a proof vrkich» though convcjetl in, fcvf 
wortis, 19 cotii|)IHi^*, <if thi? mtijiinrtinti of thr- Oniiuril 
with the j'oviTi i|:fn in acta of ^ivt»rnment. For when 
UI^B^es in bin youth utidcrtool: the nii^ion to Alcsftciic, 
in the Qiattcir of tht sheep llijit hact heen r^rried cIC 
from Ithncu, he tliil it under the orders of Laertes^ to- 
j^th<rr with h\» eonnoil**: 

JtfM yap 'iKt ^nxrt^p &Wai t< yipo$Ttt> 

And Nau«ricfla nieot#< her father Alcinotut, on his way 
to the ^av\h iif the Phaitcinni*. 

Upon the whole, the ^ovXij Beems to have been a 
moat important auxiliary in^rumcnt of jpnernment ; 
ftomctinies oa prcpariu^ material for ihc* mmt^ pnhlic 
di/lih<.*nitioTix f»1' lh(^ A^Mi-nihly, »>i)ini*lititi'K iiitrii><Fr<i1, ar* n 
kind of execntiveeomniittee, withitACcmfidenco; always 
&8 RipplyinfT tho AasomhUes ^ttb mi intollcctnal and &ii* 
tboritatirc clement, in a concentrated rotni, whieh might 
g^vo Kt<'iu1irii.%-< to its tone, and advUe its course with a 
weight adequate to bo impnrtAut a Piinction- 

Thc individuals who t-omposcd this Council were 

of wtudi » Hrntioii tliiit, wl thvy lurted feepamfely. 

King Agamemnon himself might haro to cnconntor 
reafittince and reproof from them in rahou^ >n#taTicc#. 
Accordingly, upon the occasion when Agamemnon 
mitde a mirvry of the nnny, und when he ihi^ught flt 
to rehuke UlyB»eft for >laclcnos!i, th^t clnelUin remon- 

> 11. xTiiL 506. 

0<l ii. 14. 

^OtLixl. »i 

OpjHMilirm in fhr fimiKii. 


■ttrnli'fl wiUi liim •oometliin^ ninrB tlmii freely (lirvSpti 
f^) both in voico ^nd nmniier. So far from inivitiT)^ 
to liifl antbority, Aj^snicinDon iMfldc n eoothiug ami 
eT^n an apologetic rrply^ Again, when on the wiiik; 
occaftion lie rrpmveil nioiiK-H''. 8thrni-hii4 <li-ferKloi) liU 
imtniuliate Chief in vciiiglorifjue torms, Tbrso ilio i^oro 
refined nnturc of Diomrd liimaclf irK[ure<l liim at otice 
U> diftduiiDr \i'\ii ilwy do not appt^nr to have* litieti nr>n- 
fiidfred as iinolving any thing m the nature of an 
offence a^in^t th<> station of Aganiomnoii. Again, 
chough Diomed on this oecaniou iv^lrainei) his lieute- 
tiatit, T(*U vrlien he meeis A^tnemnoti in the AsHi^mbly 
of the Ninth Hook, lie frankly tells hiin timt Jupiter, 
who hfl« given him the honours of the sceptre, has not 
euilnued him iiilli the superior |MiWfr tImt f>:prii]g« 
from <ietcrmii>9'i couni;,'©'^; nnd ^v<»n thv pni»ir>]]aro In- 
Toctire* of Achillea in th(? Flrflt Book War a ^iuiilai' 
ttMktimf^ny, liecaiiH' tUvy th* not appi^ar Ut hnve been 
treate'l lut eon«titutln^ any inrHngeirenC of hi« duty. 

It) Ike jSouXVf NcAlor takes the lead more than A}^- 
memnon. As to the Assembly, the wliole i^lan tn the 
8i-coDd Tlinil i^ expret^hly fmiixb^d iipnn tike suppnsi- 
tioo, that the ikrmy wrm apoiittoinvd to boar the cbiefi) 
e against, nod oven overthrovr, tho pro]>ofial8 of 
gfttnemnou. Ili^ advire tfiat they should r^nrn 
li(fmt% whicli OrotP* eoiisiiU-rs unly an iinai-rmnitjibli' 
fanpy and a clihlUh freak, is however capftblo of being 
regarded in ihia view. that, before renewing active 
operations without Achillc!^ it w&a thought wine to 
test the feeling of tin? Hrmy, and that it could not be 
more enectually tried than hy n reenmmcndation fn>m 
the commander-in-chief that ther should r4>-cmhaik fcir 

Uiv. 3J9-6|. 

" llml J85-418. 

• ILiji.3T 

' CT. Od. xt. gta. > Hi<it. of <Jit«p, vol. ii. ^$.^\ 

H a 

GriHH'r. Tim \An\\ wbs ov*r|vrplifi^ ; and it iimy uvcn 
fioeru riflieiiluuw, brcuuvt' it foik'<1, niul ¥iiu]i|y IciiitlUnl nii 
ungovu^niiiblu |llL'<^ion, vbicli wcitilil not liHoii to d«bntc!. 
But the proposal iloeft uot bear that cimracier in the 
Ninlli Book* wtu^re (li(3 »nme ^iig^et^tion is rviieHed, 
witliout tlie previous kTlo^lle<Jge of tbe ctjkr«. \\\ the 
^nnic wonla, and at a timo when the Greeks wcru in far 
worw conflitjon, 

Wlirn A^iutu'inufiii irjjii!** St in ordt-T to bo over^ 
rukd, it t^pok oftect; wht-u he nmik it in good earoeett 
it foiled. If then tbc Greoks could be retained con- 
trary to Ills wish in tlio Ninth Book, it might be mis- 
judffi'd, but could hardly bo absurd. ti> exjKTt » ^milar 
roHult in tbtj Second, when tbcy bud \\:i^^ coutfu for dis- 
co uragt me nt. 

And ^hy ilid it hike •^^i-trX ? RirM|ily Wraiixe lht» A^ 
Ai^mblVf IiHtond of being ttio Rini|de rni^dium' through 
v'hidi the king actcrd. vraa the arena on \rhich either 
ttie vrill of the people mi^ht find a rude and tumultuary 
venti or, on tbu other bund, bin royal couipHtiionB in 
arniM could eay, fu DiouK^d my*^ ' 1 will u«6 my right 
and reM?it your foolish projocl in debate; which you 
ought not to reM-nt/ 

^ df^i^iS i^Vt hv^it ^y<^fTJ' iTv &i jxi} rt xo^^t^'^ 

Tbc )»ropo{«al of Agamemnon had been heard in 
silence'", the mode by which the army indicated its 
disinclination or its doubt. But the counter proposal 
of DioiJicd, to fgiit to the luatt, wiiw liHifud with iii*<'lii- 

c Oroto ii. 104. ^ U. ix^ 30. ' Ilid 50^ 

O^rptmtioii in thf ^uAi}. 


00 tTifit tite AweTiibly was t[n.-ii ripe fi^r the plan of 
Nr*t«r. wliicb nt once rocui\cil it¥ npprovjilJ : 

Siibecqurntl^. in the fiwtX^ of tht; same Itook. K^^tor 
Wlk AgHRieiinion tliut it i^ litit ilnty in li«c«n u« v.x-11 :u 
toep<nk,iii)(k toiulopt the |»laii)»of otiicrs wlion tlivy arc 
good (100-2). At the samv thiit% thu n^vl chiHtaiii 
■i|>|ii>»nt t«>iuliiuiL hiitrHf-lf l<i ttm jtiil^rnnfjit <if Agnrnmn- 
non in tlio CouRcit V Hin cxpn>£«ioD$ are ]>crhap« matter 
moro of coQipliitiotU than of biBincHRi and at nuy mto 
we do not find aiij like terms useil in the Awieniblj, 

It nils H liapfiy chnrHrteriHtic of hemic Greece, that 
while nli*s abuiirilcd in tnio vhamo, sho h&rl no fnTso 
»hanio- It uu^ n^t 1li<iii;>ht thnt & kinpf, ^vho had dono 
wrori}^, ctinipriftmised hln <lij;rihy hy atotiiviK-iit ; hul, on 
the eontniry, thai he reeovered it. So aays Uly*4Ci, in 
th€ Aeaenibly of the Nineteenth Iliad'; 

off }tip yJ(J Ti wji*<rrr;/THr /?^iinA7f» 

Tfaie )>ft&»i^ at once cHtablUfaoft in tho rno^t pointed 
manner both the right to chide tiie head of the army, 
and the oUii^ation incuiiihcnt nji liini, as nn otheiit, vrliere 
h^ had f;iT<^n oltei;cv to niak^^ mneiid^. 

Thus then a lar^ liberty of vpeoch laid judgment on 
i\w part nf the kin;;?* or chiefr, vrbcn they diflerwi from 
Ag«nieniiion« unnld nppiiir [o he ef^tAhliiihetl Vjeyuiul 
di^cputo, a hbcrly whieh in eeriain ea^^es refmlted in hifl 
being Enmmarily overruled. I cannot therefore her© 
fliih«cri1)e even (othe measured stfitementof More, who, 
admita iho UlM-rty of ninioiwininee, hut asuertff also iho 
KororcigiitT of tho V'lll of Agnnicntnon. Murh le^ to 
the tery bro^wi luc^Hioiis of (Jrwte. that the tc-folu- 
tionn ofAganieitnioii nppe^r niiiformly U9 iireviul hi lii» 

I U.ix.79^ ^ IMll 97 > II Kit f«B. 

10ft I. At/are .- the Pvlitm w/'//i« Hotnerit «yf. 

(youncfl. and Chnt llie iiiillily of i^otfitivo fuiiHioii tm 

To that institution it ib now thnc for u?i to turt). 

T\w trait which i^ truly tiio^L worthy '>r note in 
tUe |K>lkieH of Huineric frrectv, ift atnu tliat which ift wi 
peculkr to them: namely, the «ubbtnntive Vp-etj;tit and 
intlueacG wliich bchm^cd to ^pouch a^ an in^tmmciit 
of govemnietit ; mid of this fxivcr by uiucli tht? riost 
reinArkabiL- iUvo!o|>inunt U in iu h*;*!* coiilliitHl and 
rnr>re fO]>ulnr R|»|»U<'ati'kn to ihu AK^enibly. 

Thici power *>i' H]tcbch was e»«ac;iLtml[y a |>riwet to 
lie tixerniieil ovtff iiumlieTN aitd Hith the Hafeguardfi of 
pubticity^ by man among his feUow-ineu- II was albu 
oBsentially an im^truinont aihlresfiiii;; \t^>\( to mason 
Aud free wilh aiul Acknowkd^iing thdr authority. 
No guvemnient- wliR'h J^uiighl its power in fnrcw» uti 
opposcnl to reagoni h}u« at any time uc«?J ihici fomi of 
dwcptioTi, The wnrUi has seen abftolutittm <lork itself 
with th<T ti(h-Haii(l uu'tv. furniH nf fretiihjm.or st-t-k nlitOitT 
under lU naked ahnrnctiona : but from the exercise of 
free speech aa an inatramt.'nt of state^ it has always 
shrunk ^^ith an instinctive horror. 

One mode of proving the |iower of s|ieech iii the 
horoie nge le, by allowing what place it occupied in tho 
tJtougbtn r>f men, as they lire to be gathcrert from their 
laiigimge. Aiiotht-r mode i^. by putntJug to itH conneo 
tioD, ill praciieal exiiiaplea, with tbia or tiiat cvurae 
of action, adopted or shunned. A third is, by giring 
CTiiIcnc<5 of the ciiinietttneFH with which the art was 
prDSin*tited> and thiT depth nml romprolicn?(ivuneM of 
the cunceptiomt from which it derived it* form. 

We flhali presientiy trace the course of public afluii^ 
R8 they wei« managed by the tireek* of the Iiciuic age 

" OroU* llnU loMi, |f|}. go, 1. 

Jnjiuenc^ ofSpttcA. 


m tli4*ir public n^M^niblicm. tVr tlio i^rc^rit, lot us 
tfijdmvoicr to rijllrct tlii' tni« HruHi? nf n»i»i<r n-SijiOirU 
ifig omcory Troin hi& lan^uajjft* ooii<?erning It, from tlje 
ohoractcrs vdth wlioui lie Imn particularly coiiTtee(i3d it, 
from Uic knowled^ wliicli he mny be i'munX t« 

Lf<e jHisse^ei) of tU rfiii>iiroe». 

AlthoTjgb it 19 common to regari] tbo Iliad a^ a |)oem 
having battle for itatbcme* ret it ia in trutb not less a 
tnonutnctit uf |>olic}' thiLti of vnr; a.i\d ui this rr-«|Ri-t il 
i« wt-ii miin.' bruailly diHtiugiiUhofl, thiiii in iiiovt otbcnii 
frr>Di biter cjiicB. 

The adjective* in Homer are in verv inaiij' caaen the 
key to bis inner mind: mid »ni<»Tt|f them all there is 
non« of which thU H mora true, thnn the j^raiid epithet 
tnitfim^. He confine* it atricily Ut tivo ^iibjectfit 
buttle aT»d dc-bolc, the clfl*h of AWonU and the wrvBlling 
of niiiidf. Of Aeh>llc», h^ says in the Fir^t Boolc% {490) 

Ill i-vtry other pas«ige where he employs iht^ wx>rd. it 
ifl bltAched to the subtrtantivo ^axi- Thus with him 
it vnA in tvr-a fichb, that mnti wii» to ^ccV for gloir; 
pjtrtly in T.hi? fijEhl* And jiarlly in i\w Aurinhlt. 

The ictellectuat ffinction waa no lera esseotinl I0 the 
wflrrior-king cf Homer, than ^^s the martial : and the 
coUan: of the ilH of pcma^ion Gnt('reit no \cf9 deeply 
tnlu hilt ■*arLy Lmining. How. tuiyji Phtrmx to Acbill^'jt, 
Hhall I leave you. I, whom your father attached to yon 
when you were a mere child, without knowledge of the 
evt-nhnndH battle or of the flsscmblicft. in which men 
attain to fatuc, 

• fit ntM th4 t^tliot Tor UlUo iu II. fv. 135, 6, 13^, 7. r ij, ». 
448, IS. 115. 13, J70, 14, t?i5,hiwl 34.391. 

104 l.Ayift^; t/tt F<ffiti*i ^ th$ Mtmtrie ag*. 

80 hv ^nt n)o ta u^aeh you tlio arcft boCli of «)>eech 

Even »i> UlvMcis in tie 11 luler- world, iclatcs to 
Ai'ltllles the ^rt-HtneMM of Ne(i]ilrilemiis iu vjitwrhr not 
\ti»* than in biittJe, (Od, xl 5io-j6.) 

Nav, tlie iyopn of little Ithaca, where tlicrc liad been 
110 AftM'Riblv Tor tKcnCy vesrs. is witb Homer ibe 
uyofnt •noXi'Kpttiinv^', In a 'k'wn|itioTi, if |i<»uiiblc yvt 
more strJkhij; tbflii thnt of Ptia^tjixi (lonier |iliice« be- 
fore Qs tlic omtor nt liiH work. ' Hiii lie«rv'n» bcbold 
liiiti uitli iti'liglit; Iw Hpe^ikit wllh Irniiifn^al iiuKlt^Aty, 
yot \vitli c-i»nl)iletie6 in binifieir (afr^ctVtop) ; l^e KtantU 
jireeiDiiivnt aniatig lUe asK^nibled |keo|ik-, ruul white tie 
[lavM'H tliriMj^lt till* f-ity, Uteyx^iK^ **^ bini wi nii a ^<ln. 
From a pa»a^ liki^ this we niny form K)iiie iiie^ wIikI n 
real powc»r in liiLinmi wjcieiy wkk iho uruU'r of tiie b*>- 
roic BfCGi ami wc may uI-kj learu liow niu\ wliy It vrita. 
tijal lh^ }jiviil< fWrl t)f ihiit liii]«r biia iiImi |ilnre<l liini- 
self id ihe foremnsl rank of oratory for ail time- 
It i8 ill (he vt*ry eaiue spirit that L'lyi^Kefi, in the eanie 
most n-iiiarknbjo sjicrch given in ihe Oclyasey'", pcla 
forrli tile ilinTtreiTt accomplish iiienl^ by wliich liunmii 
nature U a^loniec). TIjo tliri^o f^tvv.1 gifli of the god* to 
man are. HmU t'tiriKiri-al beaucr, !*ln;n;:lli ami bearing. 
III! iucludtnt ill th(j viiQT*\ 0E>rj; ftec-ondly. jud^fiit-iit or 
^»tn\ seiis^e (^/icW), ami tliinlly, tlie jiuner of dWunrsii*, 
or aycft^Tu^. To one man, the grt^aX ffift Inst named 11 
the compt^iirsjitiou for Ihc want of corporcaJ execltcncc. 
T» unutjiirr i» givt-n beauty like that of the liiintnrtaU; 
but tlibn his eonu-liiiefin U m>L (.-ntuiiei! by eloijueiice: 

in Od. xu 367 wc bare f^j»^9 eW«r. 

• aii.438-4a» 


1 od-fgi. 170-3. 

VarM diKripHont itf' Oivtcrtf. 


In fwll conforniiiy willi lljis slrongly tio^vlopeJ uWa, 
the Voci |>laeir» beforc us tlic tlL'Hcri|>tions of a varictr itt' 
u\fv^kviv^ Tlipre i* nii'ixiU**', a»i»i*iitH riiu] ofUrnKivt?, to 
^boin we RiuKt mturri. Tlu^ro \% Twlt'maoluis, foil of 
thv p^nicioiis <LiHiik-ncu of youtli*. but rommtnikd by 
Ni-Mor fn; n }«>iut nrn! il Uoi of i<X|in-3uini) iKrvmif) ]ii» 
jrtora. Tlivru i* M<Tnelau^ uho speiikii with a lii^oiiic 
Ci»o*. Tltvn* itro Ihc Tr'»jaii eldc^ns or St/fioycpot^fij 
who fruiii (ln»ir rx|ti-riei»ct- aii«l a^^ chieily guide ilie A«- 
WDiblj, Mu\ uli<)»t- volubility and ^Itrill simill [hreai] of 
voico* Homer comi»arefi to the chirj^ing of jjrasRliop- 
pew. Then itc have Xcslor tUu nift and Bilvcry, whoso 
totii'v lif hn|)|iy ami bciirvolrnt cgc^iimn flnwt'4 nwvcU^r 
than u Hinrntii of tii>TK-y>, In tltt- bHiuk of an inA^rior 
ftfti:<t, Pbi^mx miiHt have rei^ro'KicvtJ him; hui mei nb- 
injT affection for Achiilea m thv ki^y-notv to all he 
my^i evfMt the arcouiit iti hit^ Kja^ei'h of his ovti enrlv 
adventures 14 evMc^ntly meant as 11 u'nniing on the ef* 
fcela of r«g(. : ti»i< intense cnrnt^r^tJKs-j coni|»k'(cly j>re- 
vi-ots any tbit^ like vanHrDo?^, nnd tbns the two ^'arnt- 
Ijtivv Kiaiul iwrftxtlv ilUtztirt from out? iinothtrr, hvrntnM? 
%b^y httV9 (-to to $|>eak) OiUVin^itt ct'iitrc^ of j^T^avitv- 
Lifiolly* Via bnvc" LlysHest, who, wont to rint? with lii» 
e]u*t{^i(?A roncvutmti.-d within birn. given no ^ironiJM? nf 
dia|>lay: but ^beu hia ileep voice iB^ues froin hja diest, 
&nd hi# iiiij>hty wotxis drive Wko tho l^aki-H of enow in 
winter', tben iiMleed he soars away far above all ootn- 

It E« wry itnuMial for Hoiii4>r to indu1j|;« tUu» b^^flj 
in carcfuJ anil dctnikit 4h-:«i?ri]ition. Atift en'n ben* lie 
has left the one nu^u-rlatMe. a-t well aA othrr runAiilerabk-, 
oratory, nu<U*]ieribiNk The eloquence of Aehilt«s li left 

• IL IL ti4. 1 Oil iiL aj> 11*. " tL iii. JI3. 

^ IL in. 150. t II. >. '49. ■ IL iti. 116, 7^, 


I. Affwc: the PvitttM of tkt^ Ifomtric 0^4. 

to cl«8cnl>e it8olf; and tn clialleiigof comparison wUli 
all thi; clioiceflt patterns both of power nnd bciiutv in 
tbit* kiiul, tliHt tlin^^ iIkiiihimiiI vt^jinf mikw Mrjiiu^r, nnil 
all tbelr obbinjT and tluwhij; lidos, bavo brougbt within 
tlifrl(nowlc<)gx;of nmin AIUioiig:b b(s modestly *ics*cribc8 
liiitiKt^irftH Unt-iitli UlvsNt-K in ihit^ »<:ri>mplishiiie)it. vet 
in truth no speecbea come near to bis. But Honier'n 
I'O^onrct'S dro not even now exhaueted. The decision of 
Dionied, the irresolution otA^mennion, Iho L>)iitituc:«S 
uf Ajax, lire all ailniirablr marked iit the m^H*?:* of 
6peecb^ allottcil to oiicIl Indeed llomc'r ba« put into 
tbo inouth4>rJdoiiieiK*u«, whom be nowhere di^jtcribcs as 
an omt4>r at all. a F<|>(^'rli which is ipiitt; t-ii(Hij£b to esUi- 
blisb Ins reputation in tli:it i-ajiaoity. (II. xiii- 275-94.) 

In reviewinjf the arran^nicntH Homer has made, we 
slmll find one feature aliko unc<}uivocal and dcci^vo, 
The two pepionriP, U> ulumi lie b»» ^ivL'ii »n|ireinary in 
oratory, an* his t^^o, bi>j only two gixllike bui-oon (6mm), 
thii Achi[lc» and cbc U)y^sc&, each of wlioin h<-ar« up, 
like; the Atlud of tradition, th« weight of the epic to 
whitdi hi* pi'ii^riinLtly bt-lLitiini- 

ilow could Homer have conceived tlionpbtA like tbcHe, 
if j:overiimeiit in liis cyo^ had rewiiHl upon dthor fDirc cr 
fi^ud ? ]^loreover, when b« fipeaks of pen>ua^'on and of 
strength or talour.of the action of the tongue and that 
of the hand, ho clearly dot* not lueaii that lU«e ele- 
ucota arc mixed in tbo ordinary conduct of a sovereign 
tohU 8iilyt?eL!«: \w mtvuti^ Itift lirv<t for jiea4;t*» the Intt^r 
for war; the first to he his sole instrumeiit forgoTornhig 
his own people, dm lattor for their cnomtc^ alone. 

If, again, «c endeavour to estimate the importance 
uf SpE;erh 'lu the heroii^ agt? by the dngriMt tn which the 
faculty «^<i actually cultivated, u-e must tnke the 
achievemotita of the Poet aa tlio beet indtcatoni of the 

The oratiorta <(fttto i^ixmH. 


aipfldtieft of tli« age- Tlie wiirt-Tlic* vrliicli Homer lia* 
put intit the nioiitliH of Km leading oratora sliuuKI W 
tolerably fair re|>reM3ntAtivG» of the be^C iierforiiiaEkCti^ 
of the time. Nor is it poB6ibl(5 that in any Rga tliera 
stjoiild be in a Fvvi n cftjiaHty for uiakiiig sucb B|»f eches, 
wiihoiit 31 caiHK'ity in tmxuy for rocciTJng, fcelin;r, aiwl 
eonipMuMiHiiig tlioni> Poet* of moilcni tiino» have 
cono>o9ed great workt*. in age^ tlint 8ti:<]>|iccl titcir ,cars 
against tbem. 'Panulise lityfn' <I(h-s tiiH rE?|>reEteiit the 
time of Charles ibe Second, nor the ' Kxi-utsi^m' the first 
decades of the present ccnluiy. The cose of the orator 

10 entirely different. His vork^ from its very iocejitiofi, 
U inextricably mix<fd np vritli practice. It h east in the 
mouiil otfcrvd Ui tiiiti by the mind of hi# bcanin;. It in 
an infltitnce principally receive*! from hpEiaudkiicjljioto 
vifeak) in vai^tnr, which he [jotirs hack upon tliitm in 

11 Sootip The sympathy and concurrence of his time i« 
with his own mind join t parent of bir^ work. He cDnnot 
follow nor frame i<leals; hi* ctioicc is, to be what bia 
age will have liiin. »liat it n.Mpitre» in ordi^r to be 
moved by bitn, or el»t> not to bo at all. And u» wheii 
wc fin<J the Mitfcches In Hornen ^\"c know that tberc 
muKt hnvi* been men vrhn could H|)eak tiierii, mi, frum 
the exisC«]ce of units who could speak them. v,e know 
that there must Imvo been crowds who could foel thom. 

Now if vtG examine th<K4c oration;}, wo :<balU I think, 
find not tmly iIniL thry i'oiitniti s^pi^cimcnJL of tnin- 
ftccndoQt oioc|tjence which have never been surpa«»ed, 
bat likewise that they evince the most coTDprehooetvo 
knowledge, and the most varied and elaatic uae, of all 
the reiumrces of thp arU If we seek a specinieci of jji* 
vectjve, let tis take the speeches of Achilles in the 
dolAte of the Firrt Iliad, if it is the lofttcKt tone of 
terrible declamation that wc di.-«iiv. I kmtw not vrher«^f 

(to s|H?»k with iTK)ili*rHtinn) wc omi fimi ntiy tiling Uiat 
ill ;^iiii<luiir onii Kiiqi^iKM r.Tie piiftftu^ (11. xv). 74-9] 

But)fitis«i>!?tTinifyt)»it i* sought, nr>Lliliigcnn. I tliirik, 
excel (liu MiJ ;ifj T'>(J* trK^TTTpGi, (II. i. 133-^44.) 

What more ii^hinnihl^ t'xampk of coiw|>rehensivo 
Utatenieiil, ^liieh exhausts the oune. itrj<1 ah^olulely 
ahutH u|i the inontli of the adver^iiry, f Uaii in tho fqnorc-h 
of Ulyssee to Eumhis ^'ho has r*'|>rortchcd Lini ^iith 
lcK>kin|; like ft sliarptT? That »pci*c!i coiijiist?* of twenty 
liniw; siifl I ifiiiik titty om; whfi iitt<^m|iCit in give » 
tx>iilly lUH'umtc* entnmnry <if it wfll W n]>t to find tbnt 
liJFt cpitomo, if it btr ut all coir)|»kl<\ Liasi become nn- 
ftWiin^H a iKir8]>hnu*t'. Nor U HutiMtr K*s liuccifwfijl in 
showing us. how he? ha-* soundetl tho depths of p»tlio9. 
Fw thoiiifh the flpc't^chea of Pram ti» Acliillos in the 
Twciity-foii rtii lti«d jiro spoken privattlv, iit»d from 
mail to miin only, and an.> therefore^ iicH in thct iiaturu 
of oratory prti|rtTly m* cnMtsI, thvy oro coiiclusiw, a 
Jbrtto/-i, «H to \ih knnwK'ifg*; of tlic inl4tnInlt>nt^ Ijr 
v^liicli thf^r tiuuiaii alfi-rtionrt might he moved no imic-li 
more easily, wht^n the spt^aker would be aittfivt^ at 
once by tUo fneiKtliiiesa and by tho elcctnc &yiii|iathreB 
oFr ini]ftitiid<?. 

All th.'^v rim din.rt iiiGtrumt'nt;^ of inAiirneu on tlje 
mind and actions of n>an. But of assaults in|flanlc 
Homer is <)uite a^ great a iniistLT. Hl* ahovs a ])cgd- 
liar ^i^nitift for tiiat whirh U pro|«;rly cnlh'd rr|mrt».*o; 
for that form of speeob, whiHi t\U}^ back u|K)n the oppo-. 
noDt tic siroko of bis own weapon, or on tho supplicant 
tlio ploa of his own prayer. There was one Antimachiii^ 
iiTn>jan, wholiadgroHii wealthy, prolmbly by the brtbea 

Hfparlee atui Surettjim. 


vrliidi lio rocelvcd ftt^m P&nsi In comlili^rntlon nf bin 
ftlWAVf^ npjioBinjr. \u tlio Trojtin Agm; thu ri>*iionitioii of 
Htlen io the <3r*^'k*- lli^ sotis are mftHtered by Aga- 
tn«ini)on m llie 1i(*l(1. Awnr« rVint lit* harl a tliir^t {nr 
moneT. they cry. 'Quartf^r. AframemnoTi ! wu are tbo 
florift cf ncti Anlimncbiis : /*■ will |«iy wyiir fcr our 
lires.' ' If.' K'fHictf tlic kii>jr, ' you arc tbe Hons of that 
Aiitiirtiic'biiH, ulio, vrlieii Mi^iifliiiiN cimie via fiivuy fo 
Tr^y, arlvi^'fl (a lako and wUy hint, 1ii>ro and now sball 
yc expialo your fathers infauiy*/ ('oTti]mro uitb this 
the y*it Anr\teT lum of UI}?i^H mi LfioHes in the 
Odyssey: ■ Sj»are me. Uly8w«! I liave done no ill in 
your balls; I Hto|i|K?il wliai ill I could; I was but 
Au^ur to the Suitora.' Tbcii folloira ilic stent reply. 
'If llmu doKt iivi»vr tliitt tbon urt Auj^iir Ui tin* 8nitor«, 
llica often in prayer mii«t tbnu buve au;^ Lirod my de- 
struction, iind desired my wife for t!>ine own; \^llere- 
forctliou »balt iutI eftcap<^ the painsome bed of dcaLli'V 

Hut tlie WL-fliirtiis of »are:L8iit. frniii tht^ litfbtet»t to tbe 
vetgbtiefitt are wielded by Iloittcr with slnnjiEt ^o»tL*r 
cHect than auy otbcr*. A* a Miti)dv of the loniicr, 
I taki- tlic »)i<recli of Fhu-iiix when he inlrodnces by 
way of p«nible, tlie Ijegeiid of MeknigLT ' As long m 
Meleager fouj*bt, all vran well; bat when rage took 
|)DS8e8siot) of hjm — tvbidi (I would just observe) now 
aiid ihcii bewibk*t5 oLIht gTvai itiiikN u1m»-— Ujwt/ anil 
tm on wan). 

But forthc j^at master of this ai't.Homor has oboscn 
Achillea. A> witb his invectives ho gTiii<U to |>owder, 
BO ivitb the nuor rd^c of the mo»t rvBited irony be 
cuta h» way jn a moment lo tbe cjuick. Wben (ir^eee, 
ia tbo t>cr0OQ of the envoy-kingn, U at hiit feet, and he 
bu tpuriJed thetn away, ho saya,' Mo: I will go hoiTie: 

■ 11 Xi- t3>-43. 

i> Od.xiiL3]d-«^ 


A*jO>-i : thr Potiiirs qf thfi ti^tt\frrc u'ff* 

jfoii can come ari<l see me depart — if yon tliirk it wortli 
>"oiir wliilv>* 

Of this pOH^Qirc, 11. ix, 356-641 the following traTittlntJoi) 
m»¥ give » vrry iinprrfi-cl C'Uii* : 

Of tighl with Hector will I notio; 
Tomorrcur, with the rieinR aun, 
Eftch Ivolj rite and i>ffico dooe, 
^I IomI and Inunrh iity PLtbinn tltrrt : 

Come^ iftljoii tljiriki^xi iui>ot. 
St^r, if thou ruiTst fur th« siglit, 
M/ fthip« shall boiLod 111 iho Jiiciruiiig^s liglit. 
Mv rowers row witli eiigor might, 

0*cr Ilcllr'ji toRming nuiin. 
Ami, if Pcffli^idon give his grace, 
Thon, with tui three rovolvmg ilays, 

1 »(^ mj" home ft^iu ; 
My home of |>Igoij» ihat I left 
To figlit with Troy ; of scnKo lidvll t 

The |i1viity uf I1U luHtsc! {trrri jf' ^LfH ^aXu nitWa) ]H the 
i^nishing stroke of reply on Aj^nieionon. Mho ln<l 
thongUt that Ins reeeninteiit, unsatif^tied in feeliiij?, 
could be fippcascd witli gifts. 

In the Bumc ^pewh owiirs \\i\y pk-reing ^araiwin*^ : 

jj ^tvv^ frt^ruiflv' oAux^Cl fjL«/JifjT«H' ^i/ffpc^vur 

^ Th« vT«ion of Vomi u v«rv point not >atI>hM««y : h« VMk- 

ftcrumtr. hut. 1 ihink, tifdtM, ms. by r^0.^^i%tiiit{. th« dt^lLcfttv 

Tjiok (l;ni] fiirth hC '*Jirly ilawn» 
AjiJj if BUt<|i *pcctoclo dciigia lJn!i- *Ujcht. 
Thou iliiift. Iifliuld in(> tli<nvitif{ witli my (irowit. &c. 
Tlie vemoii uf Pupe tiiiupl}- omits tUc line \ 

Ttnaomm wo the faTOuHii^ |^» iioj>lorr : 
Then duJI yon mv oiir jivtlng vi^mfln rron-ni^cl, 
AbiL boBT witli onn thr H«-llnpoiit rwiiiinil 

Th^/nr-nUy ofiirUUe m fftmfr. 


The Ortvk* \nd come to Troy In rccovpr tlio wifi* of 
Hent^oiu: and while they were there, Aganiemuon 
took for B concubine the intended wife of Achtlies. 
Waa it, be ajJsm the privilege of the sons of AtreUB 
alone among inatikinil to love ilieir wivt>is? Ajjainem- 
noD, loo» bi*inj^ the chiuf of the two ; \vho haiJ luid hold 
on Hrt^eK as he had meant to ket^p Chmei*. in di^K 
parft^niefit of hm oivn iimrriage bet). Nor van the 
render of iIiib |>ft^*inj(e fail, ! think, to lie Ktmek Willi 
the woniierful maimer in which it combinca a etatelv 
dignity, and an unlmpeaehable Mdidity of argimient, 
with {\w 1ii^i-ceiii^« of 1X9 ]ivT»onid oiisUught. 

If till' powur of onUary i« remarkable rn Homer, so 
iikewiiie la ttie E&cnityof whatinl^nglniLd iu called debate- 
Here the omutr is a wre^tLer ItohUn^ li'ix i^nnind fium 
moment to moment; adjtistlng hi* poUe, and dellver- 
Wji hi« force, in exact proportion to the varying prea- 
Kun; of his anta^oniBt. In Uomer's debates, every 
H|itH>cli after the firwt is commonly a rejdy. It bebuigs 
not only to the «nb|<te(, but to the speech timt went 
before: it exhibit given the qnotttion and the aima of 
the speaker, the exact <irgrce of n^icent or ilewcerit^ of 
expansion or etintmetinTi, of nOnxatioii or enhancement, 
which the circnni stances of the cajte, in the vtntc up to 
which ihey wtn'c brought by the prerediiijj ruldresH. may 
r^uirv. In the Ai«en)bly of the Firsi Book. i\ve. nay, 
six, Hticcc«)dv(f »|ieecb(.>« of Acbiltefi and A^memnen" 
bring tlicir great contcnfinn to it^ otimax. But the 
diKUf«»ion with the Knvoys deserves rery jiarticnlnr no- 
lice, Ulywies begiiLHa skilled harangue to the olTended 
horo with u mo*it artful and wdUniaeked exag^^eraiion 

Ibo martial fnvy of Hector, Ho takee care only to 
pretcni It aa (mrt of a general pietore, which in other 

* 11. I io6''»44* 


AjjQff ; thff /'«/r*i« ^fA# //oBwwitf B^- 

pnrts i* true rnougli ; but lie obvion^lv relics upon it aa 
aitioiltf c^fgi^liiiig within thegunni ofAirliilleeiK He next 
tourliL'M him upon the poini, to which friam afu^rwanls 
ina^c a yet hi^licr nj»peal ; the t^'twler recftlteclion of hie 
lather Pfleu<i. who had wiiriu-rf liim how much mon» 
nnluoiiB was tin* stcijiiiHitiort nf ru'ir-ouniiniunK tli'ii> thiit 
oF dfiriiij;. lie tlieu redtt'S the gift* of Aganiomnoii: 
ni»l, i-ncountgt^d tH"'liafif* l>y tlie kiiiO greeting that, 
with UU ri>oipniiikMis III' hii'l U'Ct'tvcnt, In? HoftnA by urging 
chat, h»u'evi*r hHlcful Ag:iriu<niiion may l>e, yet» in pity 
for the ochor (freekfl. Irotli hi^h anil low, nnd in antici- 
pation of their gratitude, he ouiflit to nnn, I shall nf>t 
atfprnpc to nnaly^t- Mk* ^Kimk'rfnl 4poi.N<h of Achillf?j< 
which follow«, nwA to whfcli *omo n.»Jrronc'i'» hiivo 
filrcarly hccn Fnadc. Suffice it to t«y, ttmt It cotiH 
inence» with nu intimation to Uly:«cM that it will, in 
thw 4>]iin]nii of lhi> s|n*Hki*r, he Ijcjtt for all jKtrtien if ho 
t*»lli< <inl his niiiirl pluinly : an in<lin*ct sni conrtc^onn 
reproof to Tljpyics f«>r having thought to act npon him 
by toot nnd by the p^K-cuseft of a riietoiician, AftiT chia 
fi)llnwi« KuHi i\ ooTTfbfristion of nr^niiH'iir, lU'clnniattoii, 
inveoiiv*. ntui ifuroaMn afi, within (ho wiirw compu>Q, 1 
dd not believe nil the records of the vorld ean match, 
lliit the general n-xnli of tin* whu!<^ in tlie aiinminnv 
nient that he will ivUiru in Fhiliia tli* .very next 
morning; together with an nhsolute, unconditional re- 
jection of all giftfl anil pioH'crVt until the outrage of 
AganK-ninon i« entirely xviped away^: 

When he lin^oonclmled, all his hcariTB. abashed by his 
niBxruline wrath, rtv silent for n whih.n Then IMkpiiix, in 
the longeftt ^gwech of tho p<K'm, pnnrK forth hU nuf&elf{«li 

r n. *x.j8r. 

n* dtfttu^an of the Sitiih JUad, 


uid vrmrrn, but prolix fiml (lijji'Ofvivo nlTofllmi. Till* 
«peGc)i dU)»lap fur lo^ of rbctortcal resource-, tlinii ikat 
of IJtjsw**, IHj'Miefl hw] coiirecM, as it w<*re, tlic 
rigbt of Acliilles to an imboumlpd reaentiiient n^^atnst 
Airamctnnon (300) : Pii<rnix, on the cj>ninLry, by 
imralte. menfice^ him with retribution from the Eriiiijia, 
nrib'»H be vb^ilT ^ttibfliH^ tlu^ trngbr.y mimiI ^ithiti hirii. 
But Aehllloft, tf>i[ch€4 in hU belter nature, gives way a 
little to Iho more ethical appeal tibei>? bo had been 
irflexibic an<l invulnerable before tbe intellectual and 
rbri^Liriral !nl<tn.'t«. !I*^ now hhh Plwpnix vomo biHiH-l^ 
&nr! filee)> fn bii irneAni|itrent : thertr tlioy eaii coiuldor 
t«ffOtbor, inlbt? nirjniiii^. whether ti>j;f> or to fttiiy(6i8). 
Htill be annount^eH. that nothing will iiuhieo bin to 
quit the s}>i|i» for thr.- fielil (609). Next comes blent 
AJsx into the pafies^ira; dt^preeates the w^attttnj; of 
time ; p» for taking bock the atiawer, bud as it may be : 
Achillf^ hn8 itvi'U'ntly inaiie tip hi» mhvl ; buiI cares 
Hot 9i ru«b for all or uiiy of tliem. ' Whhl,* ^iv\% the 
6im)rle maii-niounlain, 'the honurido of a brother or 
child is atoned for by a line, and yet hero la all this 
to-do ab^jut n ;;irl. Ayi\ mid a sin^lo ^irl ; when vie 
4>irur twv4-n iif ibv very be«(t, und ever %*> iiuudi lK-«iiieK/ 
Having thus renobcil the icme of bi« arts lie nnw aima 
&t the fricnilly fcclinp of AchilleB* aiid in a single w^ird 
bids him bo plariiblo to tnen whom he? ban lulntilted 
beneaTli bin nwif, iii»i uhoni he owiw fur i*** loyiil fritiij* 
115 the uliole nniir eotdd find him, 

*n»e levt^rage i»f thin rtmight forward *-iieerh. which i8 
4viily fifiVPtl by kiitdhiieMs from falling intr> nuh-niwf^ 
«j[ain produces an initial movement toirards oonceaiou 
<wi the part of the great ticro. He replies in cflcet to 
Ajix. * Von hare spoken well : I like your way of goin; 


to irorlc : but my iK'uri ^u-ullu und lioila with tlie nhanio 
inflated on mo before ch«! Greeks by A^memnan. 
Tell there then' — ihere ia now no announcement of 
ikettiiig nail ; nay, ihero is no longer any nceil lor de- 
bate in t\\9 in*>rnin{T wbi>ther to ^et sail or not, — ■ ttA\ 
them that I fight uo n>on\ liJl Hwl/)r, carrying 
slaughter and fire* sliall reach this cam|). these »hi; 
KcH*ii RA hu nviy 1k\ il will then be tJmt^ enough for 
MK to stay his onward path' 

Such is tho rcmarkaldv coiir»5 of tim dokato. Bot 
UIj3S»c», when tboj return to Agamemnon — meaning; 
|irol>Kl»ly fii hniij^ luni Hiid nil tli4? (tr4<«*kH fnirly lo t)Ay 
— Cokes no notice of the |innial relaxations of tho iron 
will of Achilleft* but dimply rLjiorta that he has threat- 
ened to set sail. Then eomes the turn of Diomi 
■yini wiJr« wrong to rringi? to hlni» Of liiiiiwlf. liw is 
arroj^nt onough : you have made lilni liorso. Lot 
him alone; he wilJ come when ho thinks proper, or 
vhh&n l*rovidenee wills il; and no sooner. My advica 
ia (lilt wo ciec'p and eat now, and fight at dawti. 1« 
at jiny rate, will bo chore, in the foremost of th« 

Wc will now proceed to consider the nature and 
plare of the 'lyopij or Assembty, in tlie heroic age: 
and a view of the proeeedin;^ on several occasions will 
further illustrate the grcai and diversified oratorical rc- 
fOiircva of tho Poet. 

A people cannot tire in Its corpomte capacity with- 
out intermiesion, and the kiii^ is the standing repre- 
sentative of the community. But yet the fiy^i^pu or 
AvHombly, !» tho true centre of its life and its vital mo« 
don, a« tile monarch is of it# functional or adminisini- 
tire activity; uid Che jpv^lest ultimate power, which 

>Wc(Mn«^'jA0 A^^emttiff. lift 

i\w kinj; pofif&osseft. i« t]iAt of inHiionoe iipmi ht« aubjeete 
collected tlierei through the combincil medium of thoir 
rtvcren^c for lis person, am) of his own power* of persua- 
sion. Iii tbt^ (V]M;4if tlHvnrnivljefon^TroT, in tiw HtreiigUi 
of ibesG onliuar^ motives ia added, aIoji^ with a certain 
spirit of msintmeDt for injurr received in the peraon 
of HqIcii» thu bopc of a ricb bootj on tlie capture nf tbo 
ciljr^ mill Uit; pniR'ij>Ii? uf pure miliUiry honmir; iievirr 
poftiapa more iioworfnlly dniwn tbuu in the Iliiid, nor 
lA^itb greater fr^H^doni from extrava^iice^, hj vrbich it 
» fometinies nmde to ride over the beadfl of duty and 
juMticv, it« only laufnl Miperiors. 

First, it vrooM appear to Imvo bolongod ta tliOjVssem- 
blf. not Jtidceil to dintribuie the spoil, but lo consent 
to ita disLnbntimt liv thv Hifrf cviiLitiniiilt-r, iind hi^ 
brother- leaders. To Uio former it U imputed in the 
Nintli Hook. But m iho Firf<t Book Achilles miVb to 
him ill tile Aiacinbly, We the Greeks (*Ax«*o') will re- 
quite jroti Uirtw and four-fold, when Troj i» (nkrci*. It 
IB probftblo that ho hero mean* to «peak of the chieft 
alone» ilwt only »o far as the act of dietrihution iw con- 
cen»e<l.) because Tiwmtei^ nm^ the ver)' »«in4> oxpn-v- 
■loii (Sff Toi 'A)(tu(>i irfnarifrrifi H^nii^v^) in the S("cond 
Book. Therefore the division of booty was prf^ably 
naaijc on the king's proposal, with the aid of the chiefs, 
but with i]\e gviii>ra] k rio^ Icilgt.- and cnni«t*tit of the 
amiy, und in rij^it of that (viut»eut on their part. 

It must be remembered all alon^, that the stato of 
politieal liociety. which Homer represents to ufl, is tbftt 
in which the different elementj? of power wear their 
ariginal and natural formit; neitlior mucli altered aa 
Tet i>y the elaborate contrivaiiecft of mam nor drivon 

f llLi»7> 

1 3 

116 L A^^rt : the Politic* oftkfl Ii(>tficric offf. 

into tlioir several extromos by Iho conBcqnencce of 
long strife, greedy apptstitc, and fdrioua ija^siouH, ex- 
cited by tlm leitijktfilToiis wlilcli tliu ancurniitHLioii of 
property preeouu. 

Ill those Minplo tinio**. when the FunctionA of ^vom- 
n^cnt ^p«Te fuw, und Itii acts, except perhaps the trial 
of private cauRes, far between^ tliert' was no fornml dts. 
trilution of political ri^^Ijla, a^ if tljoy could bo m&do 
the object of ambitiotifl or eotiteatioun CLipidlty : but 
the gmml woria! powor thiit moved tln^ rnnrbinr ma* in 
tho detdrmiimtioiu of tho ayopij^ howovt-r Inforniallj 

Grote htis obACTTed, that In the llomerio ayoph no 
division of af^nnatlve and iie^tjve voicea ever takea 
placo. It woiUd require a volume to disciise all that 
this remark involves and indicates. 1 will lioworor 
observe that tbo priiii'f]>li.- tjtorvly ratmot be made good 
fh>m history or in pliilnsopliy, that, nnmbertf prevail hy 
an inherent right. Decibion by niajoritiee is a^ mucli 
ail expedient, fis li^htin^ by gas. In adopung it as a 
rule, Vie arc not tcnVmng prrfoctioTi, but bowing to 
lnii>eirectiori. We fullow it a* best fur us, not as lie«t 
in itself. Th» only rirf/tt to eomniand, an Burke baa 
fl&fd, resides in wiitdom and vtrtne. In their applica- 
tion to human aflairs, tbeee great powers liavo eom* 
monly been qualified, on the one hand by tradition and 
prepossession, on the other hand by foreo. Decision by 
mi^onticH has the pjeat merit of Avoiding, nnd that by 
a U'.ni in^rfL-ctly de(iriite,thi* U^t R*w>ri^ to viidrim^; and 
of makinj^ forco iuK^if tho servant insrtoad of the master 
of authority. But our country still rcj<dcc-« in the be* 
lief, thai flhtt doi.41 not d^frid^ all thiii^ by majorities^. 
Tlio first Greek* neither knew the nm of tliiti nume- 
rical dogma, nor the abuse of it. They did not employ 

Crivaf dt^ishns ait ioJm ihrn^ 



it at an inntramont, an<l in that iho]' loAt : but O-ity 
did Dot worBhip it as an idol. an<l in that they greatly 
^iied. Votes were not |mllei1 in the Olynijiuti of 
Hvmer; yet a minority of iofluential gods carry the 
day in fevour of the Greeks a^net tho majority, and 
a{;ain$t their Head. There sureiy could not be a grosser 
errnr limn Ui *}vuy t?v**ry jiou-er to bo a rt'jil one, urilesa 
we aro nble both to measure its reHuU» In a table of 
stfitt6tic5. and tc trace at every »tep, with our weak and 
partial vision, the precise mode by which it works to- 
wLrd« itM orid. 

Wo liavo ween, in tho first ptaee, that all tho j^at 
dDciitons of the War vere taken in the Asacmbly of 
the* (jnx'kft. And hern tlt<^ fir^t relh'clion that arisLra 
ifi, how ileeply this method of political action must 
have been enpfmined in their habits and ideaft, when it 
could sunivc the transition from peace to war» and, 
notwith«Lu:diiig its [mlpnble inconveiiiennes in a Ciinip, 
form the pntcticaJ lulo of it« proceedings undiT the oye 
of tho enemy. 

'r\\c force of this eondderatton In raised to the utmost 
height by the case of the Night Assembly in the Ninth 
fiook. Tho Trojans^ no longer confined to their walls, 
«ro lying beside a thousand watch-tiros, just outsfdo 
the rampart. Some important nicasurc i« abwohitely 
demanded on Use instant hv the dowiiraMt condition of 
tho Ic4« than half-^caCoo^ hut utill thoroughly ditwou-* 
raged anny. Yet not even under these circiimstancee 
would Agamenmon act iu<1i>{duallrt or with the kings 
alone. He seiids hia heralds round the camp (IK ix. j i ), 

aAjJ^ tl% Ay^tjf AfKAiftrMif iy^pa fKaaroy, 

to summon an Assembly noiselessly, and man by man. 
Can there ho a more concluare proof of the vigour, 

l\H K Aff0rt: thtt Putitic* of iht Homeric u^. 

with which th« prtpular [>riiK-ig}k entered int<i tir idm 
oT tbc Homeric polities I If it be suicl that nuoh ikn 
operation could \\nrA\y be eEfcct<Hi at night without 
iidr, I reply that if it bt; ho, tbc> iirg»iiitfiit for tho 
power and lit&litv of the Assembly jb but strength* 
oncd: for Iloitser was ovidontty far inoro ciireful ta 
spcnk ill harmony with the f»>liticAl tone of bi« coun- 
try thuii to iiH'Hxiri? t»nt tliiiv by t)m hour und taimite, 
or place by the yar>)» foot, and Inch ; as valuing not the 
latter methods Ii'bs, but tho former more. 

The Ur^k army, m fact, is oeitbcr more nor lest 
thnn, su to speak, the 8t»t« in uniforiu, Ak tho soldier 
of tlioMO day* w!w vimply tho citiEOn nnin-d, m thi* 
&mntment wns the figgregale of umicd dti^c-ns, xiho, in 
all except their anns nnd the handling of them, con- 
tinued io \w wIimL tliry liiid biTt*n bt-fore, Hut ^hen 
we And ihnt in f>Lch groat emerj^ncieii political idena 
did not ^ive wny to miliury expe^iieney, we cfoinot, I 
think, but ccjnelii(lc> that thotte Idead rcAtt^d on broad 
nnd de4*p fonndaicions. 

It further te»d» to ijiovr the free n&turo of ibo re* 
lotion between the Afisembly and the Cnmniander-Jri- 
ehief, that it might Iw vumnioii^d by othtrnt* 9a w^II as 
by him. We an^ told explicitly in iho Firftt Hntik, tluit 
AehiMei' culled it together, ils be did ngitin tii the 
>i'ineteenth for the Ueeoncilintton. (hi the second of 
theie occasions, it may hare been hii pur|>i»e that the 
nf[i9mtion tlniuhl be as public as bad been the in«uU : 
Lt any rate there way a dotorminotion to laake tho ro- 
eonciJEation final, ab^wlutc, und thorough. Hut, at the 
former tinif, tb<! iirt pnrtiHtk of tlir uulnri^ nf jt tnonil 
»ppe»l from Agamemnon to the army. It illustrated. 
In till* fim place, tjie principle ui publicity ao prevalent 
in tho Greek polities. That which Calchas liad to de- 

ciarc, TIC must declare not in a ' hole and comer/ but 
on Ilia iTsponiibility, liable to challenge, subject to Iho 
H^&v ifviTtt if liu XoU\ loss tliau tli« triitb, as yx'tA\ iw Ui 
the refteiitmont of tbd «ovonji/rM if he should venture 
on divul^in^ it entire. Hut .secondly, it ahows that 
Acbilles held theCreeks at large entitled and bound 
to be parties to the transactioiL He meant that thu 
Greeks fthouTd see hia wrong- Perhape he hoped that 
tliov would tntcreept its intlictiou. This at any rate ii 
clear: ha commenced the debate with mett^nrcd ru- 
proofft of Agnnjetitnon*; but afterwardft he ruse, with 
a wider scope, to a more intCTi«er and a bitterer ntratn''. 

When he found that the monareb was determined, 
and when he had represtieil lite aoce8& of ra^ vhiiich 
t<?ni|itiHl him to cumnmry reven^^e, be be^an In use 
languaite not now of mere invective njjain&t Agannmi- 
nnn, bm of nich invective as tended lo **et liiin at 
oddH witli z\\v |H.-ij]4e. Then further on, perhApH be- 
caiif« tbey did not efho Iraek his iieutiuierits« and be- 
come active parties to the terrible fray, he both tBunts 
and threatcTfi them. For he begins', 'Coward that 
that ihmj art! Never hwt tlimi dared to ami with 
tbe pertple for the fight, nr with tin- lenders for tJjt* 
ambuvli/ And then"*. *Devourer cf the people! over 
what nobodies tbou nileat! or eurely ttiis would bo the 
ItAt of your misdeed*/ Again, in the peroration", * Bj 
this mighty mitb^ every nnin among yuu »hall lutneiii 
the abienoe oT AchiUefi/ 

It has often beeu asBcrted that the principle of 
fiopnlar oppoHjtion in debate is only represented by 
Th*^f<**, Hut let ns proceeil Mt.rp by nt*'p. It is nl 
any rate clear enough that oppoiitlon by the con- 

» IL 

I. f jr-9. 

* V»d. 149-71. 

BJ IlriA 33 

I bid. r^g. 

IhiH. »<;. 

liO r. A^are : the PvUtitif ^f xkt Homeric cij/i?. 

fdlemte kin^ h at once euRicieiitly rcj>n.<sctit4*J in 
Acbillei; aiul tliat it h rot re|fr(^Keiiti.-il by liiin iilono, 
nncu iu tltc A!?ticml>ly of tlte Niiitli Book, DJDwcd 
botb atrorgly reprehended Agntiicmnoiu and |>ro]>o9e9 
a eoMrae iliarii*"t.rii^ally itie riM'L^rsL' of bis ; wbicb 
course urns furthwkb Adopted hy i\w iLcc-IjuiiatKniM of 
ths army. 

Let uft iin^ paiw on to Tbcr^ttea. Tb<-re is no more 
nlii^iilHr |>i<^tun* ill the Hind, tbnii that wb'ieb be pre^ 
iteiitfl tr» tiK It well deserves examination in detail. 

ilom&r has i^vidcntly been at pains to conocutnta' 
U|K)]| tlii» personage aII tbat coidd make liim oiltoun to 
lliQ IkcnrvTv or bi^ .utm^, H'bilc^ |[i-vcTibcb*JM \u; piiii* iniii 
liU mouth not oul)' the c;int of patriiiti»m, but iiW a 
cra^e tbat wcmhl perha|i^ have t^een i^opular. bad be not 
averted tlie favour of the army by hU insoltfiiL vulgnrily. 

Upon lis invnin, too, it was a toli?rablv ouh*. but not 
A good ovQ\ for Uij \Mfs UTOiig; in »iupposiii^ Aohillos 
placable; nnd n^nm wrong in advising tlnit thcGj^cka. 
nnw viibnnt Aehilles, sbonid give way befor<* tlm Tro- 
jaoft. to nboni they were still siijrenor Ju war. 

llo itt in all things tho reverse of the ^rcat human 
idcaU of Homer. A», in tbc pattern kings and heroes, 
inonilK >iilelh'<'tHub xrnl ivirjKin.^fil cxc<1bnir<% euirlj in 
tho hi^rbo^t do^ree, muHt be eomblned, so Tbetdte9 
presents a coiTO!*|>ondin|^ cf>mpboatlon of deformitico lo 
view. Aft to tbo fir^t, bo ib the most infdLiiiouA person 
{aic^urro^) in tbe anny ; and he relies for his influence, 
not on tb^» t^entfe and bnnoiir of the soldiers, but on a 
vein cf grtt^ti bnlV"*>ricry ; wbicb he display* in the only 
«7oanMj allui^ion tliul is to be found in all ibe f(|)eec1ie« 
of the poem«. Ag to tbe «eoond hcrad. h\H voluble 
speech }6 n« void of oi'der as of deceney". Au m llic 

» II- ii, J13- 

M* cxw« */ Thtmtti. 


thFrJ, be fs tame, bandy-legi^eil ^ Inimp-boclccd, rouncl* 
slioaMered. pcak-boa<led. and l&alJy, (aniung the «apij< 
fi(j^JiiivT«rO be i« bald, or inileeil worse, for on his 
\\^.im\ ti lisirr ]» plnirlod bem atid tbea>^. Ln^tlr. bnte- 
ful Co al1^ bi* H inoAt of nit Iiiitoftil to, um well q9 
s^ntcful agjiiiiift, tbc two pamiiitHint ticiocv of tbu 
jiot-iiitt, Arhilh^ ami I'I^iim-h: nii oliviTVJiLidit iii?«orli*[l 
with efitml in^rmii; nnrl ^ignifirrance* becaii«e Homer, 
by inseniof; it, cfFocluallv cute off any tuvour wbich 
TbcrsitcA nii^lit otherwise bavt- (gained with bis bearers 
from «ueiriiiig to Uk*' tbtf m\v of tbo wnin^-d ArbillcM. 
It Is al»u wonby of ni>tLv na iiuUcatlng bow 1 Icitier felt tho 
vtrcTigtb of tliot bond \«hicii niiitc^ to^othor all gri;ni 
excelleDces of wbatever klml. U]ion a ^\\g\\i ami ex- 
terior view, tlie two great chanicters of A*-'biIles and 
UlTSses appear anta^joDtetic, and we mi^jbt expect 
to litid tbcir likes and dislikes running in uppomtc 
diiyrctioij^ But n^ in tbe Nititli IWk. I'I^^km^s i« 
(kcbn'd by Acbrlk'^ lo 1>t< on<? of tlioau wbiua be lovt»* 
beet amoDff tiie Greok^N fto horc tbey are united in 
rarryin^ lo ibo bighe^ de^'c a i^oitimon autipatby to 

While depriving: the wretch of nil ifim]itif.if thatconid 
attract tov\^r<U him the Blighcfit «boro of ftympathyi 
Ifotncr lij« taken ean^ to leave Thersitea in full pwu 
se«MJOii of eTery thing timt wx* nece?*sary for liii^ trade; 
an Ample flow of ^»e<K?h (aij)^a»(l oo small |)ower of 
vulgar JnTective <^t j), 

A^'in ibe quality of meiQ scuiritity asBtgncd to Thcr- 
Bites, and well exemplified in hl« «r[TcocV fttandft alikt* 
dlftili^ished ill Homer from the vein of fiin, which he 

d«U uid 8cuiL Cun^iiiDiily rru- 

'1 IJ. Up atf-it^. 
' Ibid #75. i*<^ 
• JL Lk. 190- 

122 ]. Affork: the Pt^Utitr/ f{f the Hammo ta^ 

niTi o|»en in the gravo IJlTSAen of the Odymej'. even 
ivliilo lie is tiniler terror of ttie Cvclops : and Trom 
ihat treinnndoue and fierLapB still unrivalled power 
of BarcoMtn, of wliicli vrc h«v"o frmnd the climax ia 

In tli«* «horL Ai|iiH?<<li of Thersiles^ llomorlia« rontHved 
to ^xliibit striking examples of nmlioe (tv, ^26, ^34), 
ciianiene^a (132)^ vanity (tt. 228, 231. 238], coward- 
ice (136) ; while it !» a ti«8uv of ooiisnmnmti- itnpuilence 
throu^fhout Of thl* we find tlio fineitt stroke at the 
otkI of il, where he sap', 

For bt*re the wre!di npes AchillcM, whom (for tlie Hiko 
of dftm^tging Agamt-miLOEi) be attect^t to patronijc<s and, 
ovi'r mid above the pretension to s|ieak of hm feelings aa 
if he had been taken into Uic (.*onlid4>ne« on tlie occasion, 
hi? aetunlly vlown with tho vory lintj which Achilles, 
at the Tuomciit of high puwiori, huiI used in the Assem- 
bly of thw Fintt Rook (I ij-i), 

If wo eonMder the Relection of tof^lcfi each by them- 
ftcWcft, with reference to eflbct, the speech is nrt witli- 
*ut a certain evtrro^ia: he hit* the a^-arice of Aga- 
m<*mnon htird (226) ; and Ins rvB|iotiMbiIJty as a ruler 
11341: while prtXundini^ to incite the counij^o of the 
Greekfi (^35)> ^^ flatters their hume-iicknc«» and faint- 
heartedtic^h Uy ivitin^t-lling thi* rrtuni {z^ft)i iind, in 
vapponing Achilles, he plausibly reckoni on being 
found to have taken the ]>opular side. But if wo 
regard iU as every speech should l>e regarded, with 
referenre to snniQ jiarainotitit piirjiose, it is really Ketiwv 
lees and inconseijuent. Dwolliiij^ a« \te doc« upon 

^ In >37 he tkpiwtn to fblluvr whut Achilla IihJ samI L 170. 
a 1111341, 3: 

Tlte aue ^f ThtrjtiUm- 


wrrni^ (lone to AL'tjillcs, Aiid atscrting tin* plncahilitjr of 
that cUieftiiin. ht^ ou^Ul to have citdc-d witb rtKroDuneiicI- 
\ug an attempt to comjwnAatt^ iukI appooHQ bim : 
iii§tcad of which lie recumtncnds the Kcturn. whicb had 
been just ikbanilotiecl. But tb<f real extravagunce of 
tilt? njHKrcb cr>nie» oat mily in rouiioc^tron witli bU «c>ir- 
lovG ; when, like many better men, he wholly loses 
whatever m*b»o of tlo ndicnlous ho tni^bt jiosseas. Jt 
U not only'tJic womon wliotit wv grvu yvn' (^'i?) ; 
'the wcrvicu wbi<rh ^^v^ ri.*ncler you" 1*3^), hut it i« altio 
*tbc' goM' that 90m<s Tn;>jaii may brin^ to ninsotn his 
son, whom I, or else flome other Greek, may Ihiyc led 
cajrtive.* I, Tbeniil*?fi, or sonit^ otlier Greek! The 
only Greek, of whom wg hear in the Iliad as having; 
made aoJ »old on ransom captivca during tlic wftr, is 
ArhtlhW; miil it ix with bim thnt Thi-ntil.i.-K thus 
ooupka himself. Upon thi«, UKDSes, pereeiviiij^ that 
lio f^nds in oppositiLiii to the prevailing eotitimont 
of the Assembly. si] en oe<i him by a judinouHapplicalioti 
of the sr0{>tr» to hts buck aud sbouldei^ : yet tiot ev^n 
Thervitce doi-« be vtlencc by forcoi until he h^ tirst 
rcbiikcd bim by rca«onin|;'. 

S»rh »n> tbr iwts of ihft oaf«e tif Tber^ittT*. An.? w« 
lo infer from it, with Groie, that Homer haii made htm 
ng-ly nnd ojtecrablo bocauec be was a pre^tunjptuous 
critic, tboujfh bis Tirulent rcproaclies were substantially 
wril founded, and that his fate, and iht^ whoh^ ciirnrri' 
ttoncef of this Assembly, «liow ' the dej^mdation of tii9 
nsMof the pcopio before iTic cfaiel«*r 

In nilljing tlir Hnrks, wiya ih^* diftttngnislied histo< 
riui'', L'l?«»eii t1attt.'rs and tir>othea the ehielkbutdriTea 

T jLxi- 40,79- iwi-44- 

* Gn>to*it Hilt, Gevkv. vol ti. 


b IM. pp gO. 98. 

124 1* Ai/ori : the Poiitirs t^the Ilvntatc atff. 

tlic irco|)k ^th harsli n-]>rim;iii(1 nnd blows. Now 
Buret/, as to tlie t:iere mattei- of fact, this is nut (juite 
60. It ifl not tlie people, biit those wUoni he caught 
carrying the matter by dliouts, inatcrwl of returning to 
hi'Jir rt^Asoti in the Assonihly* th»t he struck nitli the 
8C«>ptre' : 

and it may be obacrTed, that be acbln^aes all cli 
uliko by thv wonl ^atftnvii^: wluch, ttiongb & tt^rm of 
ox|Kit(inlELtio», i« nf't one of disre*[x:d. 

If Thors^ites n^presentwl tht^ priiicipk* of reotfomng in 
the |mblte A.'ifieribly, we iTiighL whII »&e in tlie tr«at- 
meut of liim the degradation of the people. But it is 
railing, and not reasoning, that he reproeents; and 
Homer has separated widely between tliis individual 
Kml thu tupuw of ihw army, by infnriniiig un ibat in tb« 
goncml o)kinion Ulye^fl had i^endorecl a feorvice. even 
greater Ihuii any of bia former onc8> by putting dowa- 
Tbemti^s, ' Ulysses ba8 d<»ni* a thousand good thingff 
ill rotiticll snd in war : but this is the be«t of oil, that 
ho bav etop|ied the scoundrel in his nbuldry^' 

TlKT*itc« spoke not against A^anicnnian only, but 
against the nensi* of the wboh* Army (iiz); ami the 
ground of the proceeding of l-Hyssjea \s not laid m the 
fact of his having resisted Agamemnon, or Agamcmuon 
Mitb the whole body of tbc kings; but in the manner at 
bin ^qkCLvli, nnd !n bin having nctiM) aliiiiff and against che 
general sentiment. Above all, we niu«t recolteet tho 
circumstance^, nniier which UlVBsod ventured to chnsti»Q 
even this rancorous and Ibul-nionthed railer. It van at 
a moment of crisj«, ii»y, of agony. The rush from tfae 
Atujmbly to the MpB did not follow upon an orderly 

c n. a 1^. 

d Jliid 190^ icc. 

= TV. aji-a. 

Tfis citJitf 1^' yftettt^M. 


assent to a fTo\K)sn\f m<'h ft« wn^ goncrnlty gWon ; but 
ic t^^Qlted from a luniultuoufi impultiis like that af 
blsfils toeaing the sea, or sweepirij; down upon the com- 
(ieM (11, it. 144-54). If therefure Ulysnefi ep^ploys i\w 
»ce\>tris »r Ai^nmemiioti to F;init^ thoee who wero nbout- 
itig in iLiO of tlii« ruinous ttimull <ii, 198), uo n«od not 
tnko thin for a eample of what would be done in onti- 
nary circuni»t;incea, nrure than the fate of Wat Tj\e.r for 
& t}i>e of Brilii^li freedom uuder the Plfintageuets. 
Oilioiis too OS was Thcrsitps, yet the arnij-, amidst a 
preponderating sentiment of approraL still appear to 
hmv«? Ml sioiiiu n.'grut nl hi* niinhap^: 

for Hie firfrt word» woiihl »u^gcAt« thivt ihoy knew how 
Coiiduelht=> liheity oflhoii^hL, wUirh hml Ih-hii ultuseil. 
diHgraced, and cfnisequently restrained, in liis person. 
Sun^l} it would be mo^t preHpitate to conclude, from a 
cuac like ihijs, that the debates of the Awtmblics were 
furrnat, and that t]try bad notbiti^ to do Imt to livtirn 
to a sham dbcusitlom and to r^i^iator or follow docrcen 
which were sahataMliany those of A^Timcniuon only. 

[ beliere that the ntistakc intolvvd in thejiidgniciit we 
have been canva^iing la a double oi>e : a nki>itake of the 
rchntion of A^fametnnon to the other Vlnp;^ &nd chiel^; 
and a mistake of l!\c n^lntton of tho sovereigns gcHiornlly 
to their »nhjiTrL<, Aganjtnntion was ittron^ in inlluence 
and authority, hut be bad, na we have Already seen, 
notUiiig like a dcspotie control over the ether kin^. 
The kin^ were Mrong in pergonal ability, in high 
descent, in the F&iiction of Jupiter, in |>osse^siort. and 
In tradition : but all tJwir strength, great as it wa«, lay 
aa a general rule in the direction of infIucTicc» and 
not in that of violence* 

«r U ii. t7o. 

I do not tliiiik, howeror, t!iat we ought In ho ^mu 
tented witli the mi>rcly iic^gativo irn^iiv of trontinont 
for the cn«c of TlieTsite*- I catuiot but conceive that. 
ii|)f>n »Q im[jn.rtml review, it maj leach more, tlinn is 
clrfiwii from it by merely saring that it does not prove 
th2 Assembly to bavo been an iUu8ioD. Wu muftt 
aftsumc tbat Ilotncr's picture, If not liistoncaL nt lewA 
p.out<yrn)nl to ihvt \xwn nf |imtml>ility. \nvi', what in the 
pieiure^ That the buflbon of the nrmy, vholly without 
inrtuence, ca|iable of attraotiug no rea|>ect, when the 
niaMi of tie people hail overcome their homeward 
iinpiilw.', liati rvtiirntrtl to (ho Awt-mWy, and wi-n- uwaiU 
ing th<.^ propoftitEon of iho Vin^w. firet L^ontiimcM to rail 
{tKoX^i) while every one cK^ i^ sih^nt, ond then tokcd 
ii|nin himftelf the iii!tiativ<? In n?romTm'ndiitg tbi? r^ 
sumption of the project, whieh they bod that moment 
abfliidoiiod. If such conduct could \h* a3cribe<l by 
the Vottt to a creature ah^irp-witted enough, and aft 
careful as others of his ouii back, does not the very 
fact presupi^niict that freedom of dobate %va« a tiling in 
principlo ut li-ust knovrti and familiar f 

hi ilio »*rene de|ii(-tr?d r>ri tlir Shidd of Achille*. new 
evidence ts atlbrded uk ihcit llie ]H*op1e took a rest! p«ft 
in the conduct of public alTiiini. The people arc in 
AsAcmhly. A »uit ia In progrces. The matter id onet 
of Ikoinieide; and the guilty persrin declares that he has 
paid the proper tine, while his antaj^oidst avt'rs that b9 
has not received it. Each presses for a judicial doc>«ion. 
Tlia people synipnthisi ng, ^comc with o»i^ and 94>mt 
with the other, cheer them on, 

I luidentand the latter words w* declaring, tint that 

A/jtir^ oil rAc ShMd rA //. vvHl 


tlt« li«nJcl« ffvlmtk' ftiiil put n «U^i to tho cliomin^ cif rhv 
people, but citlKT that tlivy kvpi it witlim boumls, ftr 
rather that, when the proper time cnme for the jutlges to 
a)>«ak, tliese. the heralJs pnicun^I ^lence. Aceonliug 
to the meaniuij of c/j-n*'^ »n IL iJ. an. 

Now of the cheering of tlie people 1 venture to rnij, 
not cb&C h mUes a pfe«umpciAn of, but that it nctuallv 
eonsCitates, their mlcrferenec. The rule of every 
tolenblr refuted aE«etnblT. charged with the conduct 
of in]|ior1»nt innll^rnf. i« to permit rii> exprL-wioiiM of 
ftp;m>Ta] or oilnfrwi>o durinf^ ch« proceedlnpe, except 
from the part.ii>* imniediAtelj belonging to ihe hod/, 
The total exclii^on of applause it) Judicial easten belong 
to a stste of mind and manners dilferenl frinn that of 
the heroic ap^. Bat the exclusion of nil applaud by 
mere «tmn[7cr!t to the btixin^t^f wv^ta upon a tniili com* 
moil toVrWiy nj^?; iiatiiL'lif, ttmt *nrh ApplaiiAc; cCktHtitittrs 
a »hare in the busiiLeft^. ai^d eoiitribiitt<a to the decUioii. 
It will be remembered how the cries of tho GaJieriee 
becaiiKr omr of the grievous scandals of the firvit ri^voiu- 
tiun in Frafiee, aijit bow largely they nfToctt-^d the i]et4rr* 
tuioatioits of the NHlioital Ai^eiiibfy. Thi' irr^^gular 
uaa of such a power in a forruidalilr irnuftion of logiila- 
tive or judicial freedom: the allowi-d powe^iou r>f Che 
privilege DniouiitM to participation iu the office of tho 
ttatenuaii or tho Jud^, and demon«trate« tho Kub»l»n- 
tivc pofiition of the Aair, or peoplCt in the A«a»cDibUca 
of the hemic age* 

But apTHtently iliejr fnncnoii was not eomph^ted by 
merely eticouraj^in;^ the liti^unt, with whom each mau 
lujglit chance to iiym|>athijEe. For we arc cold not only 
that th«; Judgeft, that in to aay, the yrporrtK, delivered 
their opink^nHcOTiftecutively, but likr^iHo thnr then- lay 

ill Llie siglil of all two gnMcii talc^iits, to Ijg gireii to him 
who bliould proiioufK^e the fairest juiifjineiit (xvui.^ob); 

T(^ idfitr, 5f futTQ TotiTb 6tHi]j^ ftVj/i^ara fifrot 
Tliii* it ifl jtlain that ttie jud^ wlio iniglit do best was 
Co gft tlie two tak-Titti : but wlio w»w to ^w^ llitiTi? 
Nf»l llio 7f/j«n-eT or ciders tlRTuselvo^, i*ijr<-1y; for 
fttiioiig tlicm tlic n>iii|K'litioTi Inv. There could be btit 
imit ivujr ill itblrli the (1i<(|ioM3il of ibiH Uh* rohlil 1)C Met- 
tled : namely, by tbe ^ceiioral acelamalion of the people, 
to bo exprcsfled, after hcarioj^ tlic rcspet^tivo parties, in 
favour of him wlioftc ^cntiniciita tlicy moisl approved. 
And ibciNi^ to whom it tiiny Kin-ni t^LrAii^* La !>p<ak of 
vole by acclamation, filiotdd remember, that <]ovfii to 
till? dfiy, in nil deliberative asaemblics, an overpowering 
l^ropnrtion of the voIm are votpB by acclamatioti, or bj 
tlio still less definite test of silence. The small ml* 
roHty of iui^taiicei^ viTkh n diflVroiirc of opinion is 
scriinti^ly prcis.*'ch arc now vctllcd by arithmetic; they 
wrmUl then have lje*>« adjtwted by some |irude«t ftp- 
|)eal (o iht' general vrill, proeeedhig frmn a person of 
ability and weight. Indeed even now, in cjiseK whc»«i 
tphc nundicrs iippioximnte to thaw of the Grcvk army, 
there can be no bonu Jidr dect»on hy arilhmetic. 
The demand, however, that disaoitsion ihall be the onlj 
allowed criterion of tib<trty. i« one whioh really worsens 
the condition of human nature beycmd what the truth 
of ex[>erienee reijuires. 

And finally, what niiall wo 8&y to th4» direct 
OTidenco of A^mcmiion hJni«elf f Idlru»^ the Trojan 
herald, arnvee with the ofti^r to rcHlon^ the ^^olen 
property, biti not Ilelen^ lie is received in dead ai- 
Icuce. Af^er a patriae, Diomed f^jves titteranee to the 
goiond feeling. 'Neither wilt wc have the goods 
>■ U viL 3^1. 

A44rutllif4 <ff IL vii, ojh/ 1S< 



viltioot Helen, nor yet Helen with the good*. Troy 
u doonKn)/ Tb« A»M-ii}b]y KhutU^ iU ttjiproULtioiK 
Agninonnmn iinni<*c1iiito1y luIdro&Nes himself tu the tne»* 
aoi3gcr; *I(]teuai you heor the sense of tie Aebvans. 
bow Uiey anaver you: and I Lhink with them/ At 
tJie least thitf is h difcl anil ion sa cxf^rL-^v &« wonln eJin 
mitke it, and pntcticdin^ out of the mouth of the rival 
RUtliority, to the otTect tliat the acirlanmtion of tlio A»- 
•emblj WAS, for all |»mctjcal purposes, its vote, and tbat 
it required tuity emieiirrence from the kiii^. to hi vest it 
witb tlie fullest nutliorlty. Tu cho Nintli IIiaiI, sh we 
bftve S04;a. tbc vote Ih^M good even without tbnt coa- 

Wo nmy now, T hojie, pro(.'e<td tipnn tho i^rtttinEl thut 
vc arc not to take tho ill Kuc^ecf^s of a foulmcuihcd 
dcoundrel, detesteil hy the whole army^ aa a sample of 
what would bnV4< happened to llje |>copIe. or even a 
part <jf iheiTi, wlieu ililleriai; in jnd^tnL'iit frvmi their 
kiu^. Uut what ^Imll we my to the airgumc-nt, that no 
case is found where a person of humble condicioii taktd 
jiarl in ibe del>aies of the Asseiuhlies ? No doubt the 
eoiKluct oi debater was virliinUy in the liatKis of chofte 
wboso birth* weidth, «tutton, and hubile of life ^ve 
them capiicity for jiublic afbur». Even in tho nirctecfith 
ceiiLiiry. it verj' lureh lukpjtcns that a working' nmn 
Iskw pari ill the proceediit^s of a eoinity nieetiTtg : but 
iu> one would on that account suppose tlmt siicb lui 
uaembly ctoi be u«ed as the mere tool of the cIom who 
coEuhK'C (hi* delaTi-, fiir h'«K«r»ny indi\i(ht!il pnuii!m*nC 
in that clar^^ If ue cannot comvivc freedom wi(lH>ut 
|ierpelual iIihcoH, the fiiithfttl )>crfi»rniaiice of the dtity 
of infurniation Jkiid hiIvIco without oocjyrion and op|*re>^ 
noUf it is a wgn either of our uarrow^mindedneWv or of 


onr political Je^i^nernoy; but a fteblo pyo <\o*^ nnt Im- 
pair the rL-nlity of the object on wbicli It tdav ba|tt>uu 
to W fixed. 

Still we ntay flib^iiL llmt amoitg tlie nimioraiift aa- 
fiembli^ti of the Ilia'K ther^ i° no imtiiiK^e \xIieto ^s- 
Bcnt is givon by one pnrt of the Assembly, and t^ith- 
h^ld by tlic other. There is as we have ftccn, a clear 
hihI *ilrong eaw* where the opinion of the cumtnaniVr- 
in-ohief is rejected, and that of an inferioi- comniflnder 
ndopted in ita stead. This in my opinion goes far to 
prove cill that is necessary. Wc have from the Odya- 
ftey, however, tlie iiirniiM <jf guiti^ fiirl1ii*r Ktill. 

Oily, before leaving the Iliad, let iis observe the 
terms in M-hicb the Greek AsMemhliee are addressed by 
the kin^: they are denominated frieiids aiid heroes; 
iLaiii<>« which at lea^ appear to imply tht^r titli* to 
Jn<!ff*\ or freely to enneur. at lean dk nnieh a« «iieh a 
title wfi?t rccogntHcd in tlic aiiHeiit councils anil aa- 
■i^mbliejt of th<; AiigIo*NiLYoO!t. Wn,4 tbli appearance a 
mockery? i do not say we should compare it with tlie 
cr^nized^ secure and re<;ular privi|ej;esof a few nations 
in modcro days. But it would be a far greater mistake to 
trmt it as an idle form, or rm otherwiw? timii a weighty 

From vhal 19 related in that poem to havs occnmyi 
after the cRjitiire of Troy, h In^romes nbundantly clenr 
that the function of the Grerk AvMnnbly wax not coii- 
fiiied tc listening. Tlic army met m wliat, for the sake of 
cfiHti notion, we may call tlie Drunken Aaaembly-^. Now, 
the influence of wine ujion ils proceedings is amply 
sufficient to show that its acts were the acts of the 
people : for Homer iicver allows bis ebicfs to be moved 
from their self*pos*ea»ion by the power of liquor. 


out. 19 

IMvMtm in tfta Orurd^^i Aaupmbhj, 


Tliere was a markei] ilitreronce or opinion nii ttint 
occwion : tbe people tonk tbeir Bidos; Zt-^a S4 <r<^inp 
Sviaw€^vXHOAAiuisc). One half embarked ; tlio reai- 
duoetui^ b«Iiin(l with AgBiciciTinnD{ 135-7). Tbc moiety, 
wUii'ti Im! tfull^il au'nj\ split n^lu ( i6i>; ttiul n portion 
of them wont l>flck to A^memnoii. Wc fee. iinleed, 
throughout the Odyssey, bow freely tbe crews of Ulv&ace 
»polce or acted, wbcD they tbouglit fit, in cp|>oeitimi to 
his Tioin». If it hf miA, vt-ii miiNt 1101 nrguv fmni the; ini- 
ntly *|>o<*eh<-» of men in izreat str^itA nt svn, tbe aiisw(?r 
is, flr^t, tliat Uieir necessities nii^lit ratbt-r tend to induce 
their acquteicence in a stncter di^djiline ; and secondly, 
that their tibf>rty, and even, license^ fire not ont of 
kecfnn^ with the gcrK^ul tone of the relation?? between 
froL-men of diftereut c]uK§c£>as cxbibitcd touttelscwlicre 
in tb<! Homenr pih*iiM, 

ft may, indee^l, bo said, tbitt the diviBiona of the 
Greeks in tbe final proceethnifa at Troy were divibions. 
not of the men. but of tbe chiets, Thia, however, npon 
tho file** of Ihe luxl, 1* %ery donbifid- Wt* m'c? from the 
talo of tbe pH('ndf)-Uly»iC*j, In tbe Tbirteenih fMy*aey 
(2654 6). that there were partus and separate action in 
the Greek contin^nta : and it in probably Xa tbcsc tliat 
Nestor may allude, when be reeommeitds tb@ Ri^view 
in order that the respoiiBibiUty of tbe officer^* may be 
broiigbt borne to tbcm indiNidually* Now, in tbe ensc 
Iwfore b^ the first division i% tbu« described. Menelauis 
exhorted all the Greeks (iraWaf ^Aj^aiout) to go lome ; 
Affamemiion disagreed (141* 3): while tbL>y were coa- 
%Ming tiio point} the Asvcmbly rose in two pnrtics 
(rv. 149, jO); 

^xS0i^vtafy bi^a hi <3tpi<fw ifvhaxv fiovX^. 
There i* no intJEnatrnn )kw (hat tbe people in ill" 

K 2 

vidiiij; "imply foflowM titrir eliioh. Nfty,l)iol'>neof ttio 
<le»cnptioij i» such a» obligt?a iie to uiiilci^tDiMd that the 
movHrni'nt w»j« h jM^fiukr iijk^, ».tir1 tiK»k iu riht? rnini tlie 
debate : bo that, oven jf the chiefft imd their mei^ kept 
tOj^ether res|>cctively, as they may have done, still tbo 
chietji may probably have followed tjuitc o* much as tHey 
lt*<l, AgiiiiL, wh(?n till.' n^'Cniid w.^ptirHtiivri tiikts |i]dn.% It 
Ifl thtiii dc«cnbo(l. 'Ono portion r(-titrnc4l, under UlyMOR. 
to A^itiir^mnun. I ^rogimfiti eating evIK I ma<Ic fiall homo* 
n^rds ^ith the whole body nf my »hip&. which followed 
HIV. Dionmd did thi> same* and («'pTr ^ vT<TJ/>ouf) itiTited 
his niQii (to do it). Ami aft^M* us at last came Menelaue/ 
(vv. 161-8}. Now here ioAtructioD i» given m on three 

1. Uiomed urged Ida men; therefore It wa9 not a 
mere matter of course that tfioy should go. 

2. ^cator mentions especially that iii?f division all 
lE(*]it together {ti/u vtiva-w unW^ti^)^ therefore this did 
iiot always happen. 

3. It in very unltkoly that the fxirt, which i« fir^t 
named as having: relumed with Iftyft^tit, >(hould hav« 
been confiiifd to his own |>et(v roiifingeitL 

Thus it is lel^ in ^reat doubt, whethf^r the chiefs and 
men did unifomily keep togcthfrr: and the tenour of 
the narmtivc favoiiri* tfic Hiipposition, that the men at 
temit coiitiiluited niHtertuHy to any joint eorteluitoiM. 

ASr in the first A^embly of the lli&d, AebtiteR aeta 
his pergonal quarrel in the public eye, and lodges a 
fiort of tacit appeal against Agamemnon, so, in that of 
ihcOd^^^iMoy, Teleniachutdoefl the like with rofcrnmro to 
the ?>uitor^. It i$ there that ho T>rotest« iig«in*t their 
continued con*4umption of his «ulj»tan<!e; that he ro* 
jeeUi th*jir count*'r-prt>jiowil for ihe diMni»<t1 of hin 
motiter on their behalf, and that he himself liDally pro- 

itkaeaa AntntMy <^ Od, ii. 




(wuiids the vnjngc to tho majiilanil^. Tlic^re too we 
Rm\ a moAt cli^tinrt ivc<>j^nitii>ri by Mentor, liiit j^iinrtl- 
iftn, of the powore and rig^bte of the pcopio; for lie 
loudly cotnpfaina of tlieir Bitting nient, nunerons afl 
thev aroV infjlcai.t of iiitQr[>naing to rebuke the handful 
of S<iiton that wofu tin? wmngdori^ B«t if, accord- 
ing to the gonial and iiMgcs of the heroic ago, the 
people hftd nothing to do but to Viisit^n and obey their 
bett^rn, the expei*tn1ioii thai iTipy should have risen to 
defend h minor a;*aiiiNC the nasociatod Arielocracy of the 
couatiy would have hcco abaard, and couhl not have 
been expressed^ as wc find it cxprcMcd, hj Mvtitor. 

It I9 tmu hnVeil, tin has ho4fii ohnerveil hy Titt- 
mann", that ihiA Asm^nthlyinakc^ no offoctivo ro^q^onw 
to tho api^eal of Telemachns ; and that the Suitor Anti* 
noaa ia allowed to declare in it kU own intention, and 
tlist of his ootniianions, to conlinue thvir IswliHft proc4.>ed- 
ing^. Bnt wbut ^c «eo Id Iho Odysfwy i* not tho nonnal 
state of the beroio polities: it t) one of tbo»e jiohlics 
diHorgantJUHl by the alMence of ita head* with a peo|ile, 
as the isane proves, deeply tainted by disloyalty. Yet 
let ae see wliat* even lu this stato of things* \raa still 
the weight of tbc A^r^. Firat, when Xelemachui de< 
airi'H to ntiikir nii iiiilinl pnrh-ML h^eii!*!* Lh(t mrLa oftbts 
SuJlor*j he ealls it to hia aid. Secondly, though at tha 
outect of the diiicu^ion no concession h made to him, 
yet he gains ground as it proceeds. The apoccli of An- 
tinouH, thv first Suitor wlic> aihire^M-« thi^ A««i-inhly 
(Od. ii- 85-1^8), la in ft tone of sheer doftance. aiid 
treats hU attempt as a jc»t and as an inBult(v.86). Tho 
next is that of EurTmacbue ; who, whilo deriding tkc 
ooiiena, yet tnaketi an sdranee hy &p|ic»Hng Ui Tt-Tt*ma- 
cbua to take the iiuttter into bis own hundM, and indueo 
^ Od.E3>) lOdii. )^9-4i. ■ twitch. ftUalHV kii, p^sy. 

1^ L A^orr : thtt Potiti'ivt nj'thit Hrmtric tifff-^ 

his mother to marry one among them (178-207)- The 
third, that of LeiocriUi«, contKiiifl h ftirliicr Mji^ht up- 
pro^im&ticn: for it conveys an assent to hi* proposed 
voyagr, end recDtntncuda thnt Mctitor nnti Alithenea 
iliall awtiftt Uhn in iii:ikiiijf provivcoii (or h 4242-56). 
Thufl even here we see thai pro^reasiori, vhich may 
itl\rays be noticed in tlio Homeric debates; and Uio 
iitflueticc under which it wa* ctTectcd niiist surely liavc 
been an si|»|irehviJ*i'*« of the Afisi'rnhly, ii> whU'h Imtli 
Tc'Ienmvhut, tim\ Ktill more directlj Memor, had u\p- 

Thirdly, however, we perceive in thin very account 
th« sigtiN of th<^ disorderef.) and distracted state of the 
public mind. For, bijyoiid a sentiment of pity for 
T«kniacliU9 when he bur»t^ Into toaiv (r, 81), they 
make no »ign of appnivnl or diMtppntval. W41 ini^ 
in Ithaca the well-kFioHii elieers of the Iliad, th« 

They are diaiuissed without having made aiti^n: jti*t nx 
it i* in the A«»eml>ly of the First Iliad (an exception in 
tliat poom); t^hc're the mind of the nias&es, puzsled and 
bewildered, h uot in a condition to enable them to in- 
terfere by th« distinct expression uf thrir f«yni]tatIiieH'. 

There are, however, two other in»:ancM of Aneom- 
Wiep in the Odyssev- 

Thc Hnat of these is the Assembly of the Phacacian« 
in the Eighth Book ; whieh we may stafely assume to be 
modellod generally aeeordinp^ to the prevailing nmnners. 

The petition" of [J!y^se« to Aloinnn^ is, that be may 
Ive sent onwards to Ins home. The kin^ replit^ that 
he will make urrnngenieiitM about il on the fidluwiug 
day^ Aeeonlingly, the A««ffmbly of Che Ph^acian 

• Od.B. >a7. UIS05, 

* Od,vii- ijr, 

p CM- vu.i»fl--!j(, 317. 

PhtKOciaA AsifrtMy ^f (id. ym. 



people ift cuilU^I: Sfincrva Iw^rwlf, undtT tlit? form of 
the tiemlil. tak<^ 1I16 puiiiH to «uinii]on tlio principal 
porsoiifti. AlciuouH then pmpoftos tliiit n »)iip iilmti bo 
^t ready, with a crew of lifty*twa picked nlen^ For 
his part he nill givt* tr> i\w creu, to^thc-r with ihe 
fcinjis, an enteriainmcor at the p&lace before they s<jt 
out*. This is all done without dt:batc. Then coniev 
the hAD<iiiet, ani] the fir»t song of £>cmodocu#. The 
oompany iK-xt nrturn cu tho pbct* of aiai^mhly, for tho 
games, \z ih hore thai UJvkm^^ u taunted by Ktirya- 
laa*. lu hi9 reply he appcaJH to hi» chnracter a$ a 
suppliant : but he is the suppliaat of the kiiij; and all 
tho jK-opte, nnt tif iho kir% nor evwi of tlio king and 
hta briUher kings, alone^; 

\\V RLii-«t ihf^rHftire asxiinii- that Alciiu>Li»t, in hiit pru- 
pOfia), Mi that he was actintf jiccai\1ing both 10 prece- 
dent aitd thtj geiicrfll opinion, Hu doeu not order any 
nreasLirc to be taken, but simply gives bis opinion in 
tliu AsMMnbly alioiit pmviding a paMKitgr, whii*ti U 
tllontly accepted (ver. ^t). Yet I oannot but tako it 
for a bign of the strong jiopular lEitueion in the political 

vritb m^ Utk^ a nuntber w n>- 

q Od viii.7-tj 

' Thr utiuibpr dmen/u* rt*- 
ftmrk. t'ifly. m we know from 
tbp CalttJu^-ius ^v** ' rtijEuIar 
nbip'fl onv of rwvrv. Wliat 
VJ*Tv lJtf< two 1 Ftitljahljr u coiM- 
lEiMidrr, •III! a EtfvnimiLD- I'hi? 
dad in Uivfi tD boUi the jiliKva 
wherv tiir numWrv ii» nn-'ii- 
tioniHl (^iinftfAw. tttr. 36. ■)»■-' 
AiVn, 46, Sh'l't 49) Thm^ uiv 
nth*r jMna^gei w1ii>n> i\w diml 
ut«ikla bvyuud lli« iiurdHir Iwi^ 
TO Uirw mill) f<iiir Sn^ SiixM'h, 
iU luc !ki itrt iitr rtf it h^n* 

uuLrlublF, AuJ uiny In- Xtvt nx* 
^U»i«iJ bj BU|hp(»iiri^ tUot it 
rvfVt>t to lN<- Ai'U^ wlii> Wit* till? 
fjTtnC'ij^ul rn«n of tb« CiTW, ftlid 
l\a^ the rill; iir« r^cit rvKiinteil u 
roniun^ ftnri of tbc hubjf^t of 
ihi* vrrK H ihw bt' »ii. ih*- jm*- 
Mifc ahijws tifi iu a VoT litiLpJc 
foTm the niilinu^ntiiry nautlchl 
urd^ of thr (trwk iiht|n, 

- (M vili 38. 

1 0>L viiL 15^1-04. 

<i <>il lili 157. 


{. Afford; the Poiiium^tk4 U^mgric it^ 

JdeoB or the agiv wlion vrc linil Hiat <?vm shj slight a 
meaitiirv^, a« tlie di^phrli of Uljrttm'A, wax Mionght tit to 
be proposed and sctllcO there. 

But we have weig:litier iiiatt(?r fti^poseil of fn tlie 
Twenty-rnarth Odyssey, which aflbnis as nn t-ightii 
and la-Ht esamplu «r thv (irevk Aesenilily. iu (jowcre, 
ntid ii(iBge«, 

The liavfwk made of the Suitors by Ulysft?* is nt 
liiift flUcovored after the IkhMc* have bctn dif*i>(^i*ed of; 
and ujBOLi \hv. dl^ruvrrv, the rliiof^ and jicoplc repair in 
a itiniw to the r^pen fl|mcv where Asscu^blieK w^ro h<d<E, 
imd which hears the same muhio vith lh'»fn\ Ilef» 
the people are afidi-csaed on the one side by Kiij)cithe«, 
r^lhrr of rhn Ftjuling Soilor Aii(innii«, »ii l\\v. other by 
Medoii the hemhl^ and Alither«^at ^^<i ^^ Maxtor Uie 
Seer. And licrc* wo am siippliod with fiirihGr proofH, 
tliat the Aftsemblic?* were no! wholly tiiiJiccirttumed to 
art according to their TeeliogH aint fipiruiiif*. Thorc in no 
iiffn of perplexity or confueion; hut thcr*? i* dirttw-nce 
of M'lktimcnt, and cadi party act^ ti[>oi) \19' owtL More 
tlian half the. nM'rtir|^ loiully applaud A)ithf;xsc^ ami 
break op. (Irtennini'd nty\ to inoddle in the nllldrS', Th© 
olher party keep their places, lioldin^ with Enpeltlie^ ; 
they then f^n to arco, and undertako the ex|Witton 
ngarnwt t'lyvics. Having lost Hirir leader by a spear's 
throw of ljuiTt(-», fur which IMincrva hud fitijiplu-d liiin 
wiih »LUciigtb, they fait like Mwep before the weapom 
of their ^'at chief and hia «on. Yet, tJ^ongh ronte«lt 
ihey are niH tteate<l jis i-Hnunalft for their n^i^tjiiiiN' ; 
but the poem closes by ioformiiig tu* that Minerva, in 

> iVolmliU Uir^ *ttm'tt^ |>nf|HLT lii. i ^%), Iral tliv iiHnt^ uuiiuniivi 
numv vf tlift A»4iiLiiM_y, u limtui- fo llitt two i^rn^l*. 
gilihllivl fiUTd [lir |i1hc4> (if luci^t' T Oit Axl«- 4^ J, 

fbiMeiia &r AstKmbtiai ^ OfymptU^ 


Siiiee llio ABAemlilied ofOIyinpas jrrow out of tbe poly- 
tliciatic form of ihc Greek religion, wc miist treat tlicni 
tt« port nfitfi linniaEi d(*nmit» nm] m n rrflt'ctioii nrthu 
liepriio lifis TbL*n5 will clit'iefurM be nii nnnliij^}- |K?r- 
ce|ftible betwucin tbe rcbulon of Jupiter to Hid oth&r 
lmmuriAl» in Itie OUin|>ian A'^scinblj, niid tbat of tlis 
Greek .Stivpn?rgii to fill or niniiu nf Uiokc nrviiiifl biiii. 
IJiit II* tbc il<>itic4 njccl iu th» cripnctty nf ruler*, wo 
UH>ubl *tock tbM oiialogy mtlitr in tlo relnUon bctwwn 
Agnmcmnoii iin<l tlie ki»^ or l>eLwc4;ii the IucaI tove- 
r**i(ifii itrul bin eM<*rs (tt^i^it), tlian between «;icliorof 
tbe two r««pcctivo bctdR. aoH the maw of those whom 
hu nile(L 'i'liis anab-^jy is ni subMancc ffustuinetl by 
thv pocmw. Ilio envorci^ity of Jiipitct midotibtcHly 
ttiinds mow <.'k*vat«(l, amoiij; iho dtviititk'M of Olyiupnn, 
lluiii tluit of AgftmcmDon, or miyotbor of \m kln;^ on 
vartU, It tncliiftes more of llic de^meut of forrr, and 
Et a|)|inixiiii»l»t tMi>rf imnrly lu a prntTve 3iu|irtVTtA«:y. 
AccorUioglyp wlmlever mdicates freedom in Olympus 
will ie»*d a fm-tiori to show, that the idea of fn.'ciom 
ill dcbaU' ^u. at lclL^t a^ mtiorig tlic c1Licf^ faixiibar 
htrni bHow. Y<-1 t^reii ui Olyt[i|iii« tin? otbvr chief 
di;U(i?fl could mnmkTir, ar^fue, anil o1>Ject. Tbe jiowor 

■ (M. UTV.546. 

■ I)cah1« blJ tN« i^nrticrulun 
wlvrli \\D\c I>p4i} riU<d. v^ liAVr 
iaoMiBninl ooiicn SL^J^lltreiJ utrutit 
ifae potni^ n I) lull trml om-Uj' 
in Ui(v wiic ilmxli<Ri^ I'gr tut- 
wapfr. wlirn Cliij*4rn junjii fur 
the nsttlUtxm of liis ^u^lilri'. 
LiH [ri-irti^ii iji mldtrwHl jiriiici' 
\hX\j to Uir tiro Atrifln, tut it 

!■ tikcwiM Bditrfwrd t^ tli« 

\vtok- bud}' of *A;yajd3 (11 i t^;), 
ttiHl ti, ritli^r lu the raliiv umy, 
or At Miy mt« to <tU Uic kiiiii^ ; 
tir, U> hII t}i« uLiriuU'rK uf the 
AchwLUj rflots Thi* w« miiy 
ri-iiH^i»ri' willi tlK- iL|ij»lM-Hlmn 4ir 

t<i thp kin;Q Am) prctpTp, 

138 L A^ori ; ihf PoUiia of the Hwnarie aye. 

of Jupiter is cxiitbitci) at its scnitli in the Assembly of 
ihc Kij^litli lllrul, \t-\u.'ti \w vif»b*ntly tUrcntf*tiH M tlmt 
cli»<>bey, and cliEillengo^ the wliolc ^aok to iiy th<»lr 
strength with liim. The Tobcmonco witli which ho 
apoke prorlured tha sumo intiniiilatnry efK^ot upon the 
gtAtt, as did tlie ^reat speech of AHiiIIp^ upoji the en- 
vojb: and the result upon the miuds of the I]0ftr<.^r6 lu 
the two ca^oB respectively, is described in hwcn whicb, 
with thr ("xct'iition of a sitij^hr ivonK |>n-dscly comv 
ii]>ond^. Still, imiiuvliiLtvly nftor JiipJior ban ^tvt^n the 
pcramptorj order not to a^siftt either piarty* Minervn 
answers. Well, we wlil not fight — which she never had 
donL" — l)iit we wtll advise ; ami ihis Ju|>itrr at onra 
and dK^erftilly pennits^. But there ih morv than thhi. 
Be tho cnu»e whnt it may, tlie pcr»r»n&l wtll of Ju- 
piter, fulfilled na to Achillea'', is not fulfilled &h to 
"Troy. The AvNeiidjIy of the Fonrtb ftiH^k is opened 
with a proposal from him, that Troy fihall stand*. 
From tilts he recedes, and it \ti decided tlmt the city 
shall be destroyed ; while the only rc^crvatiou he makes 
IB tiol fit idl uu bi?lmtf uf the Trojuiiv^ but Minply uii be* 
bfilf of his oun freedom to destroy any other city he 
may misUkc, howevor dear it may chance to bo to 

The position of Agamemnon^ of which iupitvr h in 
a great degree a rcFl^^etioii, bears a near rcsembhmcc to 
that of a politicid header under fret.* Kuropoan, and, 
jktIiaiis it may be said. (^peei»Uy under Hritisb, institu* 
tions. Its essertti&l elements are, that it is worked in 
]iart by aee4>T]imodation, and in p»rt by ]ul!uc?nce> 

]}e<iide3 its gtzni political function, the ^y^'t is, aa 
ire bave seun, in pnrt a jiidici«l Ixjily- Hut the grent 

* 11 viii aS, 9. VL. 4.10, 1 . 

-It LA. 

JwfichiJ'tmctions of the Aawmhly, 


mTegumrct of publicitr attends tbc conduct of tnaK &8 
wpII not the- iliKr-imioii of [Ktlitfi^ftl nffiiint. Tlu' |i»r* 
llAHlk-a of |K*o]»U> who manifest tUeIr feelings by vMUo 
itijfiif) U Ulua preTO»tecl, on the ono haad, hv tbi> culti- 
vatiofi of babitual aelf-Tespect, from pfissin^ into fury, 
and on the <)llier hand, from <tegeiif^rutii>g uilo hnse- 

It i« iiorhnp^ worthy of notice, 04 ii^i»ti»g to iii<lioatc 
the «ul0t»Dtlvr* and nHiv^ ii/itiue of the pif[ni[Ar iii- 
tete^ in [iiibhr aft^iiix Uint wh^^re finrlies were forni»J 
ill tlie A«i;enihUi^, thoso who thoiir^Lt to;;$lher sat 
together. Suck afipcura to be the intimatjoti of the 
line in thct Kigbtccnrb Iliiii] (502), 

As the u^^K a/j<074)i ex|»r<!aaeA ttieir iBi*iitiment%a;4(|Wrv* 
po4«v ctu hardly ti^ify any ihinp other (ban iliat ihey 
BOt fc'pttriitelj on each side of the Aijgcmbly. A fihiiibir 
tmuigciDciit 0«ctiH to be convt-jcd lu tho TtvL-iity- 
iimrlb OtlvJCK'ir, whvro wp Jind Uint ibo prEy iif llu> 
Suitor* renmJiKid fii a muM (toi ^ ^9^oot avr^^ /iifi^^v, 
V.464.) I think thiif circunivtaricv by no means ap 
UDiniportaiitonf^, a«i|[u.'«tniLivt- of theca|racity^ m which 
llio |>eo]ile attended si the Assemblies for either poli- 
ticst or judiciiil purposes. 

Tho place of Aascmblics ia abo tho pUcc of Judi* 
cmtiire. But the »uptTmac-y of tho politicid funclioti I» 
iudicaied by tbis, that the woi-d a7o/>^ which means 
the Assembly fttr debate, ihuft gives its own designation 
to the place where both functicma were conducted. At 
tho same time, wc have in the word Thcniin a clear in* 
dlcaiiou that tho ortgiiial jirovineo of |^\cminent was 
judicial. For thai word in llomcr signified the prin- 
ciples of law, though thoy were not yet reduced to the 

tW [, Afff^'^ : thv VolUiu <^ th4 li^nneric a^ 

fixed forma of after-limes ; but on ihe other hand TheniM 
wiuiLliH^n g»<W<»«n,amJ shttlia<] iti tlmt rajmrity tlieotHco 
of «iimn)oiiin^ and of diesolvm^^ Afittomblies'. Thus the 
older function, as oftc^ii bn)ipcna^ ennie in time to be 
the weaker, aiid had to jield the precedence to ita 
nioro vigomu« <:oTn|>etJtnr. 

Bui in Ilomcr'» lime, though thev u^^re dietia- 
giiifd^s), thej woro not yet divided. On the Shield of 
Achilleft, llie work of Themis« is done in full Asscniblir; 
and thi^ probably tfignifiL's tlie custom of tho ttntu. Dut 
in tho El(»venth Jlifid, PaLn>elus \y^^tA>A by th« ship* of 

And, in tlie description of tho Cyclopc*6i, the lino is yet 
more elearly drawn: for it \» said^ 

Ill tliat BBme place, too, tho publico Bolemnitiea of 
religion ucn? prrronncd : nnd ilitnigh in tho Greek 
eamp it wda doubtl(Ts» plaeod at the centre of tho lino 
with a view to security, it8 poitiiion moat nptly sym- 
boliKed aUo its moral centrality, as the Yi*ry heart uf 
i\iQ nationul |jf&. At the spot vihere the Asseinblif** 
wore held wero j^thered into a fbcaa tho religious, aa 
Well as the patriotic EcitfimciLt^ of the conntry. 

The fiict !!<, Uiat rvrrvwliero in Hoiupr wo Und the 
sign« of im intense coqKirate or puhlie life. Mib^isttnjf 
and working side by side with that of Uio individual. 
And of thid corporate life the ayopii is the pro|i6r 
or^u- If n tnan is to U' described aa great, lie 14 
alw£iy« gn.nt in ditbaie nnd on the ffeld ; if a« insi^mfi- 
unt and good for nothing, then Ik> is of iio aecovnt 

C 11 xvTiL 4^ 

h II. il «or 

Thf tnmwum Stmt or Tk in HanM^^ 


mttier in battle <«r in m>iiDciL The tira granJ rnrnifi of 
r«>iiiii?oii and public action ar^ taken for the cricoria or 
Iho iiKtiniltml. 

Whtm Homer wi*lic?ii to Hcscribc tlie Cyclopefl as 
living in a iihi(t! of biu'lmrisni, he sajs, not tliat ibey 
have rio kiTi;ift,or no toutis,oriir» arniitw, or no counuVp 
but tbftt tLicv bavo »o Asj^cinblicf), and iig adtnitii^^tm- 
tion of jn3ticL\ wbicb, ii« vrc have seen, i^iia tbu primary \ 
ftjri^tion of tlu? As»(i'nibUe<. Aut\ yet all, or nearl;r all 
the Sta£Q» had Kin^. Th4> Icfiaoti to be Icnmcd is, that 
in beroic <;rcec<^ ilic King, venerable a» was bis title, 
was Dot tbe fouutainbead of tbe (common lifi% but only 
iu exponent. Tbe sourco lav In tbo community, antl 
the coinmunitv mot in the Agor?. S'> dft*|>!y Irnbctlilcfl 
IH tbi« fteiuinitriit ill the mind of tlic Poet, tlai it ^ecma 
aa if lie €(iuld notrmietfive an aMtemblage of |ier»onft 
baving aiij kind of eommoD function, wittiont tbeir 
bavinCi «o to tific-ak. a oommon soul loo iu refi;H!ot of it, 

Of tbiit coinnton soul the or^-att in 1 loiiicr h the T\v 
or * Soititfbodj ;* by no monnw niru iif ibe U'hsti n*ni>irk- 
ablc, iliotigb lie hail 1>oen one of the leant rej*arded, 
pertonageft of ibo poems. Ilio 'J"? of Homer if*. I ajn 
prehend, what in Knglaud vte. ni>w rail pnblic opinion. 
We constantly And oc<ra8ionii, uben tlu* Pout wwrU tn 
tell V* nliat wad tbe jirevailtng sontinienc among tbo 
Grccka of tbe army. lie n»gbt bavc rl^n(^ thm didae- 
ticftllr, and ik-Hirribiri] ni b*ngtb tbe importance of 
popular opinion, and its bearings in each eaw. He liaa 
adopted a metliod more poeliL-al and le^g obtrusive. He 
proceeds dmmatic&lly* through the medium of a ]u.f«on» 
and of a foninila: 

h may, however, not seem worthy of remark, eon<^ 
tJdeHng tbt^ am^mut of eoninnin Jntrre^ among the 

1 W L AffOf'c : iht i'ofitif4 cfthA Homeric €i^. 

Cref^ks, tbnt ho ehoukl find an orjjau for it in liift Tir- 
But M-hcn be brings tbc Grct'lia niiti Trojaiw together 
ill thfi Pact, tboii^i) it \n only for tbe purpose of a 
TnonienLnryaaion, still be makes an tnti^gvr fif'r? fittc rice 
of tlic two rtatjons, and protklos tlicm will) a roninion 
T;* (II, 1^319): 

We find itnotlkT reTnnrknltli^ (^xemiilTfiration in iho 
pnae of the Suitors in the Orlyssev. DisM>1ule &itd 
solflttb yoQths aa tbey are. and c^ompotitors with oou 
another for a prize which one oujv can enjoy, Ihcy are 
neverthelrw* for the mnmcnt lirindt**! toge^KT in a 
coniinnn Eiitcrc^t. TIlcv too, tbon^fnre!, liave & eollt^otlvo 
9enttnietit, and a ready organ for it In n Tn of the 
Odir'sscy (O^H ii. 324}, wlio speaks for tbe body of 
Suitora : 

All tlirsw.! nre, iti my vivw, m^i^t ^trikutf; |»roofsof tliP 
tenacious hold, which the prinolple of ^ public or eor- 
porale life for all ag'grc^ations of men had taken upon 
the mind of Homer, and npon (aroece In the heroic 
agc- Nor c»n I help forming tbe opinion, that in all 
probabllliy we may discern in tbe Homeric T\s tbe 
primary Ancestor of tbc famous Greek Cborua. It is 
tbe function of tlie Chorus to give ntttrnince U\ tho 
public sentiment, but In ft senile n\iU virEuoiiti, anti 
pinu«* Now thJA is wbnt tlie Homeric 1> u«uallf 
dooB; hnt t>f course ho dnes tm behalf of tlie com- 
muiiity, ^rhat ibu Choms E)oe<i as lielongiug to tbe body 
of actors. 

It IB then surely a great error, after all wc have seen, 
to conclude that, because the |>olitical ideoft and prac- 
tice* of tliose times ilid not wejir the CHMtuinex "uw in 

faaliion, they were vitliout tiitlw owd rcnl vitnlitr, nn<I 
powerful morfil influi^nce ujion tlii^ miniU niul rhAmr- 
iLTTf of men. 

Bat, on the other lioiid, in repelliiij; thoi^p tinsound 
And mjurion^ notionts wc must beware r>f oaauniirg too 
much of vxteriinl rew-mlilAm^ bclweeu tlie lirmic ngu 
and tlie renturios either of modem Cliristendom nr 
even of Hi^oric Greece and Rome. All the determinate 
Formi of I'ublic ri;;bt arc tlic growth of long litnc, 
fif d«*arl»oii^lit fX|»pri*?iice, niid of provL'd nccewitv. 
R\g\ii and fi>rc*v «ra «iip|d<*inoiiU to one ftnoilier; but 
the proportion?, in tvbieli thi.^ nre to bo niiirglodt ar(» 
5iibjf€l t<» iiD fixtil rule. Iftbeexitttenre of right*, botli 
|iopkilar and regal, in ibe beroit? age h ceriain, tliejr 
!nd«termiDatenes3 is glarin;r and coii^picuom^. But the 
»I)R]>e thcj bore, tiotvitlistanding tlio loo£L*iice« af its 
oiitlinr, wa* <|ui(e &de<)iiat4.' in (b« n^edft of lb<? lime. 
Wft ninvt noli in ronnoctinn with tlie hemic age, think 
of pnblie life an a profc^iou, of a etaudin^f mass cf pub- 
lic atlairs of Ic^^lation eternally in arrcnr, of a com- 
plex irnehinery of p;ovcrnment. There were no rcg^jlar 
ft'l^'tunt:!* in Grt'eeu diiriiij^ th** Tro|»n wnr. Tht'n* 
sffhA lui AvMCinbly In Ittinca during the long abaenoo of 
Ulfll»C9^ before the one called by Telctnnchn^, and 
reported in the Second Book of tlic Od)"wcy, Wo 
harv jieeii. liowwcr, hi wlmt way thiw lar-k of marblnerjr 
told upon tlK' «taiu of Greeee by encoumgin^ faction, 
and engendering revolution. The strain of the Trojan 
esipeditieu wa.^ too great for a system po artleM and in- 
organic. The state of Itlinca in the Odyssey i« pulitie»)ly 
attab^almo^ of anarehy; though the eyniptoniM of ih»t 
ditttBC wcr« milder by far then, thnn tWj could now 
lie. Tlieeonditionof the itdand xhows nfl vihat Ils ixrlity 

^ 'niim^ui OHmIl. HIaaUv. b. ik. |r. ^6. 

144 I- At^yh: the Polttira oftftr liom^rk <xfff, 

h&d been, mtber than what it wwi, Bnt for all 
flinar}^ orcWoDs it hail siifTu'ei]. Fur A«ernblk-9 i 
only wliQii tlicy liad t^omulhiti;; to cl<i; and rai 
inttcrd ^^'Oull flticli junctures arrive. IiifracLionft c»f 
!ti>cial nnlt^r ant) Mvcml nghts wliicli novr iiiorv coin* 
moiily lake |»lact! bj frauil, wore ttien (lue almiMt 
wholly to violence. And viok-nce. from its natiim, 
could hardly be the subject of appeal to the Assembly; 
aH AL gciic-nLl ru]c, it required to lio repaitd on the hf^iint, 
ftml ill tliv Knmo eotr. Judicial qu6«lioii»* woulrl not 
often bo of sticb cummandiii^ interest, a# to divide a 
people into two <jpinioi>a; nor tbc jmrties to them 
neallhy rnmigh to pay two tjilt*nts to tlie &TH'rc's*ifnl 
jndpo. Grvateontrovemie?, aifbctiii^ al]e;ciancc and the 
vuGcovi^ion, must of necestiity iii alt ages be rare; and 
of & Hiifputcd mcccwLon in Grc<*cG tlie poems can 
lianlljr Ik* nnid lo ciflY-r xm ati tiixtiinor. Wi? fiml, how- 
ever, in tlie lat^i Boole of the Odys^oj, thai, according 
to the ideas of that |K-riod, whrn a c^ue^tion an to the 
sovereignly did ariAe, the people needed no instructor 
jw In X\w ftr^t meaHiire iIk'v were' lo inkt^. Tliey repainrd, 
»K if by a cornmoL and iti»tinctive impulse, to the 
Agor£; in which lay deposited their civil rights and 
ibtrtr ohi tnulitioitK, like tht? ^(^ium of the wejdth of 
Greeco hi the ^rina of the Archer A|m>IIc'. 

' IL u. 404. 


W E hare perhaps been aceiifttomeil to niiiLtem|)lAte 
tilt* Tfrij.'ius loo exclusively, eitlier a** eneniifs f>r tlie 
GroeLs, or *y\po &8 consiitutin^, (oj^othor with them, 
one lioraogcncnuB chapter of autit^uity, which wo night 
bo eoiiUnit to irxftininn an » whole, without laking 
notico of specific OffTeroneei^. Let u« now cndeftvour 
to inquire wlwit were llic rdntion^, oilier than those of 
mere antagouUiii in the vvnt, hctlweeii the t^ro nations ; 
wtiat poiiitH they embraced, and what alhnities or 
discords they discloec. TIio direct eipns of kindre'd 
between 'I'roy and tjre?ece have alrtady been con- 
sidencil; but the exam i[iat ion into point* of contrjuit 
iiiid r<Mten iblati CO sh roi<i|>eet6 reltfinon, [Hdity> iind eha- 
raeler, vnW OH^i^l aa in jud^ng how far a key to those 
ftSinhie« and dtseordK i» to he found in the different 
Inlerfii^ioit and ]>rD]iortion, in the two cases, ofetlinicat 
olemeuts uhich they possessed in common. 

We have tccp in another placc*^ that the Oreek^, or 
AcbDeAn<t, and the Trojans, wltl- akin by the Hellie 
elenienl, uliich appear* t» i-fiiublUh a eonnectinn elii4:'f1y 
aa regarded the n>yal house, and other ruling housep, of 
Troy. On the other hand it has seemed clear, from 
tnany aourcea, that the main aRiniiy betwi*en the hulk 
' Acbfvi% oi Ltlnolog^, wct^ ix- p. 49^' 


of tho two nations was Fftlasgmn, As jcspects tlic 
ethiinlogiccil question* the supiK}»<itioii mt^st €on»>nant 
to th(T f«vi(]iMif<<- :ix iL ivliolo it|i|it<Jint tn nic? bi Th', Uiut 
in Troas we tinf) HoUio familkfs poKKCHSOfl of dominion 
0¥€r a PeLfui^mu ]>co|>I(M in Grct^e we Hn<1 Hellic 
tribc'9. placwi in dorriiTmiit juxtapofiition vritli IVIaiigic 
trib^M. of prior occu]»aiicy; constituiitip. as is prolwiWp, 
whole classes of the community. an<l niirglin^ ^^Itli 
and ]>ow<:rfulljr modffyinf* llic a^regatc composition w 
AH lo pro4liif*o n Tn!x(-(l rtviilt; wliilc in Troy, t1iotij;h 
the ruling houaesi are probably a dilTerent ord<?r, ami 
there may bo found here and there the tokens of tbis 
influence, yet the general face of society, and the swh- 
stance of mrnncTH and ioHtitution^ arc* PclHj<gifln. It 
will be reooll(>ott'd, llat even hi Grooco wo trace \^'a\ 
fonns of Mellie dilTiHion, Sometiniufl tlio ile^c-endantft 
of the ITelli ap|K'ar iih Miijt?** fiiitiiltf^ft, Itlce 1h<f ,^Vdid^; 
soint'iiim^s a« nure*. Iiktr the Acha^aiis. The stale of 
facte here suppoeed as to Troy is in accordance with tlio 
rormcr closs of indications within Greece itself. 

Ufion Ihp footing suppliLMl by these asKtiinpttons, I 
wlmll tn*«l the uoinpari^n of fhti two coiinlrici as to 
rclig:ion, polby, social asages, ond moral ideas and 

Wo have alr*>ady be*?n obliged, in considering the 
reactive Bbares of tlie Hellenic and PeTasgian faclora 
in the compound Greek charectcn to anticipate in 
iiomcdc;;rcc the concluHion» mtb regnrd to the religion 
of the TnijniiM Sti itx genend character, winch I will 
not«' proceed more fully to expTafn ftnd illuHtnitc. 

We bavo found three conspicnous deities, of worship 
ap]iarently Fupremo and uuiverKil : .Inpiior. Mint-rvn, 
and Apollo, Aft(*r ihem* cnnKfj Neptune, of a mon* 
doubtful po»itlon when no po«8 out of (he Hellenic 

sintl Phcenictaii eirclea: and Latoim witli Diane, wlio, 
clouljtle^ from tlie T&iitage ^r^^un*! of i*iirlv trjiiliiioti, 
Uko mnk alik<^ witli »ii Hi^UcfncsEicl a Pcla^ginii [woi^Ic. 
Wo have ti\fo »np|hj«o<J Cenw to bo of imnieniorial 
fttarul!ngnHii<lviitvuftlRr 1 VhtHgiftiisi ; tiwA Ventin tol^Ave 
made gri*nl v:ny niiiniif^ tliv^in. 

Passing ou from llje oonmderntion of Pelas|;|iaii reli- 
^on at large, it will now bo reqnmito to show, witli 
[jartirular refi'rence to Troy, )i<>w far we tind (lie imnips 
of the Greek divinities rec-o;^iif;&d tbere; nor miiKt wt^ 
omit to con!»l<ler, in ^vhnt dc|*icc idciitily nf iiamc- im- 
plirt identity of person and fonction, 

I, Jupiter had a -w^*Kl^ or jjortimi of roD»ocmt«(1 
Iflnd, on Ikfonnt Gargarn*; find there Onetor was Ma 
|mo*tv lie is ^itli the Trojans ui* with the Greuku, 
tbe finil kiiil j^rt-atiwL iif tint g(ntH^ He lum^elf atte»tii 
tbeir abundant tiburalitv in eacrifiees offeree! lo liim- 
self- The Greek Jupiter in Olympian; tlio Trojan 
ilupitor in Jupiter of Ida. I^xccpt a» to abode, there 
in no dilTE'r«*iiee to ho dii^cemed hftwKm the featuren 
of tbo ivro. 

z. Wq have na <\\raH indirdlion, in iho Iliad, of tbe 
womhip of Neptune by the TnyanR. lint the legend 
of ha employment tii»der Laoniedoii niu§t be taken to 
imply that hie divinity was &cknowl€dj;ed in that 
country : confirmed am it ia by h'\^ sharing with Jupiter 
wid ApnJIci the (U'fttnjclion of the Greek rnnijinrt nfh'r 
tbft eonchi«ioo of the war^. 

3- In the ciwe of Julio, I have elaowhere noticed* 
tbe tbree pAaKij:e«s whic^h alone appear to cMablft^h a 
faint conneetJcMk between her and the Trojans. 

• It viii. 47. d> * ^ "1- 44> >*<|* "i. 459^ 

t li Ul 7^. mil 17- 

« IL ir. 48. « Otrmi^tiSp ftoct. lU. p. 197- 


148 II. llios: Tff^fiM and Gtf^ earmporfd. 

4. Miiicrra bail a Icrii]ilc on P^rgnmii^; and voe 
eervpii them Lya prieftti^M^Thefinfi: ^ho, wi llm wife of 
Antenor, wbs of tbe very next rnnk to Priam ninl Iiim 
hoiiee< I'hc goddeea is AdtlrcAsed, od the octomoti of 
till? proccmirtn of tbc Hixlh Boole, in a i^tnitn wliicTi 
»ecin» tfi flckiiowlvtigu Iiht po^iwiiiMi of Mijirome 
power': the dufeiidcr of cltio*, excellent among god- 
doSEtce, &hG is onlroatc-d to have [)ity on Troy, to break 
thfi lance of Uiomed, and to grant that be bim»(?lf may 

5. Apollo wouM ajipe>ar to be the favourllo among 
the great df^ticH of tbc country. He, like Minerva, 
has It temple in the cilndi.-!*, Cliryst-j* ix \\\% prii^^L iit 
Cliryiip, mid there too ho )ma a ti'm[>lK He in the 
siiccial protector of Cilln and of Tcnedos^. With Mi- 
nerva, he if* indicated as the recipient of eupreme 
honour'. Tlie Lyctan iiinne, no ju'evalent in Troas, 
e^tablii^hce s v^iocta! cf^nnecrtion \ihh him. Tn tho 
Iliad, ho «cctn* to be tho onlinary onJ innncdinte Pi^^- 
vldenoe to the Trojnu chJefi^ m Minerva !• to ttie 
Greek ones. At llu* f^anie time, he rurricM rui nlga of 
exciuHive nalionalism ■ he Iiears no hatred to the 
tJrccks; but, after the restitution and propitiation, he 
at once accepts llic prayer, and stays the pestiletioeK 

6. Lutunit mtittL h»vu bemi known among the Tro- 
jans ; because Ilomor \\i\^ represented her as contending 
on llie Trojan side in the war <»f the god^ mn<i a» Qi^' 
pip!^\ Jr lending the wounded .4^ieuid within the temple 
ef Apollo on Perg&mnft. 

7. The aame reasons npply ^\^ to Oiana: and we 
inoreovei find, that she instructed the Trojan Scaman- 
dritif in the hniitimtnn')< artV 

' n, VL 198-300 305-10^ 
w XL\. 44^- >• IL L 37-9- 

> W. vU £40- tii^ ft'7- 

k u. 1. 4$;. ) a V. 4^ 

8- V«>nuA b i.-miti«>nrly Trojan. Her rclntlon ti> this 
people K nmrked by )ior favour tonarda Paris: ber 
l«5sion For Auchb'i-s: her sending a pcrsoDal omamoDt 
as ft itimrrifif^e gift to Andromache ; Uor minUtcri&l 
diarge cv4n* the boit^ of Hector (fl xxiii. 184-;}; lior 
being choeon fi« the modvl to mIiic'Ii Trajan licautic^ 
are cou)parc<l, wbile Uiaim is tlic favourite fttundord for 
th« Urock w'onmti. It i« iiba> nutrkvil hj tier xtfaloua, 
tbougli fm'l>]t% iKirli/aiii^liif^ in favour of Tro)* among 
tbe Iinniortali ; am] hy tlic kiting taunts of I*allaa, of 
Helen, aiut of DIoiued'". 

9- Vulcao u not only knowu, but lias a af!t in Troy : 
for DsurcH is bis pvtQ^t, and \a a person *>f great wcolth 
and con«idcration ; one of ultoi^c 0on« be delivent from 
<Iv!at1] in battkv to t-onifort x\\v old nmn in ]m (Urline^ 

10. Mar». Of tlil» deity it vrontd «ecm, tbat be )ia« 
been givcti by Homer to tliu Pelasgiaiis, mainly b(^- 
cauu^ of bi» mo strongly marked Thraeian cburucter, 
and bis waiil of recognition anjun^ tlu? Ifellenr-M, ^'Iko 
bad a higher deity of nar in Mint^rra. I liavo touebod 
dftcwiiore u|)on hi» equtrocfil po^^illor] as bctucen the 
iPTo imrtics to the v&r< It rorrt^pond^ witb that of 
titc TlimcivnH. «bo appear to fomi u point of Int4?t»ee- 
tion, to to speak, for the Ilellic and Felat^giaQ raeei. 
TliQSe of ihe pl^in of Adrumople are, like tlio FelaAgi. 
borrnvbreedeTH, dHelliiig in & fertHo country : the nider 
portion are among tbe mountsins to the north tukd 

1 1, Mercury. One wgn only of llio ordinary agency 
of thin dt;aty In Tro»« i« exiiibked ; he g'wea abundant 

^^ inoTtvuo to the f!ock> of Phorbas". 

^H [2. l£artb {Vnia] vould np|K-ar to have been rcec^- 

^^ nited as an ubject of diAtinct worslnp in Troas: for 

160 II. Hit}*: Trryitnji itnti (rr^irJU f^mifiOTtlL 

wlit^n Monclan« pro|Hi>cfi llii- Pact, lip invittTs tW Tro- 
JariH to itAcriflcv a btuvk Iniiib to tjor ^tni) » white onu 
tt> the Sun ; while iho Greeks vrill on tlic-tr part olVer 
up iL Intub to Jupiter. Thv prnpo^oil i« nt oiice ac:coptc(l ^ 
ftiul llie li&mKls are sent li\' llt-rtor tft ilu> city fiir the 
lamhi^^', vihicli seems to be conclusive as lo the acknovr* 
lecfgment of thcao two deities in Troy, 

13, The Sun. Besides that the pa««i^ last quoted 
for Earth i* ivIho e<>nWu*ivt' fiir the Sun, w© have unuther 
token ef his i\*htimi i<j Tn^, in the unwilliognc^ with 
which he closer th« duy, ^heii with l\» setting l« to end 
the ^lory of Ileetor and nflMx nvniilryl. 

We tiavQ thus ^oiie through the litit of tlie greater 
Greek deiUos. ftiid have found them alt nckuowlcifged 
iu TroftN with the foltowitig exceptions; !• of Ceres, 
whom we mav howL-v^r siispt'cU from Iwr Pela^gian rha- 
meter, to have Iwcii wowhipped ihi.To \iiider honio nnnio 
or form; z< of Aidoiieu^; uud 3. of Pc^r^phone. Tlicaie 
exccptfons ^^i\\ hr fnrdinr nolieud. 

Aguir, amonjii the thirteen who hftTo Leen idenlitled 
UB ohjects of Trtjaii wopHhip, wo fiud one. Tiamck. Vaia, 
of whom wc can hardly say that she was worshipped in 
Greece; tlioiigh she whs invoked. a5l>y A^menmrtn in 
cho Ninoteeiith Book, and l>y Altliea in tlie Niiitli, to 
add n more Solemn sut^etion to ontb», 

14. Together with lii-r, Me itiny titke notici? of a four* 
teenth deity, apparently wfifrvat eon Hii deration 111 Trey, 
n&moly, the Kiver Seamander He boar^ a nrarked 
wgn of ancieut wordiip, in having a divine appeltaticu. 
XanthiiK, n» wdl as his terrestrial one, Scariisiider. lie 
bad an ap^^p, l>y name DnIopioiK To him, aecordiug 
to the Kpeceh of Achilles, the Trejnns sncrificett IWe 
borMS, He enters into the division of parties amonf^ 

n R iiL 10,3- 116. >i II, xriii, s^^ 

Wor^ip of Vxdc^y in Triht* 


tbe god% about the war, and (ighu vigorously s^liivt 
AobillcK until ho U at len^tb put down by Ileplia:»tU8, 
or Vuleaii, As a purely [oral dcitr, liowcTcr. he liaa 
ofcout^ no place in tbe Grwk mytlioloj^v 

15, Tbou^h viQ liavo no diruct nioiillon of tlo traDS* 
lation of Titbonufl by'H«w. or Aurora, yet, na llomor 
givr^ Tilborinii n pliint IhiiIi hi the genealogy ivT lliv 
Oardttiddjr, and likewise by the side of Aurora, xvo may 
conf^idcr tWt, by tbus roco^niaing the tranehtior, he 
alno |K}ints out Aurora aa an acknowledged membtfi' of 
tbe supernatural order in Ttmub, 

Several amonp tiiese names call for more |«irti€nlar 
notice : etpocially tho^c of Vulcan. Eortb, nnd 8ca- 

Tie CAHQ of Vulciiii, ani) bin place bi Troy, may 
X' to remind iis of t\ |>roiio-*iti<»n iimiu what general 

iu apjilicnticn; tbia iinmcly. tliAi, id dasHfying tim 
Trojan divinities. Homer need not liave intended to 
imply that tJie ?nmo name must in all casue carry ex- 
actly tbe same nttributL^s- We muet licrc bear in mind, 
tbat probably all, certainly almost all, of the properly 
Olympian godis, WIT*? Greek eopicH rnmUfied from OH - 
entid or from tmditivo onginaU. Hut m tbe^e coacop* 
tioiis w«m propagated in diflereiit quarters, cacb unuiitry 
would pndnably add or take awav. or ol.berwiM- allrr, 
in conformity witli its own ruling tendencies. llenc!u 
wben wo lind a Vulcan in Greece, and a Vulcon in 
Troaa, it by no means foUovia, tbat cneb of ttiem pre- 
«*nted tbe «nno fejiture'S and atiribiitei!!. If IToiner 
txlivA'ed tbeui to be derived from a comuiou unj;tnal 
in Hgypt or elwwlicre, tbat would bo a good and valid 
n^iM}u for bis deMi-riiiiiig tbem by Lbu 9^me rwinifr 
Uiough tlio Trojnu Vulcan migbt not present all tbo 
Hellenic traits, nor vi<x zcr^a. In aomc caM^s, fiucii aa 

I.'JB IL/Tjm: TrfiJGnt and Gro^ki c<mpwr«<i^ 

those of Jupttor, Apollo, Miiiena, Diana, and Vonns, 
there is such a coircflponctence of ottributcs cntcrkig 
inlu llio porlniitafu <if llio ivmpwtiviT (Vttu's in llm two 
coiuilriv*. that tlwir SfVntlty, vx Icart so far a* the cvU^ 
dciicc gocN socni» quite uiiirn|»iLiK'<l and urei)aivocal. 
Ditt vrv Imvc nr» inrimK of sliowin^ fiom the poenru^ 
tliai the Trnjaii III pbfi'titu^ rorrosponded with the Greek 
one. Iiidood when v>ce litid no meiitioii of liis beJn^ 
artuailT ivnnihippcd in Greece, nnd at the same time 
lejini i\\irit lie IiikI a prit^M in Trna?;. the prouniptifvii 
arie<?6, that dilferent concoplimi^ of hhn prevailed in 
the two cf>iintnt*s, A^aln. thorc is nowhere atsigni^d 
((I him n* a Gix'ek dHlv aiiir wurli rxerri'«i.' of powirr, }m 
r.lmt hv H'lildk he Maves Idn^uw, k st\\\ of liix priest Dftretti 
from imminent denili on the field of battli*. 

Thi^e general considerations, which tend to show that 
ihc identity of name in a Trnjan and a (ireek di-ity 
ni.i)' \iv ronipiilihttf with much of dii^vintihmty in tho 
popular developmL'nt of the functious ^iH relieve ut 
from ilifliciilties, %^'tuch \te should other^t-i^ have liiid 
to iiiiHd, in »r(T/niiitjiiy fuv iW". plnct» of same of the 
Oh-nipiaik divinUies iw Trojan worslnp, We have 
found reason to suppose, that Vnlcau may have come 
into Oteece through Phecniem. Bui the Ti«jatia ap- 
pear to have hud very little eonnecfioii with l*h<^nim. 
Tho precious xeiiA^Xtov of Priam, the <*up that ho car- 
ried to Aebille^t wa^ not Phoenician hnt Th^lciftn^ 
Till- niily lokf^n of intercoiin^c inenllrmec) iH, Oint Pans 
bronght textile falirirti fmrn fr^don". A^Iii- Vulean 
wa4 efipeaally worthijipcd in L^'miio^ ami had hin ter- 
reAlrlal alvode there. Bnt thin goes mf>re natumlty to 
aeeourt fop the woi-k^ of metal in Thrace, than for the 
poeiticm nf Vulcan in Trofts; bijfher as it was, an^r- 
' II JlXiv. 331,5, * II- vi, 389-93^ 

(Torvfti)! <^Jtmo ami Gaia ta Troas 



eiitly, lliiii in Greece- A;^fi), it U worth notice, tlint 
tli^ ViiWii nf till.* nontftitn Mn^ like tlieir MnrH, otte of 
the oM godt of Kcrurln, a rountry st&m|>ed U'itb many 
Petafi£:lan charoctenatica. It may h^, thftt wo ought to 
look back to Kgyjit for tlie origin of all these Vulcans, 
In the tim^ of IIen>d»tiif<\ the EgrpllBn |iriestH claitned 
liiiti tku their own: and Pbtah, the prineiywl deity of 
7^Icni|ilii.s ^"fls held by the later Grceka to ccrrcspand 
^illi HiViWlhjiMitTTftv, Kv(.»ii the two ii;iiiie:*rJirrj' tokens 
of rvlatUinHliip. Frunr fhut f(iiiiitiLin-hi.*ad might he 
|>rofCi;atod divergitig c»i>ios of the tleily : and, as fur as 
we can )Mtige^ llie Vuloin T»'orship|)ed in Troy was 
inucb inrin? like (he eonimoii nnee^tor, th:iM thc^ highlv 
tdealized artificer of Olymputn upon whom the Poet 
has burked out nil lii» i^ill". 

There is another of it« [lointa of contact w!th thi? 
OlyntpUn »}iitetn, in uldcli thi« \ht of Trfijnn didlius h 
temarkable. While Iiivt.<»tij^ating the Greek mytho- 
logy, ve have found rea^m to 6up[)0fle thnt Juno, 
Cereo, anil Gn'm atv bnt three differeut forms of the 
nine orij^inal tradition of a iWiae /emim'ne : of whom 
Ccrca b tlic Pclafgian copy, Juno the \ivid and p<iwer- 
ful JIvllenic derelopmont, and Gaia the original skele- 
ton* n-tahiing nrithin^ uf (1h? old ehnnietrr, but hnvnig 
ap(|ulrcil the fiinctfoii uf g:uol-kecpcr for perjurors 
when sicnt lo the ether worhlv In the rctcnlion how- 
ever rtf nit thri'i' withhi the dnOe of ivli^iirn, we to-e 
both the receptivene^ and the untTorRalijEm of the 
Greek mjthology. Now, in Troj, where there was Jess 
of imaginative power, ihc ca«r stands very cUHen--ntly. 
Of Ceres, who rtrpresunU the Pelagian iinprvwion of 

> Herod U. $0. * K^«l (fju) diowi no iho 

« t)«ltir^rT n<<id n, JoilYI- fmirth nud ixMnui^nck- mlct cf 

154 II. itiot: Tf^/Jttn* and GrftJiJ/ cfunfMrttt . 

the cM carth-v-oivliipping traditioD, we lie&r notbiug in 
Troas, Probably she was not there, becaoBC Gala, lier 
origiijQi. wtis still n real divinity for the Trojans. But 
li<m' ttriT wi^ to rx]ilHitJ IIh? fnvl lliiit OilIh iikI Jimo jire 
botti thc*re? I vcnturo to «ugj;o«t, tlial it lb because 
iUosQ are dilFurent 1mTtl<^«, tlio foreign ami the domeetie 
one, for the sanii* tiling. Wben Ile^lor Bwears to 
Uotou, it is by JupiTer, * the loud-thunJcrin^ husband 
of Here:' whieh almost appears ae if Juno bel'l, tn tlio 
Trojan oatb, a place nioro or less rcBcmblin* the place 
oret]])ti*LT HI Llm Grtvk vnihn (wlutro Jiino *Imw nut 
appear at alt) by Giiia. 

Again* it in obviuus that. iF tliie n^latiou exists be- 
tween (laia and Jaiio, it i*xpbiiiK*< the fact tlint we do 
imt find both, so to speak, tljiiving together. lu Troas 
Oala is ivorehipped. but Juno scarculy nppears. In 
Greece Juno is liighly exalud* but (-aia bna lost ail 
Irody, atid li;is cinindleil lo a H]H'rtiBl pliautafim. It ii§ 
tlie wuit of imagination iu the Trojan mytlK»loj^, nbich 
iitak<f« i: u more btthful keeper of traditions, «tereo- 
lypcil in the fonin in which they were had From their 

y&xU as to Mercury. I have already ad^ierloil to 
tlic fact that Priam', notwithstanding Iiis ohbi^ationfi 
to Mercury in thtr Twcuty-foiirtb Ihad, takes no notice 
of hU divinity. I thitik that a close examination of the 
uarmtivo toudj» to »how» that the Greek Mercury wne 
not \ror»htppe<l in Troy; and leavee u» to conclude 
tli»t Horiit-r os*^ a niertrly ]>oeticul mode of Mpi^i*cb in 
«aying that this god gave increase to the t1ock« of 
Pborboa'^: even as «hon he make» Priam call Iris an 
Otifmpian messenger'. 

He appears before PriaTti and his conipitnion Idniis, 

» Oljmpus, t^cL iiL p. =34- 1 II- xjr. 4^0. ' II- xxW 194- 

War^iji fjf'J/ercury iit Trvas. 


wtieii tliev are on their way to ttie fircek camp, in Uio 
ft'tublance of a ^oimg ami luible Mynni^Ion. There 
wtfre^ we kDow^ certain virfble signe, by \pbicb cteiti^cj 
could in irciH>ni) be rccogDiscil or, at k-oet, jessed m 
Hich. BiKIi Idarii?, Iiowcrrr, and Printn liiiitfidf, jtaw 
untiling' oT tUiH ctiamctri' iii Mercery, and »ffii|>ly Inok 
him for n Greek <-ncmy^ Mercury, after some genial 
coDYi^-r^ntioTi. conducts hi» chariot Co the qimrient of 
Achilleii, nnd then, before quitting him. ainioniices 
himself. Xot, hoM'evt^r, hko Apollo to Hector (II, xv, 
156), mwl Minerva to Ulywt^s (Od. xiii- ^99), simjily by 
giving biA name : but he al»(> declare!! inmrteir to be an 
Immoftatr d«o< S^t^poroi (460^), This unusual eiroum" 
fitancv rtuMA a pmeumptioii, that bi' w&n not alrc-ady 
knowu na a divinity to IViam ; and the presumption 
Mwnut in l>erfMTM^ irn^fm^idili!, m\wu we find that 
Priam, though given to the observances of religion, 
0968 no act or expreteinn of roverenct- or cvon recoj^- 
nitioD to his benefactor, either on bij* firat dcclnrutioii 
and d(?parture (4^0, 7). or upnn bis ^.-nxnu) nortnrottl 
appsarance (6821, followod by a «ceond and final flight 
to Olympus (694)* 

The case of ScamaiKJer will requin^ t^jii'ticiilAr notice : 
because it h immediately counecte<I with the <|ueHtioin, 
whether the TroJuQB partook of that tctndency to n 
large imaginiitivc development of religion, which so 
emiiKMitly di«tingni»be^ tho Grecian ^upeniAlnraliHrn. 

Wo will therefore conaider carefully the facts re- 
lating to this deity, and such other kindred facts as 
Homer fiuggeatft. 

lie tt|>eakM uf nolopion as follnws' ; 

^ftft^ irirvuro, Gtot b* Sts rim fir;^. 

150 U. /iii}M : 'trttJaM ttitd Orrfl'ir roiPfHirt^. 

Tlim 1^ entirely fti kcMTpirrg, ns lo prUcalarv, uitli 
Xhii P(.'hw^mii tttitl Triyan iiiKlitiitioiiH. Tbo o^ijrip of 
Hi>mc'r tM nj>[inrctitly iilwaytn tlio ]m<:^t. Dotopioti wjis a 
man in very liigli ntatioii mid honour, liki; the i»n<.>fft« of 
RuTiH% ainil of <'arlj ,'F.ialin'^ ; lint rtot like ihusi* i)f later 
Gr<H*ee. And he had l>ecu ' made* or ' apf ointod' priest ; 
d!) Thoano was cho«cii to bo |mcst€«8 by tbe pcoplo. 
TIio prieftttioml of the Iloineric ngc uerer appeam as a 
ca^t<3 in tlii?Ki latitudes, Th(' only npproxinmticm to 
casto is in tliu gift of iht' ^a/rif, wbitli, ek wc fin<l frcim 
thcOdyssL-y, was hcrcditury in tbc family of Mclam[>u5'. 
Tlitt4 fur, thru, th»t «^viilenci? re«|H.-ctiii^ ^jmiH<ti]dt*r oer- 
taiikly wtnild AppL^artobGlongtothocaK^gcry of Homer's 
fii»toriea[ Matenicnte. 

neynnd this, evi-r/lhing areiimes a figurafivf ftUmp. 
Seamnnder fights us a deity witb Acliilles,andhis iraters 
are en powcrhd that they ciin only be eubdncd by tbo 
itDinecIiLttc action of llic god of tiif- The bera tocK is 
iiided hy {\w povv^rrful bbuLln nf Znjdiyr thii) of Nntu", 
uboin .Funo roii«<'« tip (o seopcli the Trojans'. A« we can 
bnrdly di>ubt, tbat Che jilagne m tbc First Book ropro- 
&enta some form of ni;ir>*li-fever, so here it aj>peani likr^ly 
tbitt the Poot tfikefi very skilful advaiirage of a JUu»d, 
cauA'd by summf^r njine, which had annoyed the 
Greeks, and which had been followed by tbeeubsidenco 
of tile waters upon ttiu rrt»irn of hot WL^itbor 

Scanmndvr tk very grtfal in the llhid, but with & 
purely loenl grenlneee. Ab a person^ bo speaks both to 
nnen and to god&. Me a4ldre*ie& Simoin tt» bis beloved 
brother; but It is entirely on tbe fttfair of tlie deluge 
and the beat. Though bo takes part in tbe war^ tbo 
djstitiction is not awarded to bim of being a member of 

'in 1^^575 

> U. xxu jji fuid ftoqi 

e Od. IV, 3 73 '^^ ^*i- 

For«^> ^^ Scf»mnd0r, 


Uio siDt!ler luid select Olympian commuiutj : be merely 
atiuids incluUed bj prc^uiaption in tbo gfcucml catc^ry 
of Ru^rep. 

We Iiavc a ilvscTijitHni frrmi th*? ntoiitli orAclnlleH 
of cerUia gacrifioo4;, n# belonging to tbe worthip of 
Scauiimdcr^ ; 

iLpitltni. f Si| fititV^ Tr(f\^u<( (4pcv*T« rai/^vt, 

Tbii ofTt^riiig uf live borscs la ]ieculiar, iiud unlike 
uiytbing el^ r^^^n^scntvd to U£ in the Homeric pooin9. 
Not only tlii^ joutUs. but even tlic clo^, >vhum AchillcB 
often to tlie ShuA^ of PninM?lii*, hw slain boforo they 
&re ciut into tbc fiix'. TIio same thin^ l« not tnonttoncrd 
Willi rospect to tbe foor horses, who are aho among^ 
the vicLiniB: but it is probabl/t even from the physical 
ii«coniicie4i of tbu v&»e, to bo presumed. 

It EQAji perhapi^ bo arf^uoci, tliat thia speech of Achil- 
tMparttkc4oftbo natureof a e&rcasm. The fiucTix^an 
honu-A were reai\<4l ami pHHtiiri^t] on the river banks; 
t&aots often pass between the wnrriors of the two 
eidea: tbe H iit9i may have lin<I the force of/orsootA- 
Some doubt may attach to the evidence, which the 
[HUKugo givt«r uu i\m gromid ; and also from the sin- 
gularity of the pructl(?i.t tliat i« ipipuled. It h, on the 
wfaolOf however, safest to AB^umc that it is tmatwortiiy. 

The cnae will then Aland thuit ; that we have ap- 
parently one single ease i« Troy of a pare local impei^ 
•oiiation of a power btilonjrjnj* to externa! nature. 
Now this might happen under jtcculiur circuniHtanccN 
and yet a very bi-oad diHtinction might tubfti^t Ijctwcen 
the religion of the two nations as to iniaginalive do- 

I II ar r. 

^ II- JDCL 1 J0-«2. 

158 II. Iiio8.' Trojans and Qreekjf compared. 

Scamaader was indeed a great power for tho Trojans ; 
it was the great river of tbe country, the fUy<t^ -rorafAo^ 
^OvSiygv, The child of tbe great Hector was named 
by )itin Scamandrius, while Simoeisius' was the son of a 
very insignificant person. Another Scamandrius was a 
distinguished huntsman, taught by Diana, in a conntry 
where the accomplishment was ^are^ His floods, how- 
ever useftd in time of war, wonid In time of peace do 
foarfnJ damage. It is possibly the true explanation of 
the last among the lines quoted from the S(>eech of 
Achilles, that he carried away, in sudden spates^ many 
of tlio horses that were pastured on his hanks. The 
Trojans, then, may hare had strong motives for deify- 
ing Scamander, and |karticularly for providing him with 
a priest, who might beseech him to keep down bis 
waters. And it will be remembered, from the case of 
Gaia, that tbe Trojan n^ligion was, without doubts 
favourable to the idea of purely elemental deities : 
what luckeil was the vi\-id force of fancy, that revelled 
in profuse multiplication, 

Fikr we cannot fail to i^ereeive, that the idea of a 
river-god did not enter into the Trojan as it did into 
the Greek life. Ulysses, when in difficulty, at once in- 
vokes the aid of the Scberian river^ at whose mouth 
he lands. Nom' the Trojans are driven in mafsses into 
the Scamander by the terrible pursuit of Achilles, and 
ihey hide and sculk. or come fnrth and figbt, about its 
banks and waters. Yet no one of them invokes tbe 
River, although that River was a deity contending ou 
their side. So entirely was be without place in tbeir 
consciousness as a power ublc to help* ev^n though ho 
may have l>oen publicly wur^hipjied in deprecation of a 
calamitv. which lie >taiij knowu to be aMc to inllict. 

» n. ir, 47i. 4fip ^ II. ^ 49. IM V. 44.V 

ri*K> <>f tti\^$'» in Ti^c^Ji, 


Willi th» n>niarka!)1(» iiilen<;e we niny compAre. b<v 
aides flic pmycr aiid ibanks^ivin^ of Ulpscp, tlic invo- 
cation ofAchillea to S]>erchciiis '", On li» IcavlDg Iiouk*. 
hw futhtsr Pplriis liad docliratvd \m lisiir m ati ufR'riuj^ 
to bo rondo to the Rivor on \i\* tvHitu, and to be aocom- 
l>nmcd hy n licca1onit>. This wonld Imvc hvcu a thdnlc- 
iifTtTlii^; anil jch micOi, in A^'coniarKv with llii^ |imj'>^r of 
UlyssM, il jniplioft tljc power of tW Riv^r deity to 
conftjr benefits. Nor is lliat power rendered doubtfii) 
br the feci, lliat in tlie imrtJi^ulnr cum*. Ihi* prayer is iiot 
fnlfilled. and that the hair i^ therefore devoti^d to the re- 
tnaiDftof Patroclns. We mny remark, ngaiit, the t^ciifico 
oSi*rcd, apparcntty almost bx matter of course, by the 
Pylian army to Alp!lt^nIS on tbrir mertly n.'achin^ Inn 
banks'^. And, br a wbole, itie nmUltiidinout^ impemo- 
uMlons of natural objects in the Greek mnhology arc, 
both with Homer and in the later writers, of a bciiipn 
ami genial charartor Tint* hnght hiuI sunny (wtpect !» 
la concrrtfC triib ibo formidable cbaractt^'r of SeamcLiider, 
and of ihc wot>*li!p ottered to him. 

Tliero i*, )Mrdm{w, enongb of rewmblance l*etweeii 
the ftcaiiiniidt^ of the 'rrojnii mytholn^y, nnd tlie Sja^r- 
ebenft or Alpl*euftof theOreek,to euggeet the<|ueetloT], 
whether Ihe dclHcalion of lliia river may posably lavo 
heeii doe to the Hellte infliiencem which re^Minl in ibc 
royal bonfK?4 of the eonntrr. Thentart^not wuiiiirg«igiift, 
l!mt the family of Priam wa* eloscly ronnceted wiih 
the ri«-er nnd its bankfi. The name given to Hectors 
child ix Piiv i<Qeh Inken; and we km»w that the iitarvft 
i^ff Ericbchonlim worv fofi u[>on ibo tnarshes near Sea- 
'tn&nder'. It i* also worth oheerTation that the Prii^l of 
Rcamaiider va*. Ci^lled Dolopion, while I>oIo[« was tbc 
name of a ftoii of l^mputH a Trojan of th*^ hif^lu-KL 
V II nail. 144. n H. n. -jA * U ix. kti. 

160 II. iltM: jfV^A^ aikJ tfrvntK r-OM/KirM/. 

nakt brother to Priam, anO one of tlic itffitoytpKrrrr^ ol 

Hut ihoiigh thero m:iy be a fl|>ecinl rtJiitloii beluccii 
tli:^ ^'or«htf> of Sc&m&ndor, aiid [Ilq inilticncc of tlio 
royal family, I think the explanation is Miicflr t» he 
sought in the ^peciflt^ ilifTereiici's which »e|)!ir&t«^ it from 
Biver-woraliip, z& genemUy conceived in itie Olytnpmn 

Thf'TP is another aspect of RiTcr-wronihip in Greece, 
with whiHi it ^oema to bAvu umre nflifiUy. Tliem is 
tho terrible odjuratinn of Styx, which implies it< 
yinfiicttve agency*'. This river i* ri'prt^t-nteti on earili 
by a branHi firim itself. i?;ille<l Titru'esius, near the Per- 
rha?b:ai Dodona', Tlie Kivers are expressly invoked, 
in this character, by Aganieranon in the a<ljiimtion of 
the Tact: and ore BMoct&ted vrlth the deities that 
piiiil!>:b perjury after death. Moreover, it is ciirions 
that, whiT A^uiemnon make^ nn aHJiirfltion bofore 
(Irc<?lt& nli?ni\ hu omit^ ti>c ap|ical to thu^Uiver^ whom 
he had Itemed wlnii htt was* nrling for the tvo pcHijde^ 
^fuiiitlj'. This seoDiH to show that the iiivoeatton ot 
Bivem, or of some class of Kircn^ in a retributive rapa- 
city, waa tamiliar. and may have been peculiar, to the 

In efllK'U then, the grand distinction «cen]# to he ihiv. 
Ilie wt>r«hip of ScunianiUr in Tnift-S U'longcd to the 
clrnit*nt»] AyHta^m tind rtirth-woritlnp, uhirli tlt<*<*i'erk«, 
for the purpo«eit of their Olyn^pn^ iiad refined tiwuy 
into a poetical vivifying Power, replete with more ^>)and 
inRnencea : retaining it» more or left*, for tlie pur])o*e of 
ai^nration, in the darker and t^tenier ^^iise. Aeconl- 
inrly, while Scflmander, M-ho it; also called XanthuK has. 

* IL KLuT-!). jrv.5J5-7, 

1 IL iriT, 171. w. 37, 

' n J. 75"-S 

• Compare II in. »^6. xii. ^sB- 

Tnm iUpect ^/ Tr^n Huwtt^r^iip. 


ij^ a gori, a mtrk of sntiquit^ in the double nAiiM^', Lc 
ibovrs fwnc of the firwk nntlimpn|)humtic iTi^r**<1ii'nlii. 
Kven for spotjdi jdk! notion, lie <lov»: not tnlcQ lUo liimmn 
form ; but be ifi, r^iniplv »ri<] Mtrktf), tlio ok-iiiont alivu. 
'Jlie 5pec9e<i L>r cieifiraEioii, iTtipliriJ >ii osirlli-aonhli]|i, 
frarvdy liftpcl the ohJcioiH of il in uikv ilegree out of the 
tplioro of purely material coiiecpti'xip, TbuR, while 
S<'anmn<W, from hiw wu]>crior powir, ih no more ihriu 
Nature |iitt in artioiit vA\ i\\^ other Itivenf t^fTroas i^.v- 
hihit to LIS Nittun? purely juii^ive, a blirut iiistniment 
in ttie hAtid of deity. The total «lenco and inaelion 
ijf i^inioifl", ftflcr the appeul of Scamandcr. makes liin 
tiirjteryofiAlily rnure consjiieiioiiH, than if he Itjo) ntit Iweii 
addri'^M-d. Agtiin, wheu tie Greeks have <jnitted tlie 
eoutitrjr. Apollo take« tip the streaiiiH of the ci^ht rivers 
that flew'erid from li% including ^rx*nt iScanminkT, like 
IH> many firemvn% hunt*, und tnniti them upon the ram- 
part to deMroy it. We have no example in lluiner of 
this mecbimtcal mode ofbandlin;; Greek rivL-rs. 

Tbo distiDciion of treatment Bcem?! to be due to a 
dlfferenee in die mytbolo^ry nf the two rounrr!ef( an il>t 
.^robAble ^uree. And I find an iLi>ah)goU}< method of 
procec<ling with reference to the WiiuK In Che Miad 
ther an- deilie«, ai1dreM»ed in pmyer, and ejtj>iil>le of 
'iving ofTeringfi. In the Odyssey tliey are mere 
vnseleEB inetruments of ualure, un<ior the eontrol of 
S^Aw. ButtLen in the Iliad Homer dva1i< with tl]i?m for 
Or^i'k purjiriw.* (for I do not KxeejiL the iii]]H*rT4(;na* 
len of BormSt II. xx. xoy where the Dftrdaiiid family 
JH concerned): it i« Achtlfeft who prays to them: it is 
Uie Oreek war-horse that they beget. In the Odyswy 
lie IntrfMlaeeB them amidst a 8i-8t<*m of foreign, tlmt ix 
^lo say. of PlKEUtcian traditions. 


16t Ihlliva: Trt^ifs anti Ortr.k* co«tp^xrf^i. 

Turning now to otliet olyccts. let us next see whetlier 
furtlier inqutry will confirni tlie sitg^stioiifs, which I 
havu fouuded on the cxiees of G&ift nntJ of Scnmiiiidcr 

At the head of Scamandcr arc two foutiUinss ami 
hard by Uivm are tUa c\»Xi.-tuV', vrhich the womtii of the 
city ft'E?qucnt for wuxhiiig clothtiv. Thu& tUa sjiot is one 
of grvnt notoriety ; yet thero is not a word of aoy 
deity oODiiected with those fountatna. This la in rcmark- 
at>h* I'ontrnftt wilh what we n^eet in llniiiL^rs CirtHrk to|jo<' 
graphy, UlysseB"^. ininiediati.'ly mx beiti^ awaro that ho 
has boon dUcmharkcd in Itlmeix, pmya U> Ihc Nyiii|)]i» of 
the grotto> which was <ledicate<I to thcni. I'bcrc they 
had their bowls and vaHtw, and their diAtiaiTat i>f ^toiLC, 
with which they spun yarn of s(?a-purple-\ And the 
harbour, ia which ho vr&s laiidud, was the harbour of 
Phorcy^ the old aian of the uca'. So again at the 
rountaiti, whure ihe |ieojili? uf thu tawii drt*w water, 
llicru was an altar of tlie Nynipls that presided over it, 
upon which all tho jjoescrs-by habitmilly made oflbr- 
{ogs^- Nor i-ouM thib be wanderful, ti% iJI grori^H, all 
fountains, all meadows, and probably all mountains, had 
their proj^r indwelling Kympha according to the 
Grock myUiology ; wbilo tho Rivers were ioipersnn&ted 
119 deUii-H, and th« Mfu loo leuniird at L^vury point with 
pretomatural life. 

Homer bos DFitne<l many, besides f^anmndcr, of the 
rlTere of Mount Ida; but to none, itot en<n to Simois^ 
nor again to Jdji 4ir f largiirutt themselves, doefi he amigii 
any of these toeal inhabiinnu. 

Tlicro arc, however, three curious case* of Nymphs 
assigned by him to Troas. Tlie fvfi*j^n iftjU, called Abar- 
baree, Ih-hta two Kons to Bucolron^, a Hpurioua chikl of 

Od- liH. z&f^ 

f Od, 

* Od. xrii fo9-i[. 

uit 103, 


Ibid 96, 

•n. 31 

T^-ttjan iit^pfr4Miati9a9fiem jVo/«r* mr*- lOS 




oti ; ard aiiotWr nvmph of tli« Kfinic clfuw Leant 
SatnioA to Eiio;ipi*. A tliirit gifuilur oo«o i« n-conlcd in 
Uie TwCTitieth Book''. Ttieae would up[>cBr to li« 
ntapti* c-AMifl of apuriouA birtlu, Kml to liave iiu pnk}i«T 
fonnection with mytholojiy. For the motber of Sat- 
niuB ig callciJ a^i>^<ui'; a name uever apjflied by Homer 
to the linmortitia- If, however, the Nymphs be cicitice, 
ihf^y mark lutotlicr iliffertmre between Gn/iH*'? mu\ Tnjy ; 
for Iloiiiirr never attributes )u«t« to tho Nyniiibs of tho 
Greek Oiympus* 

AmirlHt the whole Uetall of the liiad, in one iii^taiuTe 
only laiTe we Trojan KTni]ihs conceived after the Greek 
feBhioii: it 13 vrbcn iho&e of tlie mountains, according 
to tlio 5|)eech of Andromache. plante<l c*luia round about 
iho frevli-iniuli^ tomb of hr.-r fnUitT Eflimi. 

As ft ^k^ml rale, no Trojan reform U\ «pcecb either 
to any legend, or to any intcnncdiate order, of su]>eiv 
natural ixnng^. ]V«tiny, niuiei) by Hecuba, i»« aft wo 
have M«n, a motaphj'^ioil idea, rather tlmn a perenn*, 

"Hie v^ry name of Olympus itself is a eynibol of na- 
lionality: and around it arc grouped the fortn^ which 
either th^- [if>pu1ar bpli<?f, or tho imH^iiintiou of thu 
Foot, incnrpo rated into tlio comimny of objocth f^Jir 
worship. They form a body wonderrully brilliant oiid 
flirer^ified. They pi-rvade the (^reck mind in >^uc1i a 
WAV, fta to ajifi&ar alike in its didiictio, atid ilH lunst 
deeply patbelic moods. The speech of Phirnix ^ives ua 
tbo Parable of 'Atjj and the Aitoi'; then the cpiaode 
of MelcftgWt wkieb is founded on the wrntli of Dinua; 
but into thifl li^jend itself, inaerted into 1 In* «|ieo('h, h 
agiln iutcrpolatod the separate legend of Apollo and 
Aleyoue^ I'he spoech of A^memnon, in tho Nidc- 

' 11 liv. 44^ * IL JUL 384- 


ILii 559- 

xiu, 43S zuv, 209U 

M a 


Il> llioJi : Tr^JtutJt ami Oi'fti^ eottyMnd, 

U^ittli Itook, iifTorils tii another example'. Tlie c^ts i« 
tho same in tlie most patliotic etrains- Acliille*!, in 
the interview with Priam, cxhorla liim la lake ft>o<I by 
the exainpliT nf Xiobc, »n'l n{>|)i.?iirU li#'r tftk-ff: Pwir- 
lcp&. |>m;iiij; to niaim In tlie ^^xir^^nnty of lier j^rlef, 
recites tlie tnio f^t'ttie iluu^btcra ef I'andATotis''. Kvon 
tti&Suitor A nthiouR points liinatlilretw tf>1Ilysf»oa vitli the 
Koml-divine legend of tUeCeniaiininiid Lapith^*. Every- 
where, and from all tho ivcc|itacle9 of tbouglil. mytho- 
logy ovcrtiow*. But in Tmy the case is quite different 
Thenr tht^ human mind nirvor xoetns U^ mmiwl to it. 
Cither for food or In aport. Wc find deiti^^, prioslp. 
prophets <^eremoniaK all nppArontly in abundance: in 
all of tbene. except the first, the Greeks arc much 
pnorfr; but each of thi»rn in and for himsr^Of, in in con- 
tact with an entire voptTiiatural world, the creation rf 
luxuriant and energetic fancy, which ran^fci alike over 
the spheres of seiiw and of iiietuiihysirs- Atidrnniachu, 
virtuuuv and sincere a^t Pene1op4\ hit« nu Mueh ni4.tital 
wealth ; ber tlioii$;ht^ and ttioso of [leeuba find Priam, 
both ordinarily and niao on tho death of Hector, are 
limited to topicfs tho ino^ ohv ions and iinniilive. with 
whicli wc»^iy, howevLT und^'velojied, i^ familiftr. From 
this limitation, and from tho nature of tboec legends 
respecting deilicN of which thf* f^cc^wc i* laid iu Troa*, 
It litems reasoimldt? to believe that the mytboliigicul 
dress Is of purely Hellenic origin. 

The dedication to Jupiter of the lofty and beautiful 
chestnut-tree^ nc^r Tmy. i« in correspondenee with the 
mV of DwloTia, mid indicate)^ ijuite a different train 
of thought (Vom tho«o which eonceivrd the Greek 
Olympus. It is probohly both a fntgment of nattirc- 

' U XIL 90-133. f n. Xxlv. Cot-l'}. ^ O4I. SL 66. 

I Od. xxi 995-304. * U. V. 697, nnd viL 60- 

vonbip in iU Oriental form, and Itkowjstt^ h poitioii of 
tbe P3cteru4i ai)d HtunI iicvel>|iri](.Mit. tii vrMcli tliu 
rcli^oD of TroT was pviileiilijr priiJilh- fumigli. Ami in 
ltiii» ca»e tbo tifffnttiTQ evrdenco of Homer is eBpeclnllr 
fftronj;; bcoAUfto tliu jTr^^t number of tbo particular 
wpoU on th<" plain of Troy, whtth he line had occasion 
tij ciimmi^iriiintlf, o.iti<<('iMi(.r n irnirh iritin? niinuVv topo- 
gtmpLi^ there, thno ho bua j;ivi?n uh cm any other w:(*ne, 
not even escccpting Itbaca: »o that Ik^ coiilil lianlly 
liave avoided showing us, had it l«-en lIk- frtv.t^ rlmt (lir 
fvlt^ioii nf Tmj enteriv! hirgclv iut^j what Mr. Orote 
but so well (^allod ' tliv rclijpouK anil pergonal intcrpreU 
•tinn of nckturc.' 

Next a» I" tlio?K» divltio pcrnon* of tlict second ord<'r, 
who ar« so abaudantlj presented to us by ilomer in 
relations with theCireeks* Irisvisiia the Trojans thrioe. 
Fint, ftlic repnird to thoir As^cmblr in the form of 
Polilc», Secondly, shi* apprars la IlrN-n.n* hrr si»ter- 
iii-Uw [itodico. She <le]iv4.'rs ht<r !iii*>i0£^t(^> to Prinin in 
tlio Twenty-fourth Hook without di«|^ui*to; porhap^ be- 
cauM it vr&s necea^tary' tlat he should have the aTtsiU- 
ance of n <leity ?ieen and Ijenrd. iu onler In i*rnhnlden 
bioi for a ^cniinfrfy desperate enterprise. Mat there is 
nothing in hi» oeeount of tlie interview, which rcijuiree 
uft to i^]|>)H>su that the fK?n<nn Irin vrw^ kiioun tii 
Prinin. Tlit^ exprL}«Mlon he u*n"» in" 

avTot yap Sitavva 0tw taX iaJbpoKOP ^tTftv. 

And a^in» he ealls her an Olympian Jnessenger" from 
Jupiter Another pa»i^^ carriee the argument a point 
furtben bj showing us that the appeftrani^e cif thin 
^HTnifpisnt deity (m« alnrming. doublIe»9 because It was 
Lngo, to him. When she arrives, she addresses hint 

* IL ^ihf. JJO. *• IL »U: 9i2* >94' 

SuMi IS* 

160 IL iUoa: Tr(yai%$ and Grt^l'M €f>mpar^ 

verj softly Ttn^ov tp$ey^^fyii (170): but I10 is seized 
nith dread ; 

211 emotion, whidi I do iiuL reitLeniber to htitv fumitl 
reoorfled on any appnritioii of a dinnity to a Greek 

Thus far tlicn it would appear probable, that in the 
Trojaii mythology the itst of tnajar deitiee wa* inor« 
contracted thati in Greece, and that tfao minor deities 
wer*' almost nnkiiown. Bnt pcrliaps the tn<wt marked 
diflVjvnce betwecTi Ujt- tuu syi«h^r]i« is in Lhir dtfTioua 
dev(?lcpment on the Greek side of tile doctrine of sl 
future state, compared with the Jejune and shadowy 
chamctiT of tbat beUef among the Trojans, 

In ihc iiarnillvtf of tlic sat'k of FlypojiWUij TIiuIk'i*, 
iLtid n^ain in Eier first lament over Hector, Andrornaebo 
does indeed Bpeak of her hnsijnn<U father, and bro- 
tlien, reflpectively. aa having enten:d the dnvellingn of 
Aides"- But these rofureHce^ are sliglit. aod it may 
almost hi; miid perfunctory. Not ai^othcr word i$ mid 
either in the Twouty-^et'Oiid Book, or in iho ^holc of 
itie Twenty-fourth, sihoiit the slinde nf Heelor. 

When Pope closed hit* Iliud nitli thts lina 
And pf'AcotVil slept the mi;;1tty HecUn-'d shAtfe, 
it priiltably did not occur to hinu that ho vraa uot 
merely altering the poetry of Homer, but falsifying 
aleo his pieture of the Trojan reltj*ioQ ; which had 
indeed its fnneml ritc», but 80 described ad to leave us 
no Tnennft of concluding, that th«y w^re in any degree 
directed to proniring the comfort and tronquillUy of 
(he dead. The ftileuw obecrvod about tho spirit of 
Hector i» remarkaiilo from the coutniAt with the: ca«c 

* Iti^H^sj. uiL 481; 

J^m§ doeiriM t^a fWlttrv Stat*. 


of P&trocluft. Both lire ntouni^d for [^afltdnnatelv. by 
i\\om u'lio love them best: but lUc «bn<lo of Patroclus 
JK tlie groAt fi^tro in tlie mourning of Achillea!, wljile 
»r'» existence efler dealli U but once owneJ, faintly 
in tlie abstract Nor^ as we sec from tbeOdysBey, 
this bomage to tlio elirulc of Pfitroclur^ a thing 
occasional or occidental. Wc tlierc nictrt the soula of 
all 1I115 grcnt ilL-[iiirCivI of \\\i* Witr* iti Lb^i unflcr-worlil. 
Hiftt re^oTir opened to Ulyraes, liai] formerly been 
opencci to Hercules. Even the disaolule Suttore can- 
not be dinmissed from life, without our bdiig called tcj 
acconipany tbtrir Hjitriu \\n»t the Leurafliun rock to the 
place of their deittinntifin. Tho uarriors ^IilId in battle 
vith t]ic Ciconett urn tUrico invnki-d \\r thu surviv-ora*. 
Nay Klfien^fi- liiniM^lf, nio^t iniiij^mHouiit of men, i.H deity 
brooght before us m his I&st horned 

We ftre, Iioweverj enabled to open another chapter 
of evidence, that bears upon t!ns interL^stin;^ subject. It 
is oblaini?d tbnnigli the niediiiin of the outhv of lUo 
two iiation« re*;>eoiivoly. 

Difphtcing the elemental powers fmm tlicir oixliuary 
religion, the <irrt-kH mnde them gaolen*, a-h it were, of 
tbe under-worEd> and gave* them this for llieir proper 
bosinoes. Hence tbey are pamded freely in the Greek 
oathal Agamemnon before the Pact ioxokev, tritli Ju- 
kjiiter, the Bnti, tbe Rivi^r*, the Kartiu iW* infi^rnal grids. 
In tho NbK-teentb book, ihi* siame; emitting however 
tlkc Rivets and naming^ instead of simply deecribing, 
tlie Kriniiea'. In tho Fourteenth Iliad, Juno &p* 
parently sweare by Htyx, Karth, Sea, anH U10 infonial 
gods*. In tliu Fil^et^ntb, by Earth. Houven, Styx, the 
lictd of Jupiter, and their marriage bed<. Cdypso 

q U iii. 376. r II. nx, 356. 
1 TL IV. 36-4&. 


11- ttioa; IVt^am and Orftks coutptXTfii. 

»w'™r!*, for tlic taltsfacUon of L'ljstswi*, uml occorilitij^ to 
Ilia Tjuliirin iln iIh* imf/tmi'ua, liv Kiirtli, Ht-nvitii, nml 
Styx" TliuR the Griiijkft nmde an etfec:ive u»e of 
ttieee eartby and iimtorfal dtviiittie&, in oomiecticn ^ritli 
their large develoiiment of tlie FuCuro State, by install- 
iag thcin lis the offiHal pnnihlifTs of pcrliiry. Nnw tite 
Tmjan» ii(>|ioar, frcni wliat we have soon, to have wor- 
«l]ippiHl thJH clftss of cicitios ; but as ni|^cr-torruiK-Jiii, not 
aj^ ftub-lrrmnrrtn ^od*- H^iil tlicy iiotbi.'ru //wjt wtn>bi|>- 
ped at tbt^ h\u<r, A>riim(*n]tiiJti cotdil iint havf ui4.*lutkM] 
tlem in the Invocation of the Tact, where he had to 
act and speak for bolh natiotia^. And wbilo ^r see they 
ntcrifcfvl lambs tii L^iirtl) and Snn, fttill «« have a 
cunouft pmitfthuL chewe dt^itic^i ^vn* not wor^hlpiied in 
Troy OS avengers of perjury. For xibon in the Tenth 
Book Hcolor swears to Dolon, he invokes no divinity, 
except Jupiter the loitd-lhrniilei'lng hn^bniiH of Jnno, 
There niay. »*' ^e havp wen here, be a faint reference 
to tho earthy chariirtcr of the Trojan Jmio ; bnt tlicro 
IB no trclMcveloped ^yateni, which u»u9 a particular 
ordtM" iif powerx for ihii jiunikbtni-itt nf pt^rjarunt in a 
futaro state, Wc oan hardly doubt that tliia was pri- 
marily beeaueo the doctrine of the Fnture State wm 
wanting in dee]> and pnu-tical mots, so far as we can 
see, among the Trajans. A material mnjf^ relif^ion ^eeniB 
eftsentiaily losijlc to the full dcvolopmenl of such a 
doctrine. And it is not a little curious to find that in 
thiH saniB country, wbert* the «atli wiu* li*iin i4ok*mn 
Iban in Givoee, and thrt lif^- after death lesH a sobjoet 
of practical iuid energetic b^^lief, perjiiry and brunch of 
faith shouhl have hec-n, as we shall find they wef\'. so 
much more lightly regarded. 

For the mkv of realizing to oiirselre? the contrast 
" Od.v, jfti. ' II iii. 164-75. 

Wanhipfi-om the htth. 


twe«;ii tht' rrii^ouw s^iitPiti of Troy, as we thus at 
ricAst by pliiniwfK s<'uni to perc<>ive it, and the wonder- 
ful imogioativc riclinc6d of the pretcniutuml syfitcm of 
!dic GfT*k» ft* exiiiliituci ill II<»mcr, it maj be woll to 
point briefly to it fow <'aM,'w, wliicli itn; tbo iiion* illiiAtm- 
livp. becntiHe thevnre ihoacco^oHc^, and nrii tW nmiti 
pilbre of the sTsteiUn '!*ake, tbon, the person iRcJitidu^ 
of all the forms of Terror in the trnio of Mam: the 
tnneport, bv 8l(^p and Death, of thfa bodr of Saqw* 
JflO to lii« homo; lUe tc-nri* rif Wood wopt by Japilor; 
tlic ngiuitioii of tliv Hi-u iu nvrnpatliy with Neptune's 
niirlikn imnule; Lhrt dri^d of Aithtni-UM li.-»it tbn (■nif^l 
of cnrlh shoulcJ give way under th© tramp of the gods 
in battle; the mouminf- jfarb ofThelta for ttic FricntJ 
of her MOii's yonlh; the hmg train of Nvinjdih, risiing 
from tbe defvlhs of the f^ea to ai^conipany lier, when she 
mounts to ^isit tho sorrowing Achitlci^ ; the rc'dundtint 
ima^ry of the netlicr vrorld ; the inittiiCabltj tact tvith 
whicdk la* pn>>a*rri^ \\\t*. idi^ntily of lii^ gn-ut rhieflMrnv 
whea vi«h4sl bctnw, but preiionta each under a deq) 
tioi of MdneM. All this luakcfl iis fec-l not only that 
v^ar. |Kj|lcy, and poetry, are indi^^oluhly blended in the 
great liiind ijf Homer, and of hiti rsice, but tliRt the 
hamionlout» at;sociation of all thOMe with tho OlympJai^ 
religion ww« Iht work (>f a vi*ifyin|r ima|^inatioti. vhicb 
u'lbt a pin^Liliar and F;]iIrii<1Jd pArt of their inheritance. 

Then* i« u uinrv marked trace in theTnjjaii worahip, 
tb&n id to bo found among the Greeks, of the practice 
of Ch«7 Persian ; who paid bonia^ to tho Deity* 

Tc Iufti?»l hfii^hiA zb^ccuiJing> from tboir topa, 
With myrtlc^wrcfltbcd tmrii f>a liifl browJ, 

For Ht'ctor oHbrcd to Jupiter iioinetimce (which iiiay 

170 II. /Wfl*: Trryiitis ttMd (frtrh i^amj 

bo feft^fTBc^ ro a dinVrent cause) on tlie highest gmtind 
of tbo city, sMiieUme^ on the Cops of Ida* : 

At aII 1-Vf.iit! Kc* ma}' say, tliat t)ic oiilj »igi] rcmaiiitng 
ill GriMfC'L* of thin |)riiirip!e of woreliip, waw one com- 
mon to it wjtii Troy, un*] seen in Uic opiUi<!t J^^iJ^vyof 
applM to Jo|iLtcr, (Ui welt na in tite association bctwcon 
tlic Kvals of Uie gods And the highest motintaiik?!. 

On tho otliot band, the reliRion of tbe Trojann ap- 
|ieara to have abounded more in positive obecr^'ance 
and hiemrcldcal dcvt^k>|.itDent^ than that of tlic Greeks. 

This mibjwt iimy bo cunijidored with rufisrciHw to 111© 
several ftiibjcttft of 

J, Tcmpk'S. 4- btat«es. 

a, KiidiiwriK'iUs (TfMCF#a). 5, Seers or Propheta. 

3. Groves, 6. The Priesthood, 

It ha* been debated, wliotlior tho Grcoks of the 
Hun)c!ne age had jrct begun to o'cct ti-mplca to tbe 

Th4> only ca«o of a temple, distinctly and exproiil] 
irK^ntioiied ae r^xii^ting in Greece, is in tbe paf^ugio i>T' 
the C^taEogiio resjjecting: the Atbenianfi, on wbioh 
tbere lifitig>i a slight ebade of doubt. But another paw- 
age, though it does not contain tho word, soeme to 
be conclusive aa to tltc thing. It is that where AcbiUes 
mentions trca^nrcM, ubich Wti within tJie atony tbr^liold 
of A|»dloat Pytlio*: 

Though tlicrc may have been treasuries wliich were not 

tmn|tUi)>^ ilit-y eunhl bunlly \m\v- burn tn.iutiineH of the 

gods: for In vi^bat eonso could trcn^nrej* bo placod 

• 11. X)dLi7i. • 11 it 404. Ld. Aburdv(<ti'« Ewtty, pL 86l 

TVoy and Chfta a$ (c 7%>j 


uoUer their «pccial ]rro1cciion, vnluB» b; beiDj^ clepo»it«d 
in places wliicU wcr« fteculi&rly tln^in? 

lu tlie Oilyssej'. Kurv lurhf l!< |»romi<tE4 to btjilil a tem- 
ple to cl]« Sun, on g:ettiiijr aafo to Ithaca**; aii^ Vauil- 
tbon^S cho fatlicr of Aleinou^, btiilt temples of tlto 
goi9 ID Scbcria. Now Scheria was not Gn^ccc ; jot it 
was itiorft akm Ut Greece xhnu to Tn»y. 

It K on tbe otiier hand, obn<*rvab!e that, thougli 
onder tlic«c circumstances wc con hardly deny that 
tempteA exifitoil «m»ng thft Greeks, yet vse bave no 
eaae in Homer of a temple actually erected to a purely 
He) lie deity. 

Ourclcarirstnnccsare. in fact,confinLH] to tbc temples 
of Minerva nt Twy nnd Atlic:i?*, and the teniplcH nf 
Apollo El 'JVoj-, Clirj'se^, nnd Pjtbo : and when we ioe 
old Nestor performing fiolemn ftacrific© in the open air 
at I'yioa, himself, too, a reputed granHchild of Nep* 
tune, wo cannot suppose tbat it vrtvi ufiiial vrith the 
HelWe« to ivonhip Hellenic gods in toniples. It iH 
possible, tliougb I vrould not presume to »ay morct ttat 
Apollo and Minin^a may bave bc^n tljc only deitiea to 
wliOTn it v^ih iiMinl in that nj^o to erect ti-mpk'^, ^bt^tbor 
in Greece or Troy, 

1 tnnst not, howercr, presume to disiinini tbis sub* 
ject vithout noticing the line, Od. vi, ^66 ; 

This verse l» often interpreted a* 'the place of assembly 
round abtnit the beHctlifid temple of Neptune/ So 
KuslKtbiiM* : ho onv of llii? Kcholravu : llie otber inter- 
prets it to mean a -rrftcvot only. Xitzscb, Terpatra' and 
Crusius lake it for a temple. Ttic word Ila^c^^W 
without a ftub»Uuitive ia a fonu found nowhere else in 

» OA urn. J45. 
4 IL i 39. * Id Ioc^ 

* OcL Ti 10 ; Tii ^. 

f Terpvtn, c. tiL 4 

Homer: so tliat we Jmve only the aUl of reason to in- 
terpret it. XoM\ this ayo^^ \ms the place of tlie jmblic 
ae)9embfics for busiacss. It \s surely improbable, tbat 
there coiilr) have been a roored temple in ihc tnidvt of 
it, wliicli woulil interrupt l)oUi si^lit mid lu^nriTig. On 
tho other Imnd, wo know ibat bofore Tpoj- the »ltare 
were iu tbo iyofi'i oftlfc camp^; said this wuiild <^auB<; 
nil iim>iivi*nirnri*-. It windd ^u't-m tlieii, that TluffjAJut^ 
mGanft not n covered temple, but a coDse^raipd spot, in 
all likelihood inclosed. '>n wliieb an altar ttood. 

I would not, however, nvpic ab«olutct}' upon tile 
wnrt] ifijWy in rfi!^M i^ltere It \% fonnJ vrilhfiuL a wrjnl 
»ij;;nifyinfr to coiititriict, or other fii^ff marking it n« a 
bvitding. K<ir its rcstnih lance to i*;;w raises the ques- 
tion, ^vhether it tuny nut urigiiialtj bare mimnt the 
(niitwcratxHl land which pasHr^d undi-r tlie n&mo tjt rt* 
«i«wif. If BO, it m«y have? had thift scn^ in a pii##ai*o 
like that of the Catalogue ; wht^rc ilie epithet joined 
ill it {hp «u viovt yrjui) ifi *me more >iuitable to the idea of 
a piece of ground, than of a temple: tlough apph'cable 
by Homeric ubo^o to tbc latter too^ and though euffi- 
cicrtly anpfwrtcd by nuXa iriovov ef iliWotu. (II. v. 512.) 

2. Tin? clr.*rivation of frjtu'ot in *ii|i|)f>*cd, liVHimo |dii- 
lologidte, to bo the «itmo with that of ifirnpfttm. And If 
90i there i@ A niarke<i analogy between this a^ociation 
and that of ftt<ii' with v>^'(^k. Kach would seem to indicate 
the custoniii of a race, ubicb had boUi dodioated iancTtt 
^and a priesthood, before it bej^n to nti^ vracred edificefl. 

As respects the endowment in land.M-hich wuc sooic- 
limwi conw?cratvd to the ^1% ni'd wan rallud n'ntPtKt 
1 previnnu we mnsit (wtieliide that, wlierc^vcr i^iieh an eii- 
dowmenC waa found, there inu^t have been a pneAtbootl 
«u|»|Kirtetl by iU K<ir it its diffienlt to conceive what other 

Ai to ^HiioU'iiifVit^ IN Utrui. 


piirp/kHo rnxM 1ia\o booD fantonififaUvt, at mc\i « timi\ 
hv »iicb All apprnpriatiou of ian<l. Ami nguiii we rmj 
assQme ttiAt, where tlie r^wi'Of or gle1>e existei!, Uinn? 
wnnlfl \tG if not a temple jet at least an .lUar, fjnmelhin^ 
wbicb IfH^nli^d tho wonjhi|> in tJic particuliir apot. 

Ilia irni<H'<l itiucfiniorcou^y to suppose a tc]Dpl(2 witli- 
out jt pnefltliiiiiil, ihaii a g1i*l>t-. Arnl 1ii«ni it \% a^aiii 
remarkable, thai M"e meet with no example in Homi-r of 
Q gl<*bo set opart for an cxcluf^ivcly Hellic go<l, 

Tlic caries of glebes, with which he supplies us, are 
Uke«e : 

1. Of C«re4i, a PelaNj^iun ifeit^v, in TheesAl}'* IK ii. 

2. Of Jupiti^r, on Mount Gargnnis in Troa«, together 
with an altar, II. ¥111,4^ ; 

3. Of Venus, a I*elaegian deily, at I'aphoa in Cy- 
prus, with an nitar, (M> viji, 362; 

4. Of 8]>errheiuH in The»<vily, wftTi an altar, IL xxiii. 
148. As reKiHH'lA Chi« cn%K^, we have indvo:! fouiitl. 
that the imAginativi! (Uil^cution ofNaturo appears lo 
hftvc hrs*ii lli-llmir. and not IVIn.^gian. Still, with Chi^ 
case nf KcLtmamU^r hefimr 11*1, ami conf^idenn^ tliat we 
find ibe Tr^i'or attached to Spercheius in an eminently 
Pclasfjian dirrtriet. while there is no escamplo of such 
an inheritance for tl^c dcilir* nmonp the Hcllic tnlKJiii, 
It M.iin*i nio«t mtiniml In eoiiMder tie apprrtprintinn of 
It m helongiik^' to the Pda^gian period, and as having 
simply lirtjtl ovt^r intn tlie Hellenic a^. 

3, Tin- tiXfia^ <if Honn-r appears Lo he cpiite diffrrrent 
from the Twutvp^ ; and to mean rather what we should 
call a tiite for r^rlij^ous woi>hi|>, u^ distinffUJNht'd from mi 
cndov^Tncnt which, as such, would {iroducc iho mcAfift 
of MiltfiHteiirc*. Siirli phiei-H went re^iilnTit by the spirit 
of Helleni/! relijfion, as mnoh as by tlip l'cTa«j;ian wor- 

»b)|), &nd vo find thrtn accordmjriy dtflacminatcd us 
fullnwH : wc Imvo 

1. In Sch^rift, the SXitq^ of Minorva^Od. ¥1.191,311. 

2. At Isnmru^ llio oX^ot of Apollo^ in whicli difclt 
Mftroti tlift priftit, <)d. fx, ioo. 

3. Ill ltb»c!£L, lUe SXfrat uf the NyuipJiR, with an 
ftltur, bcMido the fountain, Mli&re all pa«6Qr»-t>y ofiTered 
ucriGcif, Od. xviL 205-1 1. 

4. In Itliacfl again, tlio <i\to( of Apollop wliore 
public sacrifice wa» |)«rfoniied in Uio city on Idi fvftsU 
day, Od. xx. 277,8. 

5. In Boeotiik, OncheetUA is culled tlio J7\aov a\tf<»r 
of >»>|Him(*, !l. ii. 506, 

6. The QA*r*a of Poreophone aw on Ih© beacti beyoiid 
Oceanus, and aro composed of poptarR and u-illowa. 
Od. X. J09. 

7. In die ]^Ht Aswuibly of ^li before the Theo* 
maciiy, all the Nymphs aro Huinmoncd^ who inhabit 
SKtrta. ts well ^ fiiuntains and mcadowd, II, xx. 8. But 
htsT^ thi; rnt-iiiiiiig itirhiiltA nciy^ruvi', dedlicated or not. 
And Qjr^n, 

1$. The attendants of Circe ar« »uch as inhabit SXjta^ 
groves, or fountains, or rivers, Od. x. 350. 

Tlins tJie nXfFfK. wlien used in the reliffiotia «on«c, 
meatt« a grove or clump of trws aomutinies with tnrf, 
or with a fountain ; Ttet apart q£ a place fm- worahip. anil 
inhnbitrd by a deity or hi» miuiftters yet cjuiie distinct 
fVoni a property capable of supporting tltom. TheM 
eiumpe appear to be »o appropriatod more commonly 
by Hellenic, than by Pelatgi^ii jirartiee. 

4. Wu will take next the ca-^e uf alatues of the gcidt. 

In the opinion of Mure, the metaphor which rej^re- 
Mltlt human affairs a^ renting in the lap of the jEniidA<6c^r 
iv ^i>Ki<ri), gives coitcluftirc evidence tliat the custom of 

A^ to etatttejf f{fth*ff^0- 


miking stAtuev of tlie ddtica prcvailctl ftmoii^ tlie 
GiTvk«. f ilo not Itowever see wliv tliis parliettljir 
figure stiould hear tijion tho question, moro than any 
of the other \'ei7 numerous refireAentations which treat 
them aa eficlowed with viiriaus members of the boilj'. 
[f this evidence be recejvablo tt all, It iti overA^belm- 
iDg. Bat it 14 0|>cn tosomc <loubt, whether, liccatme 
goctj arc mentally Gr>nceivc<[ acconline: U> tho laws of 
U]thro|>omor[)hism, we iimy ihereforu a««uiiK' that tli(*y 
wcro alfonmtmaUyrejireaented under tlie huninn foim. 
We have, I believe, no more than nuts aiiigk piece 
of direct evidence on the subject, and it ia thU; that, 
vbeo the Trojan matronfl carry Uieir siip|)licatbn to the 
temple of Mincr\-a. to^otber with the otferin^ of & robe, 
they dcpo-iit it on her kncca (11 vi. 303), 'AQtjvuirjK rri 
yovHtvtv iiftitnoto. TbfH appears to bo fpite coiiclusiTe 
as to the exiKioiice of a Atutuo of Minorva at Troy: but 
it leaves the {|iics(tiori entirely open, whether it wa» an 
Hellenic^ &s vi-ell as a IVla.4gian, practice thn!4 to repre- 
sent the godfl. 

It iH quite plain, I think, that the pmctjee wad not 
one congenial or familiar to the mind of llomer. Ilail 
it been m, be enrcly niu«t have made lar;^e poetio u«e 
of it^ WberoAi on the coiitnir}^ it i» by jiiftjronee 
alone, though certainly by luiavoidublc iuftirencc, from 
lan^iage which he uses without that iiitenti(iii» that 
we become asHured even of tlielr existence in hi« time- 
He speaks, indeed, more than once of placing Q^aA^ara 
in templr«^ or of suspending them in honour of the 
gods'* : but our title to construe thifi of btatueti ap|M»ra 
to be wholly eoigoetumb 

It would aoom inexplicable that a poet, wbo enlarges 
with so much jwwor m>t only on the Shield of Aga- 
* Od. ul 43B, Eli. 34J- 

17(i II- iliM: Tri^iaiu and Oivcbt t.'i>t»fKUViI, 

niciitiioii anil tlie Anntt uT Ar1iillt-«, but on Uic ideal 
'^gfft cf Minerva, tlie dutritit of Jiiiui, ilie bow of 
Aiiollo, and tbe metallio handmaicLfl of Viiloan. bboiiM 
cntjrcl}' nvoid dc<icri)itif>n of tli€ stntucs of the Olvm- 
|>mii pioi\\ if fhry wcro li»bilnKli> hiTforr Iits cio*. 

I buv^' ur^tf'd oWwbf>n.^ tbiit wu «i.^> in Hmiiet tbe 
Hidlciiic, not tbc Pe]a-<^iuii, tiiind. And If it be bo, 
then I think we arc juetitieil in a^aorinling with bis 
HcTIJ^niKin, n* nnt* flrnnn)^ tnnny J*i^is, tliift fviii;trkable 
»ik<Dee. Tho riltial and fxiernal developineiu of Pe- 
las^an religion would dtdi^ht In statued a^ visible 
aigtie ; the Ilelleikie idtraliFint would not improbabl; 
Gscbow tbem. Ilt^nc^t we may treat tht»i firaelict* of the 
period as belon^u^ to PolaKjEian p«jcu]iiiritk*8. 

If this be «o, then I think \\c may |)um» on to the 
rmtchiHiaii, fhrit ihf* (in^iiinl londt'Ticy Ui |irodi«-e TiHtlde 
formfl of llic TJivifilly wtia not owln^ to, and formed no 
part of, the clfortB uf the- liumnn i magi nation. &o larj^ly 
devfilo[)ed in llomt^r, to idealise religion, and to beau* 
tffy the wc»r1d by its imagery. But, on th(^ contrnrvi 
so f«r A* wo can judge frotti lIoriKT. it first prevailod 
antong a nice inclincil to iimtunul tiuti luirthy concep- 
tions in theology, and from them it (^prx'iid to otiient 
of higher intelligenee. It waa a criitcb for tbe lamenewi 
of mai3, and not a wing for hie upward aspirations. 

And indeed, as it appears to mc. tins proportion is 
sustained pven by the ]t:tsl experience »iid present state 
ofCbristt>iidoni. When ftiith was »trongv*t, im&gofl wore 
unknown to tlic fuilhfnl. Nor is it an, wfnch produce* 
them: it iw mealy a kind of roquiral and nitrbaniral 
iniilation. No eonKidi-rahle work uf Hrt !« at tills nirn 
ment, I belicTe^ in any Christian country, an ob|oct of ro- 
ligioua worsliip- The Hcniimcnt ^\hich craves for mate- 
rial re|ircsmilalioiis of such objeetfi in on!er to worship 

Am ftf titvr* or Ijiviu/^^ii. 



thvm, «|ipeHrs &!««> cimimoiily to exact tlint ihvy Mioiild 
l)e M>iM<?wliJt( m:iteri:tlixvil. Tin- Ui;»;lnrr office of urt, 
jjj «uiiiKH-tbii w-iih <lcvuut afTcction, eccms to bu that 
it >houl(l piijnt our vcncratinn onwards, not arrest it. 
It UnUh i>u[ i1i4> niij£:i-r ulitrh wo nre ii» folfoiv, nut Um 
mnd wUiirh ne ore- M kU^ 

The order of Si*e« or DiTliiers was coinmon tQ 
Cnf^ti, Tnt)aiis, arh] prolmbly we mriy acid, frmii ila 
bein^ known amon^ the Cydopei^, ti> nil coMeinprtrary 
lacpf^ It i^ fiiitgular th&t wc i^hould tinrl liL>a\ aD<l not 
aoKiiig the |knc?^tlkoo<l, tllt^ trncctf of c»;sU\ or tlic here- 
ditarj de^c^ut of the gifu In all ollihr |K]ii>t?s tijm 
function ir^tandft opart from hierarchical dtivelupmoiut. 
For ilie A^ct^M* except as to \m g^itt, U like other men. 
Mchminifl en^n^vfl to carrjr olT oxen. Polrpheidoi 
mij^rmtiTM u|h)ii a (|uam^l with liix father, CleiFus is 
tlio lov«r of Anrora. TIjcoclynK^ntiH bfL» oornmitiod 
liOBikidu'- Ti'irc^ui-** iH called 'iVaf. a lord or princu*. 
We du not k^iou that Calrhus fonght am wdl an |>n» 
pheiiied, hut it may have been ao, since Heli^nua, the 
•on of Priam, and Ennomus U>e Mysian Irador, wero 
•eora cr au^ufs not k'M than uai'iiorH. Uut tin; mofit 
inMnirtivr sgn-crmv:! of this order ainon^ tlie rir4.^ks U 
tliir Svitor Lei4^dl^^ who wac &l«o 6i-o'rcoo?, or ln«3puctor 
of tAcrifici^ to cbc body of 8Liiton<. Novh' Ulyvnt^ liud, 
in 4:on>idi.-rutioii of a ranftum, r-jiareil Maron tlie prient 
ofAiM^loat Uoiarufl"*- But, far fmni rtvogni»ing in 
tho profe^iontil character of LeiodL^s a titlv to inimu* 
nily, he answers the ptca ^itli cimractcristic and deadly 
repartei?. And ibis, notullh^^nding that l^-i(>dcf» was, 
a^ we lean, divtingnishH from tho n'vt oftiiu Snitoia 
by the general decency of hU eonduct. 

^ 0«t iiii, jr^-^j^, xxii44. 


11, JttoA : Tfii^^iiB iif'f Ur*^^ cfiiiif^ir^d. 

Tlio ^vo-TA«w( apparently iii^iin-'t'toU H;uTifi<\'*', but did 
not rtfl'or tlicai; for tills cliaructur i» clearly <!i&ti?i- 
gaiHhtfd ill till* tlln*]"' rniiii thnl of t1ii*|mt*»U Indeed, tlie 
word ft'civ in Homer ap|it*ari properly to apply tu tlu»*o 
minor offices of sacrifice, which did not iovoiro tlio 
putting to d^ath of victims; as in II. ix, ±19. vrbcn% it 
may lie observed, file fuiictioD is not |>erforni<'<i Ijy (Ik* 
priiiHp&l pi-nson, tut it* dopntod by AchiMev; to Pairo- 
cln#. Tbc inspection of »luin aiiimuU wonid probably 
Htnnd in tbe s^nit- ftiti^gmy, rurxm^'- <ii%Jn*! otluxN as ilii: 
interpretution of oilier si^na and porlonii^ 

The members of this class &re, upon the vrliolv, im 
brrrAdly distinguished from tbo priests in Momcr. as 
ar^' llic [iniphi'l^ oFthe Old Te«tAni4^nt iVotn the Kitvi- 
ileal pHcHibnnd. 

They veru culled l>y the gcncrol numo of ^«*t4f, cir 
by ikther nami^, sonic^ of thtfin niorr; limited ; sucli m 
iitowpoTti^t ujrodj^Tfjf. oitffi'OirtiXo^^ ^ytipoTmXo^. Tliey 
vometimes interj^reted from signs and omcm: sonie- 
riincSt a» in II. vi 86. nnd lii. 44, without tbtmL 

Thcr difTnsion of the gift among the royal bonsf of 
Tniy, when? Polyditniax had tt &« well nn TIclomis ami 
poi^ibly iUku Hf.'Otor. i» Ices marked than thu great caso 
of tho fikmily of Mctampu». Tlic augur niw id nil 
rv9|)ccts 11 cjti3»?n, whSlo |»owicx»ud of a pi'crtilLir (?ndow- 
mctit: and the virtt^ptirat" mcfntionod in the invocation 
of Achillea, whether llwy wiro thij royal hon^r. or 
j>en*ous disperiwl through the commniiiiy, evidently 
fornieil n inon.- conKplciionti object among thf* Helli 
than \vc find in any Pcl&l^gian race, A*fain; in Grwoce 
«'C fiud tlic omcks^ of Delphi and LHlos, a^ well a^ of 
Dodorni ; t>iit ihttnt 1% no Mniilar or^n fur ihi: ditlivory 
of tbe dirine uill reported to nv In Troy. 

I" II %m\t. 3ii. " IL xvi. MiH. 

tSit fhf PrvMhtMJit. 


'& come now lo llic* \^t ai)d iiMftt ifii|mrtAii£ |»oi»t 
ctDoeeteil with the outward develojinion: of tUf reii- 
fioQS sv«t<'m. that of the pric&thood: nnd h**fV I rtiall 
endeaTOur to describe dntinriW the cvidcnci^ with tt- 
pri to both nfttion«. Fint* )k \n cHtnMder t1>e caae 
of [irirnthnnd n,-* it rrtijH-rE* lh<* (jre<-k*. 

Wo have nt least one instance before n« iit Hip 
Iliad, wttcr« a combined religious action oTCreekii &n<l 
Trpjaiis is piewiitcd to ns. In the Third Book. PHam 
comes from Tmy to uii t>fM?n wjuice between the :innit^ 
■nd Tne«t» Aj^Lmemnon nnd UlytMi^m. The honour of 
kctuiilly olfcring tbo faeriltix' ii^ nlhitti^d to the Greeks. 
No |>ri«-at npiit-ant; and the func'tttm is performed br 
ilie KEn^. Agamemnon, It is therefore niLMiml tn wip- 
lM»c timt the (Jreeiis have witb tbem in Tr^as no »ucii- 
Hdng prieal- On every occasion, Uic Greet Sorcrcign 
iiiferft Bacrilice for himself and for tile anny. Hij abo do 
Elio soldiery'* at large for tbemselres; 

ixKot i^ itK^if ip<i< l9«^i' al<ty<v<T6ei»*. 

Tlicro vnt9 an nltarP fnr the vcrj' purpoitc in tli« |»art 
of ihe camp a|tpropnat4'4) for Ai»«emblkii; a Gact wbieh. 
tliouj^h tt doei not demonRtrule, accords with the union 
of the re^l and eaecrdotal functions. Nor can «'c ac- 
count for ttic absence of priests fnini the camp, un the 
tlw tame principle as for that of banU; mmco poems 
were a luxuTy, \n\t «hcritico« n in-ce-nKity, And we find 
Cttlcto irprt-scntiog tboclaS'iof rcH^inuf* fu net i oniric* 
that tht? Cin-rK narioii did arkno^jed^tr; namely, the 
Seen, who interpreted the diriDe will, without any 
fixed ministry belon^ng to any fmrticular pince, al- 
though the gift yrM» gcncmliy derived from Apollo, an 
une aniong his |H'rullar 4tLnbiiles- 

In the remarkable pHssage* whieb ennmeniti-M for ua 

«> TL iL 40a > II. Bi. H07i ^> 

S 2 


11. iiitfit: Tti^jans itnd UrttAtf r?bWii/jafWi 

tho prEnci|ml tradod niM pniti*w(ion»i affireece in the 
fadroic ftge**, wc HiiH mciitiurti'd ibe |irophct. Itie pbj- 
sician, die artifiirfr, t1m tlivirielv |iroiii|)tecl liard; but 
not the priest. Yet, had such an order existedfii could 
not wgJI, on ac^nunt otite importAiice. have boon omit- 
tcd» For in trutli this enumeration is, fia ^x- have before 
Ki^i), tK"urIy fxliaiiKtivo, 119 applii-d ttt itu uj^e wtiini rbi*rL* 
WAS no i^rofcMtioniil i^^Uller, \i'him the liti^bamlman, 
fi^bcriTian, or borxl, rould tiot bo rnllcd a Jitifnotpyou fot 
he hail no rehitjon to the ptiblic, and wlicn conimercd 
was confined to foreigners like the Plitenieianti. or 
pimtee like the Ta^>hiane, and formed no part of tbd 
busincM of ihe settled comrouiiitics of (Jroece, 

On the other haiKl. in the Legend of Phc^nix con* 
eortilng Molen^er, v'kj have a iiotke ofpritrnt* a* having 
cxiatcfl at that timo in .f'.t^ilin. The enibaAdy, lA^hich 
Wa« sent to eonc:ili;Lte Melcagt-f, ronHi^ted of elders and 
of tilt? be«t, or nioKt dislinj^uinhed, ariir>itg Liie prieHta ; 

Xow, tlio wonl Air*Mf\iu I apprchein). indicut<*d an 
liellciiic race, for Tvtk'us la AcVwXrt'r; and it 19 worth 
notice, that in ihEs |)itH4Hge the ehler'i am called -^ito- 
Jian, but not the |Tiogt$, 

Apiin. this evtrnt took place during the rcigo of 
(Sneu», two generation* before Ihe TrL>iaii war'. At 
ttiat time th^f Hellenic infliieiici^ uait quile rei^eni hi 
Middle nnd in Stjutheni Gi^eo^^e. The family of Sisy- 
phus had indeed arrived there at least iwo generaCioDS 
before, but it disuppt^ared, and it had never risen to 
great jiowtr ft vtun the dntu of Atigeins, of Neleus, 
and f>f Pelopa ; all of them, apparently, the fir^t of thetr 
ce^pectivo families in I'elojmiinesutf. Ho again the name 

iStoThe Prie^ftWKL 


Portbeiif^ nsslgiiefl to thf* rKfliur of fKneiii, probably 
markft bim ss tho fnt Hcllotiic occupant of the 

Plato obdervefl. Iliat new setilere nijgbt iiaturalljr 
remain for & time witbout religions iufltitutions* of 
Ibeir ovm. 

The Ilrllcnc^ tbcu. had recently come into ilLUiha 
ftt tliif litiKS mill even on tbis f^ronnd were less likefy 
to havo ba>l priv«t« of tlioir own institution. But it is 
not to bo 9up|M>4<^^fl tbftt, fiiuiin^ n bkrurcliy auiod^ the 
Pehsgian trlbcw, tlt-Milinl lo tlio uiu-^hiji nf such deitieti 
(Mint^rra and Apollo for example) as tbey tbeiiiB(*ivefi 
acknowledged, tboy would exiirpalo &ucU a body- Tlio 
most probablr fiii|i|>o5itii)n K that it wouhl coiitirnio in 
all CHM":* fnr a tutti.\ The |i(.'r^nti nf ('hr^Ni-s, tlu- prifMi 
of A |>rtllo, uTift n-Hjio^^td, nt li'iwi ft>r the moment, even 
by Agamemnon^ in \m dit<{fkskHurc. Fearless of biB 
threala, ibe itijurod yrlt^l immediately fl|i|ML»]dt?(l to liis 
god for aid. We cannot doubt ibat intt-n-vl?* lluis div 
ff*nded would be generally left tntaet. Still, a^ pric-sts 
were, in tbc lan^ago of pulitiml economy, uiipritdiiotiYO 
labourrrx nnd sw tbey M?eni lo b;ive held (be!r ofttce^ 
not by <l9M0«nt but by Q]octioii» we can t^Hwily pL-rceWo a 
Toad^ctbcr than that of violence, to tb^ extinction of the 
order among a people that s^t m> Atoro by ita ecrviccs. 

There h yet another place, in whiHt the nntiie i« 
mentjored among die Greeks. It i« in ibo AaaeniUly 
of tbc Pir»t Iliad, held while the plague i» roging. 
Acbillrft mp^ 'Let as im^uiro of ainne pruphcl. or 
prieMi, or in(er]»reter <if ilroamK (for dreams too are 
from Jnplter), who will uA\ ns, why Apollo is so much 
exas)>erateil"/ Hut the allttsion here flecma plainly to 
be to ChrrsAs, who bad liim«eir visited the camp, and 
had appeared with the insignia of bin pricvliy i»fhce in 

■ Lent ^i 

» IL i. ^a. 

• li 1. 4j. 


ll> itit/^: Trt^jaim ttwl tjrr^m cotttfta*YiL 

a previous Assembly of the Circck*'. ll<-iiig- imw ili 
pD89(.'Mon of tie whole open foiintrj. tliey <>f course 
Imrl it IT] rimir [Hmer to roiiMilt rither liim or &nv 
oilier Trc>iftii pri«t not witlifii tlio wall>;. We CAUnot, 
tlit'rcfinv, uronit from tliiw jMiflHiigc, that priesthood was 
a r«critjpii.H<!{| lIc^lIt'iiitT itixiiltirioii <-tl. tlii* prno^l. 

Ill tlio O^lysooy, wc 6nd Mcnelnu!) fnig;agvd tii the 
AolcMun rite^ ofa ^rr^t nuptial fonst; nnd \(h(t^>r m Wkc 
manner olleriii;^: micnflce to Neptune, hin tittilnr aiict*^ 
tor, ill till* piVfieiice nf tUouf^niuls of \h& jienple. In 
ntutlier of tlKi44> oase« U l\wvo &ny reference to a priest : 
and oti tlic follonriif^ day Ne«tor vrtlli hi? «oii8 oflora a 
new *iw.*fifirc, of wjiicli Hn* fidlwt dctni!:!! ntv giroii, 

A^fairi, Imd tl(*»r** liot»ii pn<**!M auionj^ th<j HfwWTic 
(>rei>k»f it \» bnrdly poi^Hlblo but tliat v/e tiiu»L havi^ 
had ^(v\Me glimpse of them tit hhnca, wl^re the order 
of the rrwnmimity and llje whole c*ounie nf Greek life 
are so clearly Wii\ open. 

All im|H>rtant [>iccc of negative cvid(jiicc to the same 
eflect i« afforded by llic great invocation of Acliille*i in 
Uk! Hixt<*c*ntli lluiil. H w>il ]>f; rc*rnotiiliprcd, tl]»t wc 
there find the rude hi^lilmid trilw of the Holli iti poi- 
vesMon of tli« country whi-iv D^dyua was coated, togc- 
thtfr uilh the vorshtp of tlit? Peln><j^imi JupiU^r; «iid 
tbemaelveB apparently exercismg the ministry of the 
god. Now that minietiy was tiot prtosthood, but inter- 
pretation ; for they arc vxct^^Vc/. not Kp^K^- 

It tlierefore app^»n« df>ar, that tht- Helhtnir Iribiv of 
HoineKt day dM not arknowW^u a profowiiorial prieet- 
ho<Hl of their own; that tlien^ wa* no prio^: in tJic 
Greek arinainetit Ijcfon^ Troy; that the pne*t waA not 
a eonttltnont pait of ordinary Greek communities : 
and (hat, if ho wa« any where to be found in the 

t I]. L I 

y 11. 3Hi. 3^\^. 

Am fd thr. /'rv'fuf Amt/. 


[firiieric Itmen. ii ^tv^ as a. rciic. and in coiiue^tion «'itU 
l|1iu uUl Pelafigifiii e^tAljIi^liinoiitx of f h<* roimtry- 

At a later pwioii, wln»» wealth and ^ptemlour haH 
liDcroawil. ouiL vilicu tlio inc'rcA^cd demand for them (*x- 
■Uniflcil «W t*i nrligii^iJf" riti-% the prie^thrtod lK.'cainc a 
■rcj^jlar iii*lJtutwMi uf Gn^ece. It is leokoiiL'i! Uy Ari- 
[■U>tU% ill the PoHlica, amonff the neceKfflry elvuicnta of 
Htate; while he acemfi also to rcj-nrd it a« the- nnturel 
tMn|)1o]rment i»f those, nlio arc diMimlilitx) hv ngi* frum 
the perfi:inn»iiit*t' uf ini»ru utlivo diiik'« lo the iniWic, 
L-ithcr ii) WOT or in council. The |>rict<t wii«, even in 
Ecim^r'^ tiiti^. a fliAtinctly privjlcj^i-d peraon. Like 
otii«<r peoplt^, he ninrricil and Imd chihlriMi; init his 
burdens were not of the heaTJeet. ile uoiild live well 
oii encrilices, and Ihc proceeds of );:icl>C'land : and it is 
curious that Maron the pnc< Itad the verr bent wine of 
which we he«r in the pooni*'. The priest fomied nn p»rt 
of tin* tenthin^ poiver oflho coninuinity, cither in this 
or in later agi^> Uolliogcr mflkf.-j< the ohper^iition V that 
PluFaivli p<)int4 rwil its the xoitrrt-A of rrdtgirum inxtnir- 
tioii three ctaK*^ of men, nuionj^ whom the pno^t^ arv 
not even includHK lliev am (i) the poetst. {2) the 
tavrgivem, and (jj the phiio,^<>|ihf*rH : to whnni Din 
ClirjrflC}«toin adds the painlers and sculptor*. So i!iat 
bocmes niQ}' t^cll obscrvet that tho priep^tliood it any- 
body's afbiir. Plato^ in the NoVm require?* hi* prie^tH, 
and tlu'ir jKircnta Ion, to bi^ frv-i! fnnii bU-minh and from 
crline : bnt enrefully appoints a separate ela^s »f t^^yf' 
u, t« superintend ami interpret the lawe of rolij^ion : 
aa well as Mewarda, who are to have eharg:e of the c^* 
Kcmtcd property, 

Tlie priest of the homle age wouUl however ap)K-ar 

* 0± la. ta$, • l><>lliuieTr. HtitL u, Jwl iv. i- 

<• Put LpTOt ri. 7, tii. 751I-) 


ir ffUn: Tftirjatt* nmt Ornt^it r^ntfurrftl. 

to hnvc rff;^Iit!y *liiirvtl (n tlie office «f th« wii^vc, nl- 
^ough llic f^yri^ liA<l no stp^^HRl concern wJih the offer- 
ing ftf Mtcnlire, The iiif>pertion or victims woulJ Jail to 
lirlcvtK, uiiiiost of courso, in a gfeater or a lorn <|pgrep ; 
and there ia pome ^vidotice before ue, that they were 
eniitkNl to intcrprrt the divine ^v\)\, ft is furnivlird by 
ttic pipcpch of A<--hill<^\ which nppcnnt to \m^]y finnii: 
limfi-vRionnl onfmHtv oftlEis ilnfl : iind, fnrTmj nl li*nHl, 
by thi? HtH-lnnjtioii'' of PHani, who montlon« |jric«t» 
aiDoujZ till- |>er<4ii]», tliat tin^ht hnvi* l>cen finplovL-d t<t 
T&\»tn to hirii a (^jmniniiiraiiim frtirri heJivi^n. 

We have tn>w u^en the case of priesthood amon^ the 
Grwics. AVith the Trojnns it %^ quite othcrwiffe. We 
ftrc introduced, at the vcn beginning of the Ilind. to 
rhryM*n'' \hv |nk'*t (itpri'v) uf Ajiclli*. Ti> the fiflh IliJid 
Ki! Imvit A Tnijnn*. Dans ^'li<* i* priest ofVuletin ; nnd 
%H0 liavc iiI*o Dolopioiu who, n^ «jO'/tv' of thu Si-amnn- 
der, i!lli-<1 nil tifllci* aji|iarenMy <:H|wiv;i!T»nl, Chrysew the 
fTieU is oiso called an dptj-rift^ \ and though, on the 
other hand, it une the duty of Leiodes in the Odysaey 
to offtT'' prayer on behalf of the Suitors, yet he is ncfver 
tcrnu'd nprrfip. In the Sixth IlimI appcati Thesno, 
wife of Aritfiior, and pHeslcRp of Mmerva'. And in tho 
Sixteenth, wo ho\T Onetor'*. prie^l of Idiran Jupiter 
Agnin, while Kurnno'i in the OdvHSfy doe» not reroginsN* 
the prii*st amnii^ thf^ ftrcck profrfeions, hut suhfttiint<*« 
tlio prophet, Prioni, on the ei'ntrary, in the Twenty- 
funrth liird, mivh he would not have obeyed the injune* 
lion to go to the Greek eainp if conv^ed to bim hr 
any mortHi, of such as are in these pmfes»>ionE', 

f fbuL ^6. 

•" II. ixiv, 9i. 

u ir 

*» Hi J3- • llf' * 

^ Oil 

*lll. 3 3 J. 

11- icxiv, 3r^ 

A» lo $ht /'t-H-w A(W 


■re it m{^ftt Iw* ijiiculiontHl, wliftlwr ^airir mid 0tf9^ 
(T'oof ate fHffvivnt |^i'T<nns nr whctlicr he kif»<-fik« of the 
ttamt ^votTKoot : tiiil in rilht^r rn*i? it ift wjimlly Htiir 
tlinthc natne^ ihe jinest^ ^^i*\ nf»art fi^ni eitlrtr. The 
»|w<*c}i of MpMtefl, in Od. i, 20a. pmlwbU nuftlcfs tn 
dmi* thi.' Iiti(> brt«'<^n the ttfivrt^ and the Pitiir-r'>(tv. 

It furtbiT a|ipcArs that auioDj; lUe itWir^ of Tmy, a» 
vtll A« in tin- country, tlit^ priert was known: fop In 
ttl« Ninth Odvnw-y vvt liml M^imn. Min of Kuutit1i»i 
the firit>fit '^f Af"dfn nt Kirrftru*", Am'mjr ^'"^ ncoiies. 
Tilt- oity (hev iiihuMt^d wa* nackt^cj Uj Llwea on hU 
way frnin '[Voy, ard nn Uiin m^cmint wf infer that, 
UK ihvy w«rn' allies <if Troy ( 11. ii. 84ft), Ht> like^ijae they 
bclnii^-il C'l tli(* family of Pela»^;ria[i trH««, 

To lUnK- priests |icr&nnidiy ciigngcd in the Korvicc of 
the d«)iiir<^ n |»pr»nnal vrncnvfion, and nn cxi-mptioti 
fmm military ft<-rvic-i-, appcHr tci hitvr atliirlii'd, whieh 
were not t*njnyod Isy iho pinyniv. Thift in plainly dt*- 
ndojKnl ill thr ranp ofChry^c^. The oHV-ncc is not that 
nf csirrving off* a raptiM-, fur xhv.Te riwild 1*e no guilt in 
the act, sa ftu<*li matter" were then conwldercd, but 
mther hon'fiir: it iw the insult <iffi>rcd to A|>oIlo in the 
pCDion of hi8 »enant» hy aii)>jectirig hia dau;;:lkt4.'r to the 
t^nnmmi lot of ivtrner of »ll ranks, inrliidii)^ the 
hlghe*rt, that draw? <1own a frightful vengeanre on the 
army. So, ngnin, the pricet never fon^^ht; Dolopion, 
Dare*, «nd Onctor, all bercune known to n« through 
their having kook in the army, who«c pnrentoge is men- 
tioned. And n« to i\tv- priest Mnniii, Uiywspfi Rays he 
was spared from a feeling of awtf towards the (fod, in 
whnjie W'iH>di*d grttve, or portiou. hf roMded": 

* 0»l, it- 196-0. Ibid. i|)9-aoi. 


II. //jUTi- Trtrjatu ntui Ortel* i^vmintrai. 

rnidowinl uith ii particular git^ ln>r<', in rexjictl of iu 
fruch ji cliftnictcr, as w«iil<l tfufl^ce to i*ui»ttnitt; him from 
orrlinnry riril Uulios Qn<] to vnnktt liiiu. like Uie prie»t, 
II ok^rt}' privik'^il ]Hrr*on. 

Upon tho otiier liniul, wg fihouUl iwt omit to notice 
tlwit wc itre tol<i in tlie r;i.*0 of I'ljeaiio, thou^li dip wnx 
of lii^jti Kirth ami theM-ifc of Anterior, that »lic was made 
I>ripstess bv tli(? Trojan prople. The samv fiwt i« pro- 
fcttbly iiHlicnrH in (Ijo wixo uf DolopioTt, wli(\ we aro 
toU. Imil been made or appointed ii^rcrhf* toScamnntW 
(njnifri^ mnicro II- V. ^j)- Ami tlii! apiHVinuwi* of llie 
sons of prlesti^ in tho frold nppnii^ to i^bow, rtiat thoru 
\Vfi9 nothing liko lieru^Iitary ^ucrcwion tii the; orJort 
whirli wjis rep luni^k lied, \vt' may [nt^hahl}' CiJiicIu'le, hv 
fieleclione Imvhrg ttie aiitlmrityor the ns<iCDt of tho pub- 
lic Toico, Thus tho body was pnj»ulaHv cnnstitoled, aTut 
was in tlioroufrti harniony with the national dinracti^r 
ft AovK not, on that act^oiint, constitute a le^J imf:or- 
tnnt element in llie onnkmaiiTty^ but mlhcr the rov^reo,' 

Now, whatever might be the other moral and ««>cral 
consequences of having in tlie conuonnily an ordt*r of 
men nut itpart to niainUin the* >tolL*nni w<>n<hi]» of tho 
^'oil^ it must evidently liavo oxorcinod a very power* 
ful inHueooe tii the maintenance of abundance aiut 
punchiality in ritual r>l>Keri7ince*i. There can be no 
doubt, that tho prit'*t lit«tl by thv atlliir «lncb be st'rved* 
nnd iivod tho bettor in pn>pnrtion aA it vrt\» better dup- 
plted. Besides animals. cake» of Jlonr too. and wine, 
were nece*Tnary for the due performance of his ofli<'«**; 
nnd in Uio cu»o of Maron tbiii wjne was 90 ^ood, Uias 
the priest ke|>t it secret from hie servant*, and that ii 
htti' drawn forth tho I'oet*s most genial praise?: 

ijt^t'f aKifpnatui', 0ttpr Tfntor* 

CtuMifHiitMifrv ir/jLirr#wijirv ofSnrrificf. 


He vfus rt(!ti Um; for 1ii> Uud men nii^l women MrvantM 
ill im boufto. So wan i)ares> tlio iiriost of Vulcan'*- 
Sfj prolinbly was Dolnpiuti, [Mie?*l of Scamamlcr; at 
any rnie 1ii*i ftUtinii w^s a liigli one; as we nee fVoin 
the kind of retipect pm] to liim (Geoq i' »? rUr^ i^ft^)\ 
and wo liart* auotln^r eiffn in both tlioi^e cnsos of th<? 
station if ihc |>nr<rnt?. from tlic )>n»ition r^f tlic ^ons In 
tlip nrniVf uliinli m noL umorig Lht' roiimmti %>Mit-rv 
(vA<i^), biit fimftn^ ibe notabtos. The sons of Dares 
figlil in a chariot: and the name of Ilyiwcnor. son of 
iXilopioi). by its tUmnln^ inclic&te# high biith. 

In point f*f fsct fhe Homeric poenifi exhibit to us, 
lu^ether with the oxi^t^ncc ntnl irif1ui?noe of u |iHc^ly 
or*Icr, a very marked dirtHnflion in r^pcct lo wcrificc 
Ix^lwvrti thr* Trr>JHnK mid thtt Gn-(*)iK: n Ktntr nf ihriij^ 
in vntiro oonformity with whAl we mi^^h: thns expert. 

In no dingle inManec do wo hear of a Trnjan ehiof 
who hail l»een niji/rnrdly in hi« banquets to llic ;rods. 
Hector' i« 4^X|>resbly praised for b'K liberality in thiv 
renp^ct hy .hipitev. and -Etieas by N{?ptnno', T\w 
coininviKlaiioii. however, cxtonda to tho whole com* 
miinily. [n Uk* Olympian AnM?mliIy of th<^ Fourth 
Rook* Jvipiti^r »iiy% chvl, of all the eitieit inhabited h^ 
men, Tmy in to him the dearest; for there his nlUir 
never lacked the sacrifice, the hbatinn and tliu »«avoiiry 
nwk. which are the portifm of the gnds'; 

o£ y6fi M^f irori ^lafj^i Hit'irTO ^triv itnjit 

Biil the Ofi't'l&H, thus destitute of priests, often filil, 
m we might expect^ in the re;;u]arity of their ndigioais 
rites. tny«so9^ indeed, is in tbiv;* a« in alt the points of 
exoelli^ncc. unimpeiwluible. Unt hi» wua not the ruk 

H IL T, 9, jS, ' 11. vdl. ije. uiT. t6ti, ■ IL 3Ul i^. 

1 IL iv. ^», 

o Oil I ftl 


!L Itit»$: Trt*jrtmj and Gt'0^l'* t^itp^rtid. 

of atl. (RneoA, two ^n^mtions before the Trwca, 
while aacrilicififf to tbe other deitio^ eitln-T forgot or 
did not thirk fit (J X^lOtr ti mV tvarjntv) to sacrifice ti> 
Diaiia^; lience tite H^vafltationg of tti^ Ca1ytloniit:i btinr. 
Nor is bis the only cnsc in point. 

Tti{? nccount givcv l>.v N<t»tor to Tol^roftehiis in Ch4i 
Tliini Oilys«'v \n *iiJiii*'uliat ohwrure !ii this particnlar 
Jle says that, nfttr the Grt*eJc« etnbarke^l, the rlejty 
dispersed Ibem ; and that th(^n Jupiter oidainctl the 
mi^rortuii*!?! of ibcir re-hirn. sint*e Ibey were not all 
trit('Uiji;fiir »nd rigbfcouK/, It appram t<i 1w* hcnt 
inrimatod, thnt the rtr(>ekB in l!»e finit fln*li of vlctoty 
forgot li»t' inflnenct? of heaven ; and that on oo)if«ion 
of the propel- MLerili(*rn was ttw cntifttr of the first 
d iaperfiioM. 

After they eoHect ngain in Troaa. llie Ali«id bro- 
ther* diRer, a* Menelaua proposes to ^tart again, nud 
Agaiiuminon to remain, and f»(lVr saeriliec* in onU-r t<i 
ap]>im»ie Minemi; but, an Xetttor ad<l*, iho d<iTi<»« nro 
not tM> *rton Qppeafietl. Aganifmnon, therefore, neenis to 
hAve IfeiNi too lati^ witli lii^ ei-l«^bratioii ; and Menel&ns, 
fi^in. to have oniirii'il it ultojfetber. 

The parly who eide wiih Menelnns offer ^acrifiees on 
their arrival at Tenedos seemtn^ly to repair the former 
error: but Jupiter ts incm^ed, and rauH-s tli^m to fiill 
Mit anew afiKirij; fbeinsi*Ivi>M, A portion of them reinni 
enec more to Aganutninnn*. 

Menehuft Rndi^ hia way to Ifef<bo4, and then trails as 
far as Mal^i. Here he eneounleni a storm, and with 
|Mirf of bis sbi|«i be pota to Egypt ; wlien.' bo It agatn 
detninc-fl by the deitie*, beranw h^ did not oflernp the 
projwr becntombfl'. Snch remiMnew t§ tie more re- 

■ II U. 5*2 r Od. tit. 131, » lUd, 164. 

Cbnt/MvnviiPf ohaerran^ itf Sttcrijief. 


nmrknblc, bixiKiisc MencUus ix^rtniul v upiu-ars to Ik: one 
of tilt* iiiuAt virtiuitiK rTinrnrtf^i'H in rhi? Givek liiiM. 

TI*e coun«, however, of llie aiege itself affords ft 
very marked iiiHtiuice, in >rhicU tbe uhole body of 
the Greeks waa guilty of omitting ibc rtp:ular sacHHcc* 
|km|it'r to bo uslhI in the Limit^uiixtio]) of a ^ti^al iincler- 
tflkiii^. Iti the tm»^ty ct^m^trucliou of tlio treticli find 
fB[n|iiLr1, tlicy iijijinrcnLly ff>rgot lUo hucuimnlj* '. Nop- 
tUJiL* imiiir<l)iLlrl_v |ifijiit3i tint, tht* t^rror in iUt^ Olympmn 
Court; ami ukcm it In nu\ of ]ii« (It<>|)li«]i4i]rt< At u work, 
wtiicb h© thinks will eclipse the wall of Tmy, ext>pt)to<i 
for LuoQictlon by biniscif in conjunction with Apollo. 
JupitL*r forthwilJi n^nfeinS lliat nfter the nege he tihnll 
dcHitray it. And the Poet, rctitruin;; to the subject at 
ibt- w)irnk*nccnu'tit of tbo TwcUtb Book, oliscrvcs that 
the ii'4>rk ci>uM not Uftti becauMu it wii» constructed 
without enlii^ting in tu favour the goorl will nf the 
Jmrnortala'*- Thfs omission of the Oret-ks is the n)opo 
i-liamcleri^tic and rvniBrkable. bccjiusc tlie moiix-nt 
when lliey elected the rampart mtw^ a tnomeut of ap- 
prvJit^iwioti, aliiiiiKt of ilirfn^w. 

TliQ^ thon, it a]»pea.rft that, af> n nation, tlie Trojans 
wcrv much nion' given to religi^ius obscrvaores of a 
[>a«iLivc> kin«l, than thti Gi-t?ek», They m-rt>, llkr the* 
Atbeni&os* At a later epoch, S4iaiiai^ontr7^p*n, And» 
a;piiti, as between one Greek and another, there is no 
doubt that the good arc ^nt.'rally. though not invariably, 
»cnipulouf« in tWm fvisyecX-, and t}i«> bad eonimonly 
earebfw- T1ili« much j« implied [>artienlarly in Od. tli, 
131, aa well ft8 conrlu^ivcly fihowD tii the general order 
of i\ie Gdywey- But. a^ bclwren ihr two naticnH, we 
cannot conceive that the Poet had nny oorroponding 

* U »n. 450^ '^ Il»d 459 * IL x^. 3,9. 

* Acuxviita, 

inteittioii. AlthoU)^ :i nion* scrupuloiu formality in 
roli^'ion markH the Trojans timu tlie Greeks; aiuI 
aUUoiigIt iu itself, and cfetai'y panhm. this may W llis* 
ap|jro|)ri&te si^ti of piety, y«fl it U a sigfii ^mly; ilh i« 
8igTi it may be inudc » fri]1>^titiitc\ niirt, ii# n Mibi<tihit4.% It 
becomca th€ charac-UMistic of Jt^;;i!ithu^ and Autolycuft, 
\w\ ](^r» tliHii It is of r^niitA'iJH mill rijrmi*H. Am lit*CHtn?ii 
tbti two iiationH, tlio difTcreiieo U evidently a«soelaiiM] 
\y\i\\ otiier difTcrcoccri in iiiLltonal oharac^ter and ir>o*- 
lulitT- \Ve must look ihi-refore for broader grotiiiil^ 
upon whicli to foiiii ati c^tiinate of the ODm)Hiniltv«.' 
virtue of tb« t*o nations, tban eitber the popnlou«iK'*8 
of Olytnpus on the one side, or the »rr»y of |l^ic^l!* and 
teinpkm on the otiK-r. 

Xowh(7ro d^ iho »i;*jm of historic film j» Hoinvr 
Hcctii to in^* more evident, than in his vgry distinct 
delineAtioii» of national cbanutvr on the Cini^k \\\<\ the 
Trojan |iarr n'speL'tivi-ty, But ihia {« n ^neral propo- 
»iUion; and it must he underittood witb a certain re- 
^enation ila to ilt'tnib. 

It does not u|i]ieAr to ti»e that Homer has Muitied 
the more minnte points of cuneiKtency in motive and 
notion nmong tbe Trojans of iho fjocm. in the $arie 
degree a^i among the Creeks. lie liaii (so to e}>eak) 
mainwuvrcd them a» ^uhsidiary ti^'un^ uiib a vivw tc i^>- 
hnntrio^ and sotting off thugc^ iti whom he ha« ibtHid^nl 
and c;iL»ed the princjp/ii inti-ri'St to c^entro ; not m m to 
deslmy ur diiiifnihh oflertH uf indiviitital cbaracti^r* hnl 
00 as to ^ve to the eollective or johu actioti o» tfie 
Trojan aide a subordinate and ministerial function in ttic 
machinery of i!ic poem. A^ Homer ^ung to tireeks. and 
Greeks were his judges and jjatroiji nstrellasliiB lhem<^ 
iiay mtber as bis heart and ©oul were Gre&k, bo on the 
Greek t^idc tlw chain of events is eln#elv knit: if it9 

Tmv* MMt*^ uf htiMittiny /or </*ro*v nwi 7\fnt. III! 

Uirortion i*li&iii-ic^», thero i^ nu adequfitc cause, a^ in iKm 
vclictnviicc of Ac'hilU^or tlic vuctltution cf Agiuiiem*- 
noiL But lio i)i<l not am^ w IVijaiis; niul sf>, utikvil^ 
the Trqjniia <if the Iliad, there are a« it were siUcln^* 
ffroppod ir Ibe ucb, nod the oonueetioii is miiob less 
carerullrelalKrratcd. Thus they acquiesce iti the brt-ach 
of cnvL-naTit aftLT tin- *jingl*.' romUat <>f Uit- Tliird Hnuk, 
fllthou^fh the eviilent vfiuli niTionj;lh^m,ird?[ioiidoiit f>l' 
oblijj^tion, was for ]iB ftil^liucnt'. Then i» iIil* Fourth 
Dook, aAer tlit; ti'eachtrv of l^Andaniis rhf TrnJaiiH nut 
oiity do not ivseiil it. hut ihev recomincnce the fi^lit 
ttlnl*- ihe Grt^eU chiefs are teadiiij: the ^^ouEided Mv* 
ndmi^': which conduct txliibits, if the phriuc mnj" be 
{icnnrtcedr an lalravaj^Tiiu^ of (lif»i\'gnrd tu the olili^i- 
lloiift of rruth and honour. Hector, in tho 8ixtb Uoolc, 
<iuii4 the battle lield upon an errand, to whioli it is 
hanll) |>o**ible to Msigii a fmetical Butticicucy of eati*c, 
tinh'tiH wi' refer il to ibe rcitdincs^ »bich h** mit unfn^ 
(lueiilW shovis in hecf> hiiri^^clf out of the li^lu. A»;aint 
there h aomcthin^ awkward and out of keeping in liis 
iiiAmiirr of dealing* with the Fabian reconimondAtinTM of 
Pnlr(fjini!i« when liie vrhw appmacliev. Some ofthe^u? 
be uwepl^t and wine Uc rx-jccd*, witlioiit nde<]u»tu renKou 
for lh(?di(lereiice, except that he is pi-epflring himself n^ 
an ilhi>itrioii>9 vtctini for AchiUcs nod itiui hv tiru«t act 
f«M>li»b1v in order (hat the i^iipcrior hero, and with him 
the poem jt?*clf, iniiy not Ix- bnulked of their porjuw. 

ThaM, AgniTi, Homer hnn ^ivoii iik il preltj* cl4*a.r idt-iL 
OWii of llie respective a^ea of the Greek chiefii. It can 
hardlj hv doubted that Nestor stambi first, Idomcneiw 
•econd. Ulysses third: while Olomed and Antilocbti!» 
are the youii;t^t : Ajax &iid Achilles prctbubly thi* ni>it. 
But ae to PariF, Helenus, ^new Sarptidon, P0I5- 
« ^1- jiL isi-A- ' II >v 3ffo. 


IL Uion: 7\ttfit$u atid Urwris crnrtf Misfit, 

dsiiius, we find lui coriclLi^iiun ns lo tlieir rvft^jk^ctne og^^ 

Yet llioiiffli lloiTicT muy iu»c a fi7x.-£itcr <lo^t\'u gf 
liberty in «>iic cue, ami a leMt^r Ju aiiotticr^ ila to the 
mi>iU' of MjitiMg liiw jewvK lu' alwavs n<1ht're« tn th& 
genH'ul la^\fl of (nitb ainl nature as ibev aJdiv>^ ihfin- 
aelvea to Ui* iioetical piir|mso. Tluit there nrny lie TL!0«(m 
tu iloulit. whether be oUeived the *iiiiic ngifl ro|x»;j:ra- 
phical accunu-y 111 iloulin^ \\UU tbc pliuii (jfTroy.ux li^ 
lins evin<^o<l1ii ilie C-aik Cutalf'^uc- : IjuI lie hu» uiFe<l 
maicrialf. all of which the rvf;iut\ mipiilieil; atid lie has 
arnLrij^nl them rit'urlv, a& a |iiM'lic* wli(tlc-, hi?fun? thv 
fiHiuXoA vye of thunt- wiib wlioai he had 10 do. Kvt-n 
feo we Ilia) U* pretHireil to lincl that he deals lAJth the 
Dioral a& with the EiiatL-rial Troj^ allowing hiniffelf 
liiiiiii^what iiuir<^ of lit^etise, hunltiiiiijj hiiuwif with 
ifoitit'^hat U-se of cmr-. And tbi'ii wu iiuihI uoc bo 4ur- 
|>ri:«(.-d at M-cntidary or jnfcrculial iiicoLieii^t clicks in tbo 
aciitin* n% n'^prc'tM th«; Tnyaii pe«|Je, btcauHc? h ha» 
iiot been ttonh hiB while Ut work the tleluieutio^ of 
Ibvm, hi iti^ iletuiltH up to bi« hliicheNt NtaitOurd; yt't we 
ni&y TL'ly u|)on bu general n-prL^ctttation^. and w<: are 
pnibRbly mi neciir^ gnmtid in c«tkt<;in|ilauitg all tbi- tnnin 
fixtures of Trojan life and clianicter za iioi leas didib^* 
rutc'Iy drawn, than those tjf Che Greeks, For, in triiLb, 
it viSi% ri<i|ui!*ite, in order to give full elfeel ainotig hi» 
coantryukwi to the Gretk portmlt, ihat ihe| shoidd he 
able, at 1ea»it up to a ceitain poiut* to compare it with 
the Trojon. 

Itirgiirdiiig tilt- ftijhject from tbii* (Kjint of Yiew, I 
aliould Hay that lloinvr 1ms lipou the* whubf. sMij^ia-d 
to the Greeks a moral aupenority over the TrojaDSi 
not ices real, though lew broad and more chequered, 
ehan that which be has given them in ttLO sphen* of 

intellectual and of mititary t^xcellBnce, But. iu all cascs 
«like, lie haw pureued ihe Kame uii.?ihnd of <'Hs>(uig the 
bolftnco. Ko cft^lie^vs thu vulj^nr and commonplace 
eipedk-nt of a fonnal unnrd: lie decidee thia and 
ercrv other <]uefltEOii Uimugli the medium of action. 
Thu Rist lliiu^. tlierefon-, to be dontii is tu ii>t|uin! ittto 
tbc morulUy of bis contcoiporaries, as it i« cxliit>iujd 
throtigti the nmin Action of the |>oi>i»s. 

Il bt hdiiiiULNl nil ;l1I }t:itidH Limt, iu the rfthiral j)ic- 
ftnre of the Ody«aev. tho dUthictions of right and 
vronj^ are broad, clear, nnd conspicuous. But the caae 
of ibc Iliad is ntit so simple. The conduct of Paris, 
whitrli leadn to tie war, is «o flu^nint »nd vik% mid the 
tndn^C of tile Greeks in demandiiij; Che r««ti>ratroti of 
Hcten before tln-j resort to force, so just an*! rca^uor- 
ab)c» tli&t it Ik nt>1. nnnflturallv nind«; matU-r f^f Kiirprir^r^ 
ibat any niir <^>uUi ever have htUqu u|>ou such a sub- 
jec*i except the wnr of n wronged and justly Incensed 
people af;:ainAt mere niflianff, traitors, and pirates. The 
Tnijmns appear at first H^dil HJuiply as asKfrtors of a 
vrong the uio&t gro^ and a^^ravated* (?ven id it>< ori- 
ginal form; tbctr iniquity is further darkcn(^f| by ob- 
ftinacy, and Ittrir comtf; is ihe chuso of enmity to every 
lav, hninan and divifie. VcL thc! Greek* d<i not as* 
Aitne to themBelvc«, in connection w-fth the cause of 
the war, to etand upon a diUcront level of morality: 
and tlic amiable alTectioniL. with the ftense of hnninnity, 
If not the princTpW« of honour Jindjiiuttco, are exhlbitod 
In the detail of the IHaH as ]>rcVLii1ing amnng thc Tro- 
jans» liule le«« thoji &niong tbc Greeks. 

Now» let UH firiit eiidi^iivriur to clear away flonie iiii»u 
apprehensions that simply darken the casf^*: and after 
thia let us inquire what exhibUion llonior has really 
given us of the moral sense of the (irei^ks and the 



iJ. /iiati: Tiv/anjf 0ud (J/4€Jt4 fvi«parf4* 

TrojAns respectively. In cotiDeetiori with tlic crime of 

hi tlie first pine?, sninetbing is due to the &t9tfic&* 
tion by later poete of the Homeric traflition: and to 
the reflex utTiliution upon Homer of those trnits wliicb, 
tliroiigli the inllui^nrr linit n( thu C/tJic jioeU, ]imlm- 
biy oxA^gcfrnttn^ tbe caao In onlor to conceal llieir re- 
lativo want of ^trcn^b* and then of the tragedians And 
Virgi], have come to br? taken for granted a* genuine 
pRits of tUe original jiortrnittire. 

Acconlir^ to the Argninent of the Kv-rfua "Ea-i^ &s it 
ho« been banded down to U3> Paris bnving been rc- 
cd^Ttl in bfttpitnlltj" by MencOaiM, wm left bjr him 
iindtT the frit'ndlj raru of hU ^dfe, on his sfytting ont 
for Crote. Ho then ourruptod Helen; and induced 
her, after Ikeing eornipted« to elope ^itb him. and ^itb 
the greater [tart of the ninveablt? goodn of Menelaus. 

Upon thiH tale our i<!e&5 have been formed, and, this 
being so, wc marvel why Homer docs not make the 
Orcc^kfl feci more indignation at a proceeding vrbieh 
■imply iHJiiibirK'd iri-ni^ber}-, itjbbery, and aidiiltm-- Am 
b© prizes so highly tbo rij;ht« of giic^u*, and pilchc? 
their gratitude fteconlingiy, wc cannot nndcr*tand he*' 
he ftbonht be so insen^lbb* Ui the groMe^L iningiiiahli? 
breach of their obligationa, 

Homer is here made rcsponftiblo for that which, fn 
part, be doea not tell u^and which is poMtively. a* well 
as inferent.iaily, at vanancf with wlmt he does tell us. 
Ho t«lU m absolutely, that Helen was not inveigled 
into leaving Sparta, but corriod off by force ; and that 
the crime of adultery ina* eoDTmitt<.-d after «nd iioL be- 
fore^ her abditctloD. 

This difference aUers the character of the deed of 
Pari*, in a manner by no mcan^ »o inftigniHeant ac- 

//(7M4n-'# ff A^irjl/ /!/' //i^ fi/WiWti>M< 


rordttij; to the lioroin hlnndnrcl of inonklitv, »« nrronlJiif^ 
lo oui», Ai* it ^e<*m« (plain from Hom^r'T* oxpn^^ion, 
uftirti^rH^^ rlint PfiHs r-arrieil o(T ll^leu in Ihf fii^ in* 
«tanoQ hr ah iK't ^f Tiolen4?c>, fio nifio it is prntmlile tliar, 
when tbo fin=t aiiullerr ww commUt04l in llie i»laiiO nf 
Craoac, lie wa* bcr mTfuIicr much more tlinii li<*r c^r* 
niptrr. IUt offi-n*'!* npp-^nm tn Imve r(*ii*iist<'fl mmiilv 
in til© m^ro aocoptnn***-. nt what precisf* ilafo wt- know 
not- of tbo relation thnfl brou^fht int<i exletpni^e bc- 
iw^-cii Litem. anH in compliancefl that with the lapsn 
i>f lime natnriillv fuUowf>il, snrti a« iTk* vifcit to llie 
Trojon hoT*<'- It woiiM hnv© bw«, bow ever, inkier all 
tbe circumrt-inoc^. nn aH of MipcrhumRii rnlhcr than 
of btimAn virti»\ if xb*^ Imcl n.'fn»ril, lhnni;^b ilii? long 
n'om of b'*r ri^<lMU'o siUrtau]. in Tt*r(y}in\'*t^ Vnrln a« n 
bniGb«m1 : ard Aceordin;-!y tlie li>i:lit, in whioh Hie le 
prwrnUvl to iw bv the i*oct. is that of n suftcrcr infi- 
nitely more than of nn nHeniler''. 

When n-9 r**^rd Helpn from thi« pobit of viow, «-o 
perceive tlmt Hoircr's nfxmitivc i^ nt Iriwt in perfect 
keeping with itwif. The (in^t^kn hjivt' nm^v war to 
AVipttgi' tbe wTon^ of Helen not Icsa tbnn thoKe of 
McnebiUK: nav, Menelaus bini«elf, thf keeneat of tbMn 
all. i> keen on her behalf oven more th;^n on hffi nwn*- 
[le fe^ixltt her as a perM>n stolen from him ; niicl the 
OreokK n'j^nl PmrU nnlv aw the robbOT, 

Webavo no r<>n>'on tofuppoAOtboCjprifi'i ^pic to bo 
a tni8twortby fiupplement to thu iiarrAttve of Hontrr. 
We bavo *eeo ^iome important points of ilis(*rc|uiiu''T 
from tbe tli&<l. Anil there nre othem. For in«tnnee, thb 
poem niake« Pofbix imuK^rtiil and Cantor orly mortal, 
while Moincr afi^nainbi uh in t1if' Uml iv-ftb the intrr- 
mvt)i of botli, ami in theOdjiwej' uith ibelr re*loraiiuii 

I n. iii. 444- ^ Kcr iiiL Aniduf, «Dot, vi ^ H. M S,^^- 

O 1 

196 U. ni99: Tr^au9 tfnd Gr^h ftnnpm^ 


on ve|iiRl Usrmn to an alt^fnmte lifi^ It i^lves j^gmmem- 
non four daiaglitora, the Ilmd but throo. Itbnng« Briseid 
from PcdrtSUN i\w Um\ bn'rij?* licr fniin Lymeft^'tiis. And 
tfavre U oilier miLtt«?r in the plot, that dcieit not apfiear 
to correflpand at all with the modes of Homorio con- 
cepUor^ Ho<l JEonior tofd u» tlie etuno etory fts tbo 
Cjipriaii V.[tu% lie wuiild pi<rh:]p« liave made bis cou3- 
trjrmei) express sll the iiidiguation we could deHir?. 

And now lot us coneidor what is tbo view tnkor of 
llic MMliiction in thfi Ilfad by tlic vnriou* pi-reoiis wlioso 
emilruu'iilH urn niitdu ktiiiwri ii} im: iiitd hnw fiir titat 
tIow clu be aecoiiDtod for by the jj^enoral tone of the 
figc, or by what was peculiar to the cliaractor nnd insti- 

Helen herself nowhere niters a word of Attachment 
or of reflpeot to Paris. Kven of his passions she appears 
to have been tbo reluctant^ ratlier than tbc willing in- 
Htttimtrnt^ .She thinks slrke ineaidy of \i\s iirder- 
fiCnndin/;! and of hU coura;:^^^ : and he* shared' in the 
rcbukca wliicb she everywhere licape upon hereelf; 
though, witli the delicacy und higli rcRncmert of twr 
IiTe«nli)t«< but gentle character, she nt^vcr reproaches 
lilm in the presence of his parent^ by whom be oontj- 
nued to be loved. 

To the Trrjjan people he was une<|uivocally hatefnl"> 
They would havo pointed him out to Aj^niemnon, if 
they could: for they detected him like black Dc^tb, 
It wa» by Q mixture of bribery and the daring asseition 
of authority, tlini he checked thosv niov^invnts in the 
Affiembly, which had it for their objoct to cnforeo the 
KStor^tion of Helen to J^lenelaus". Of all lii» country- 

i DiidtsoTf pp. 9 1 6. yngna. ir* jLxr. J II m. 3fl». 

^ II III, 4}^j1i, niit^ vi. jQ 

n^ iii- 453- 

I U Ti. 356. 

' UTti. jS4-€4,M)ilzL laj. 

TUa Ortch foiiinaU t/ ParU. 


mcD, IIocU>r appcure to b&ve bcin most nlivo to hU goWU 
and IB alone in reproaching Iniu witli it*, !t is under 
the iiiflij^tice of a Hliarp n^hnke from HE^ctor, tlmt he 
prf>pogc# to und^ffUko ft itiiipflo combat ^ith M«nelatis»*. 

The onl^T person^ on the Creek Wflc, who utter ony 
ctrong «eiitJiiieiit in re»|)ect to P^is are Dioined and 
McDelaov. Ttis is lingular; for when ^e confifder 
what tt-aa the cause of war, we mixlit have expected, 
Iterhaps that recurrence tn it ^TouM he [>opiilar nnd 
conilartt amon^ thu Greeks. Nor is thts all ihat mav 
excite surprise. Diomed is unmeasured ill vituperating 
Paris, but it ia for his cowardice and effeminacy. The 
onlj Mord, uhicli conips »t nil m^ar the suhject of his 
crim^', i» vap&ti'tiwiTra : mid 1>) Tuiic'kinj? Iiim as a dangler 
after virgins, the brave ton of Tydoim uhoi^w how small 
A phice the original treacherj' of I'aria occupied in hit 

Menelaus, indeerl. has a keen «c?iise of the epe^t^c 
DAtarc and malignity of the outrage. He bcsecchc* 
Jujnter to strengthen hifi hmid n^ini^ the inau vrho 
ha« dciiiu Hueh dradly wmttg, nut to him only, but to 
all the law« which tmito mankind : 

ftu^Q^otiov nana pittxi. o a<u 'piKdT'}Tn uapiiajj)^. 

But then Homer lian already, in the Catalogue, Intro- 
dticed Menelaus to us aa distinguished from the rest of 
bi9 countnineti, by his grc&ler kcinnic^ to rcrengc the 
wrongs and groana of Helen*. Accordingl/t the injured 
bushaiiil retnriiH on otlier ereaaianfi to the tootle: calls 
the TroJAUfi iraica< cmr, and invokes upon them the anger 
of Zc^T ^nv'Df, the Jupiter of hospitality': 

• II, iiL t6-fi> V Ibid. 68-75- t IWd. JJl-^. 

' tL ii. 59a-9«. • U xni. 690-7. 


n. Um: Trt/ja^ut ami UftrJiM ctMi/fortd* 

Thm it n pMn, thut MentO^ua resetilA not only » pri- 
vation ^11(1 RD act of jiirai-}-, but a ba^e aud black bri?ftcti 
oF failb. Jt ill quite plain, un t]ic otlor bund, tliat in 
thi» rc^prc^t be T^tHii^li^ nIcriR- ntiroiig bi» rounlrviPt-iu 
Tboy, I'L^^inliitg the mntter nioni cruHHy, and from a 
dia:aiici% iipf>t-ar to SLfe in it little beyond a violout ab- 
duction, wljich it i\j»erfec'lly ri^ht. Tor tlio»o ^bu can, 
Co re^t^itt £Lnil n-trievi.'', but whieh inj|j|]eft no eiimurdi- 
mtry &dcI clanmiii)^ ^uilt In the per|i<jtrator. 

Hence prol>ably lh:it singular appoai'ani;^ of JL|mtby 
on tbo part of thr firtvlvt*, v^birb nii^bt at fintl aight 
atiHMii to vnCfiil lui tboni a luorul n^pnittrh^ fn norno 
dogrec allied to thut wbich justly attnehe^ Itself to the 
Tn^aii cummnnity. It io not iioH»ibKindoe<l,to taku a 
full :uL-:t^uri< of (heir nfuio nf tnimi ii> reg^iird to tlio 
crime of Paris, vitliout condenmiux ihe vieww and pro- 
pen»itiQs to wliich it wikd due. But tbo causes weru 
various: and the blame they may di-sorvo is both very 
dilVert*nt from that wbl<*U nnj^t fall tijHin th(- Tnijiui^ 
Olid w alio dilfcTont in u iiiodL\ which inny help to 
illiietratc aomc main dUtitictions in the two national 

I speak here, n> overywhero, of ih^ atlju^tnient of 
acts and motives in the poem nt< j>o^tioal factiJ, that ie 
to 9ay,aa placed relatively to one another with care and 
ae^'firncy In order to t^eHalu etlectv; and &« lidbk to bo 
tried under tbo law of effect, just a[^ in a simple bia- 
tonr, all particulars alleged arc liable to be tried undor 
the la>A- uf fact. The a?«un]pl!nn i>f tnith or fahlo m 
the poem doe» not matoHftlly widen or narrow cbe Acid 
of poetical diAnnmloik The critic looki^ For consistency 
aA betiveen motive ami arti<jn, «-au»i-» and tf^^rt^. in the 

n^ Orftk tatimaU cfParitt. 


to Ltlliput t>r Laputn, oa well a» iu ThucyOidc* 
Of ClarwtiHtMi. Thv clilTrrriK-i.? i* llmt, in llm in\vi ca^*, 
our dU«ii9Bion termlDato^ with ihe g^uiiis of the itiren* 
tor; in the other ^^e are verifviDg the life and condition 
of Tnankriiil. 

If Tli«?n 'wv: ftdmil tim nbductioti> and intjuir^ for 
what pmbEit^le ciiu«e It Ik that the wroiiji^, 1)t*ing mo oU* 
v)ou» aiid grofis, wa» not more prominent in the mind 
of the people who had ^iidiin^d it, a part at least 
of the answer in this. We do nut reqnim to go hack 
three thousand years in the history of tho world in 
order to loam how often it Un])pcns that, when n con- 
fict hoJi arint^n IwtWLH^t nations tUt* ori^^inal cauM-» nf 
i^Qftftvl i«iid irroHf«ti1jIy to hecoinc aW»rhL-il nrxl \mi 
in its incidents. Aa lonj^ n^ honour nnd socurity arc 
held to depend more on atfcnf^h than on rights relatiro 
strength must ofttrn prevail over ivlative n^ht in the de- 
cision of <|ue»tic>t]», whciv the- luliitrL-ment nf htittle lia« 
been inroked. Both the willin^ieea of the Trojans to 
restore, and the wi]liLi4^nt<»v« of tlie Ureek^ to accept 
llie atonement, may he t*xptH]it?iit*i of the Poet to give 
a certain moral harmony to his xvork ; of which it is a 
marked feature that it artfully divides our aymputhtcd 
throughout, ao far at least as is nowied for the interest 
nf the [Hjein. On the one side, the ambition and mpei- 
city of Acpiineinnon may hovo induced him not only 
not U> K'ck. but even to decline or di^oumgo accom- 
niodaticiu; which, we may i)bM>rve, lie never pnjmotes 
iu tlie IUujL [laving got a fair cau»e of w^ur, hi- 
may bare bcc^n bc-iit on making the raovt of it, and 
confident. a« Thucydidca believes be w««, in hist power 
to tuni it to aci?(»unt. While, on thtt other band, 
Troy was not ko far from or w strange to Oreeee, a« 
to be exempt from Lbe fear of ap|>earin;r afraid ; and. 


a. lUos: Trrtjurtit and (^<^4 compared. 

until it bfui bo(*onie too late, tbe way have tlirtU^Ut 
her ttalVty would be compromUed by the ftiirrender of 

Itoro iiwy be n-fts'jiin wIit ro^tltntion wa» ueillier 
given OE) ihu one -lide. nor t^tca^Jily kvpt in view ou the 
i»tbi-r ; i-ii[K'ciiLlly ns it v Ast of ctmr^c included in tho idea 
of the cfipture ofibG ohy. But it is not vlc^ir Llint tbi» 
vvmt ciKFu^h to aecijuEit for tUo u)>LUhy of tb<^ Greeks in 
jCentrnii witli rt-sinct to thr vrimt^ of Piiris, which wo 
mi^lii h^vv \'X]n€{iid io find n t'nvmirite and fftiiiiliar 
tapif* v*Tth lii« Dnc<mh'^ nr Inijfi*, in»iload of being con* 
fined, ILK It Is to tlR' iinnunliate eufiiTPr by the WT€Hi|r> 

Now, thtj anewcf to tliU question must after all be 
sought jimtli hi the ]»rL*vatiMit ideiis of the hcrciir flgo; 
and (tartly in tbuiw which were (wcu)iar moru or lm» to 
ihc t<rt*tk prn|ilL'. 

Acconlirij^ to Clinician nii>nilily, the nbcluctioTi aDfl 
np|iro]iH:ii iitii uf ii rniirricd woman u nut ftinijdy a eriniG 
when counnitccd, but ft b a crime that ia sf^^^vated 
by every day. during which her relation with her se- 
ducer or ravischor is continued. This was not 60 in tiio 
lieniic age. 

We ha\x! exampW in the pocin^ of what Homer eon- 
friders to be a contlinied coiifHe of crime* Such is the 
conduct of the Hiiitors in th<? OdyM***y, wh<i for yearn 
together waste the substunee of Ulyesea. woo bis wife, 
i>pl>ro«6 his wiu and cohabit with thu t^erranta This 
W8» hahittial crime, crime voUintarily and detilienitelj 
]ierM'v<-red in, uhmi it lui^ht al any tirin.^ hav<? luwn 

This vici^ms course of the Suitor* is never c&llc<l by 
Homer an urif ; it ifl described by the nainea of ara^- 
(hXim and '/x*/>^n<Ti'i|'. 8ti likewise the series of enor- 
*1Xl&xii4<^ ^Aikt67. tiii^J9J ifcxiLAi ^r OlyiapiM, Hfit.ii.p. r6f. 

iU ntafiifn t4f prrvaiUi^ view* o/ vtarriatfi. WJl 

mitic' rr>mmitto'i by .f^iri>«clui)t» tLc L'on"u|itii>n of Cly- 
tcmncstnu tUc rnunler <if Lkt litiKbund, the cxpuleion of 
On*j<t4:ii nnJ |ini!<iiigt<il usnr|B;ilii)ri tif the Hinnie ; the»e 
■re nevc-r caltod liv tliv iiMnu of qtit ; but ^j}, ami not 
ORti of the ftc^L-rx-r luinicH i^iK^tcd above, ia the a|i|}ella- 
tioii aU'a^t ^ivt-n by llmnt-r tu tlie L^riiae of l*aria. 

The *fT)i of a niiin is a crimi- so far paruking of tlie 
nature of en-or, that it ia done under tbe ioflutfuce of 
pftMioti orvroakoess; pr?rliai>« excluding prL'mcditutioit, 
peFlis|» ftndi ihat iitt coiiM'<iUcnct-» fllllow^|^olIlJlnl'^)ll»ly 
in its train, witlioul n n*jw act of will to draw them, to 
that tlic act, when once coiunuttcd, ih practically irre- 
triv^Able. Smirtliiti^^ arcrndlng to nor»er,was<^vtdi.'iitlj^ 
waniiog Iq tint crime af Piinn, to ^lok it to the lower 
depths of b]ackne*ft. Perhaps wo may tind it partly in 
the nature of marnaKe, 09 it wuh viewed by liis a;tc* 

Ilnving taken Helen to Truy, he niailt' htr bin wifL\ 
und hiH wir« s\\ts continued until tbe cud of the «Iogi>. 
Wc fbouM of course Miy lie did not make her his wife, 
for site vras the wife of auotber man. But the diHtlnc- 
tiuii belwot'O intirnai^*- r/** fof:it} and nuirringe d^ jure, 
elear to ii« in the hplit of Divine Revelation, n^aa leM 
elcar tt* the age of Horner, IJcIen was to Faria the 
nniitifflR of hifi household; the posMeasor of his affec- 
tioiiB, such as Ihey wijre; the «oW sharer. fli>puR"ritly, of 
hie digniliei^ an<I of \\\h bed. To iho mind of that period 
there? was nothing dishonourable >u the ooancction itself. 
Hpart from ici^ origin ; while, tu our mind, every day of its 
continuance was il fredi accumulation of it« ^ijIl Tlio 
higher wrong: of wounded nnd defrauded affeetlonw wai 
[lersovial to Mencbu8t In the aspect it presented to tho 
g^neri^ undentiiudit^g, tho ttet of Ftuia, once committed, 
and waM by the e^iabli^hment of the def'ttvto conjiigiil 
reliklion, K-maiued an aet of plunder and nothing ein)- 

SOS II. Iti04: Trojand a»<i Orcekjf compOi'^l. 

To coi«|irt!it*nd tlieae no^iQIl^ tM widHv (iifl'L'riiig from 
our own, ue may ttvek tliuiir fiirtlier illustrauoii by u 
refort^nc» to the esublti;1ird view of bomicide- He, who 
had taken the lifo of n fellow orc-alurc, i*iis l>oui>d to 
xnakr- Htonrmmit Ijv Uir jwijmnit uf u fifH\ If In? ofTorod 
clmL utcMK^inoiJt, it not nuly tlu? cu^toni, but tlte 
duty, of tlio rcbtiont" of tlic ftldn man to iLccofit it. So 
much »o, that the bhint mind of Ajux takcA tln« grottud 
a» the Mimptetit and aurehi for urgum<>i)t with Adilllvv^ 
wbom ho urjcrea not to refuse reparation ofterei by A^to- 
tm.nino[), in considoratioa tJmt nparation {vt^rtj) oovt-TS 
the slaughtor of u brolhtT or a «oti. BeforL-hand, tbe 
Greek would hate S(.*nriJi*(l to ucRC^pt ft price for life. 
But, xhe deed bcin^ done, it eatno into Che r^atej^ry of 
exchai)^:^ble valuutn. Kven m tlic aball'a£^tion of HeJcji. 
once committed, atftumed for the common mind the 
cbaract&r of an act of |>!undei\ diftcrin;!^ fmin tho caso 
of boaiicidc, ioaeniueh afitbethtug ukeacoubl bogivim 
back, but not ditlcring from it oa to the v»vejicc of iti 
nK)m) itttUirt*, howi^vor aygrttv»ri.*d might h»ve bt^eii the 
eircuiDAtanecrs with whirli It wm orlj^irally attcndod. 

Now, wherever tho moral jtidgnienl a^piinift plunder 
has been greatly relaxed, that of fraud in connection 
with it i« mire to undergo a similar process; because, 
III tbo «uDio dognao In which acts of plunder aro ac- 
quitted as lawful acquisition, fraud is sure to conic into 
credit by iL^aiimiug tlir cliamrtrr nf <<trat;igi?tii- We u)ay, 
I think, And an example of this rule in the Thirteenth 
Odyssey ; w here» with an entire freedom from any con- 
sciousness of wrong, IJIyascB frigns to have slaughtered 
Orftilocbu» at night by ambuish. in ounM'(|nence of s 
ijuarrel itiftt lisd previously oecurrod about booCf^. 

Here then we reach tbe point, at whic'li we mu4t 
a Od Kill 3S^ ai 9v€\ii. 

Ami tv Grt^' t^iffU'M of' kiMUcid^. 


tnfce itiCo view ch« i^uvuliar idauM and i^^ndonckti of the 
Grgok niiiiil in llio hiToic agi% ii« tUc^ beur iicccaaaril/ 
uiri>ii ilji ii|i[>rt<ciH(ioii of an jut, liki- tlirtt i>r Pftriti, Tho 
Gieeloi, of whom w© may fairly tako Diomeii as the 
ty]>e, detest ami despite him for aftv?otutioD, irnisotu- 
lion, All J poltroonery: tticac are the i<laL3 u|>pcrmost 
111 their micift : w<- nn? not tii iluulil thai, lii-Mih^ji neek* 
\x\g rG)uiraiion for Mcritflaiis they eoiideiniied morally 
tlio act Tbhicli nmdcT it needful ; wbat \vc have to ac- 
count for is, that tbey did not condemn it in such a 
tnariiier a^ to make tliiti niornl jiir!giiit^nt the ruling 
itIiiA in t)i^ir mindif with r«^urd to bini. 

\Vc have se(^i that, according to llomcr, inBtood of 
Helena having Ijt'rii ori^'insilly the viilling partner of 
the guilt nf Pari^ lur x^us, undtfr her hiii^bijurs roof, bor 
kidnapper and not her corrupter. Her ot&neo seems 
to h&ve coDitiiiied in tins, thnl she ^'ave a hatt-vbitling 
ftwmt to the con«ei|uetiL-L-§ 4if ihe jibdviclioiiJ Though 
nvvcr ciicuping from the sonsa of fchamL% &lway« ru- 
tAining along uith a wounded conscience her orig^nnl 
rcfin<TineiiC <>f cliamctf^ and apjj-nmrritly flnctiiating 
trorii time lo itme in un altt-niuK: iiitrenj^tli and weak- 
ness of homeward longings", the »poc;iK<- fomi of her 
ottence. an-ording to the ideas of the age, wn^i rather 
the jireterit« one of nnreiihtiiig ai^|ni<?scenee, than the 
fact of continuing to rei^o^niso Psrii^ n^ a hmfbstnd 
during the Ui'otime of Moiielnus, It wus the ItaTJng 
changed her linsbanJ* nut the living with & tnau who 
wiut not hrr hui^K'uiil ; itnd lionce we fiiid tbiit >\u' widi 
moat kindly treated in Troy by tiiat member of the 
royal hous*. nsimely Heclor, who was hinidolf of the 
highest morikl cono. 

Tlitt offencii of Pttrix, though idfii («;jccept i.s lo the 

* fScv U> ui. 139. C<L iv. J59-^<- 

XOI lit Itiva: Trofjatw ttntl Utt^a compart 

mere fOfttitutton of )>lu[i(!urc{] grro<l&) a prot^tt> oflVrnou, 
weft mere complex, M(- violated the laws of boajii- 
tolity, an w«3 fiiiil difttinetly rhargeil iijion liim b/ 
Menelausf- He as9i:nie<! tlie power of a husband over 
anotlier man s wifo. Tliis \iq pained by violence. Now, 
panidoxicul as it ni&y appear, yi?t perhaps thi« very iii- 
gretlit'nt of vioIeiict\tt-liWi wv liHik upon h* rvcrii ag^m- 
vatin;^ (ho case, and wijioh fii tlio view of llie Groekt 
was tho |>roper cwiw of the war, (for tlu-ir anxiety woa 
to aviTiigt^ the forced journey nnd the groans of llifleiu) 
may nevertheless have been also the very ingredient, 
which morally rcHleemed tho character of the proceed* 
iijg in (he cyti of Cr<.ccc. 'ibis it might do by lifting it 
out uf the rc-giuii iif wvrv hUmua nnd hjiwjir?^, into that 
class of nmnftti wrong^t, which ihoy hahkually regarded 
84 matters to be redres»o<l indeed by the strong han<l, 
but never as merely lufamons. Hence, when wc fint 
thi' fiRTlsH full of dlHgnnt and nf contempt townrda 
Ptiriti, it h only for tlio elfeininaey iind poltroonery of 
character which he showod in the war. Hi^ original 
crime wa» probably jialliatcd to them by it» »eeining to-] 
involve something of manbnod and of Ehe apirit of ad> 
vuiittinv 8u that we may thus have to seek the key to 
tho inadequate sense among the Greeks of tho guilt of 
I'aris in that whirli> as we have seen, vro* the capital^ 
weakneiis of their niorolity; nanndy, Kh IfgliL eMtinia' 
tton of crimes of violence, nnd ita londency to recog- 
nise their onterpriso and daring as an actnal sct^tt' 
against wbattvcr moral wrong they might involve. 

The clwiiiee kgtMid of HercnU-s and Tpliitus. in tlio 

Odyisay, atlordn the most valualdc and p»intud illustm* 

tion of the great moml <|ueation' betwe&n I'arie and 

Mcnelaus, which lies at the very foundation of Uio 

r II iii. j54» ■ Vid. Od. xn. )?-3o^ 

7%e IVt/Jan ^Ctmate </ Pant. 



gr^at fttnicture of tlie Ttmd For in tlint m^ti atm), we 
ycem to liiiil iin inKtnnco of iiboiniiiabla crime, ivliicli 
DOlwilb^tuiKJing <\i<\ not flculroy tbo cbnnictcr of iU 
perpetrator, nor pri'vcnt Iih Attainiti^ to 0[yTii)>ua; ap- 

'enlly for no otli*>r reason, tjian that it waa a crinift 
'^ob as Ui\d probably rptjuired for its eonitiiTSsi4>ii the 
exercise of mAsculJTic slrcn^b and "laring. 

There remained, however, even according; to con- 
lemporarj tilvft^ quitu onoti^^b uf giiili tm tlio part of 
Parf<L The abduettoii ntid Cfirrii|vti/iti oftx priiice*» w\{k\ 
combined with hi^ jK-rsonal cowardice^ hi* ^-oii^tant 
leritjf and vacillation, and his Tecklena indifterenL-e to 
his countr/« dar/r^r and ftffliirtion, amply aulfioc to 
wamint and ncroiint for Hrmicr'a having rt^prosontcd 
bitn » a pCTSoii;ig<? bated, liatctul, ivnd (;niitemptibl&. 
Utit while lh>< fiimgedfig ruit»idemtionti may explain 
the feelings and langungi* of the Orct'kiK, ftihi^rwiw 
iiiex|>li cable, there *till remain!^ oni^uKh nf wbni at fir*t 
ngbt IB puzding in the conduct, if not in tlie tenti* 
mrnt^s nf tbi^ TnijiuiH. 

We ask ourselves, bow oonld tbe IVojans endure, or 
how could Homer ratiotially represent tbem ne cndnr- 
ivgt to free the gtonoua wealth and state af Priam, with 
tlietr own l\tV9, rfliiiitii*^, and fortlln^'*^ ptit upon thu dit\ 
rather ttian surrender Helen, or support Paris In wlth- 
hohiin^ hcT? The people hale him: the wise Antenor 
o]K4m ut pidilit? runrmhiy iht^ propoMl to restore Helen 
to the Orceka: Hector, the prince of greatest influ- 
eiiee* almost the actual governor of Troy, knew bis 
brother's guilt> and reproached him with it*. How is 
it lliat, of all these eleiueiiLs and matcriaU, none ever 
bocome ofiectivo? 

We must, I think, seek the answer to the f|uestions 

• D-iii. 46-57 


II. Jtioit: TV<>/'i'M ffw/ '//vW'fl '^firi*p^t^*i. 

portly in the tiiirorcuce of tlip oif>ral tone, ond llie 
moral cotie, among (jreekn and Trojan?*: part tr in tbo 
fliflereiiee of their p<iHtic!tl Ttii.tttiitimi<. 

W« shall find it probnblo thiit, nUliouj^h ihi^ oatcii- 
oiblc prnilegea of the people were not lew. yet the 
Name tpirit of free'Imn itifl not jienmtr Tmjati iii»ti- 
tutjan^; that tlidr l;in)?e ^cro followwl wiih ii niftrc 
servile reverence by the |jcople ; that authority wnw of 
more nvsiW apart from rnMonnI |>erAua»ion; thai amiili^t 
equally strong seiiliinf^ntfi of eoinii^i^ion in the faniily 
anrt the tribe, there Mas mueh lens of mom) tirmn<^efl 
and decision than amonp the Greeks, and perhaps also 
a far ]rja close Jitlhejviiee to tlie great lawn v? runjti^nl 
union, uhicli had been violflleil hy th^ act of Pann. 
Indce<l it would appear from the alhinon of Hector to 
a Innic of rtoite**. tliat ParU \rttn probniily by hiw snib- 
ject to stoning; for the erime of ndultery: :% etirIoti« 
remnant, if the interpretation be a eorroct one, of the 
Btem traits of pristine JuHiet* and seventy, still re- 
memlierecl amidst a ]>revalent ilifwolution of the fltrieter 
Tnorn) tiv^. 

Although it ref^tdtf: frrmt onr pTovlouE inquiries thnt 
ttic plebeian t^thMretfim, so to upcak, of society, was 
}]i-ih:i|)8 neiirly the wtne hi both eonnlnt-it. yvi thu 
opinions of the m^^B/^o^ \rould not then hare the same 
eubstanlivoness of ch^iraoter, noTso mnfh independenee 
of *iri;nn, as in times of Chri<^tianity. and of a more ela- 
lM>nLledevch»pnientof freedom and il» main eonditionit. 
Then, mneh more ihsn now, tlio first prfipellinjj power 
in the formation of pnbhc opinion would he from the 
high places of society : and in the hii^lier stphenr of the 
eommunity, if not in the lower, Oreeee and Troy were, 
while efhnirtilly allied, yet nmlerinlly different (w to 

The Th^ata marf mawtat cnd^fiMist, 207 

moral tone. It i« rcmarkflbli?, that there U iio Tif in 

If wo may tnist the goneral olfoct of Homor'a repns 
SGnlalioDR, wc &hall ronoludfl that the Trojans *rero 
more jjiven to the vices of BensunlitT flnd ia]»ehood, 
theGre^kii. on the oihf.T haitH, more iiirliiied to crimes 
of violtMico: itJ fact, Itio latter War the characteristicn 
of a moro mafBciilinCi and tlic fornner of a feebler, 
|ie«j>If, In tlir wonis (jf Mure, the centra*»t shadows 
forth 'eer*afn ruiulaincritnl fL^atiirc* of disthielion. 
wbieh havo ahvayft Iwcn more or less oh^rvahlct be- 
tweu-n the l^iiropenn and Asiatic race'**"/ 

On Inokiiig t»j*ii-k lo the i^revious titslorr i>f Trojr. hp 
find thac LtiomtNioii dofraiided N'eptiiro and A]^ollo of 
tlicir vtijmtat^^d hin>: and Anebi^os mirreptitioitr^Iy ob- 
tained a htx^ed of lior^es from the sire^ belonging to 
Laonirdon, whn \viU i\\% relative''. The condition!* of 
the bar^in, nmler which Parlx fought ^lith MonelnuA, 
are ^hamele-y*!j' and gmT^t^ljr violated. Paiidams i» the 
interral of truee, tri*ur>hennih1v ainift al and wounda 
Menelnnc uith an arrow-; but do Trojan disa|»proves 
the (Icfd- Kiiphorbii* corner behind the di^anned 
Patroclijp, and wounds him in the buck; and even 
|inneol^' Ileirtor, M*efitj^ liim in thiN ruriditiciii, then 

ly conies np and dispateheft hlni. Tli&t the«e were 
'not iwtlated acts. «"c inayjndge from the cirennifltance 
that Menelaus, ever mild and fnir in his sentimentib 
when he nrei*ptJ* the ehalleiijfe i>f Paris, ri'qninM that «hall bo tent for to eonehido the arranjiement, 
becttU:to his Hontt — and lie makoft no cxecption»— are 
Mtucy and raithh;^, vutpiptaXot koi u-xurrtH*. Tliis miist, 
1 think, be tiiken as characteri*tie of Troy; Ihonxh ho 
mildly proceeds tn take oflT the ed^re of hie roproaeh by 

* II. iilio5^ 


IL Jfw: Trajafts a*itt Ur^^ c^wparmi- 

A^ivuir about yontli nrui nj^c. Biil tlio most sran^lfllmtH 
of aJI the Trojan ]jrocuoiling9 accma to have hcun ihts 
©ffurt maile, tliaagli i]nHur<re:»3rull;^. to have Mcir'Iauh 
put to death, vrlieii he came on a peac<efiil itiWnn to 
Ticmaiid llio restoration of Lie wifc^. 

Nothing of this ajmiratioii for fmitd Apart ^m 
fvrrvi AjijH-nrK 4^fltii*r in tbt? rotuluct at the Greeks 
<luring tho wnr, or fn tlielr )>Hor hifttorv : and tli^ 
pa3^@:c n-ispectingf Aulolycua, whicb, more thun aiiv 
othCTj appears to give countenance to knavery, takes 
liU ca*i(.> uul of tile eatt^gorj- of ontinaiy hjniaii nrtitiii 
by placing; it in imuiodiato njTatioii to a cloky ; so that 
it il1u»tratOT<. not tlic muioiml Hinnictcr as it was, Ijut 
r&lher tho fonti to which tlie ^owin^ corruptionfl of 
relfgion teiMed to bring it. Yet, while Homer gives 
to the Trojans alone the diameter of faithlefcsnee^ lie 
everywhere, as wc mutt sec. vindicates the intellectual 
eu]H.*ri(>nty of llio Gri-'cks* in tin- ttrratagenis of the war. 
And if, aii I thiak i* the i'uhls I huvo Huocevded in 
proving abovu that the doctrino of a fnture state was 
less lively and ojienitivei imtong thi? IWjjiiim ihaii nxnnng 
the fireeks- it is certsiinly insirmnivt> (o view ilial de- 
ficiency in connection wiih the national want of all re- 
gard for trnthp This diftercncc teaches ua» that the im* 
precations against perjurers, anH the prcsporti of future 
punishment, were |>robahly no c«ntciTj|ittble nuxiliarivit 
tn ovoreoTuin^ tho temptations to present falsotic«4, with 
which huntaii life is everywhere beset. 

Aa rt-hpectft sensuality, the chief points of diHliTu-tioii 
are^ that w^ find a particular relation to this ^ubjeet 
runnirg down the royal line of Troy ; and that, whereas 
in Greece we are told occaitionally of some beautiful 
wcniaii who Ih setluiW or nLviHli(.^d 1>y h deity, in Tn^as 
we find the princes of the line are lhom« to who»e 

7%^ 7^nn» it\oTt s^uwii atui/aUe, 


III llio former en«e a veil was ihrown over kucIi eiib- 
jepta, but tliGt in the bttcr no scosc of elmmc rt^quired 
thent to be kept secret. Ttic ciucs tbat coinc bt^Fore 
lis are iIiok* «f Titli^nnTft, who iv **ai(l U> Inn'oiiie t!ie 
lLti»bati4l of Aurora; of AiioliiKcs, for whoni Vt»nuft eoi\- 
ci^Tca a paaAHfii ; and of Paris, on whom tbo antiic deity 
cODfCTS the evil gift o^(1om^e^ and to whom she |iro- 
ini4o» thf^ niottt lieHiUiful of vonieii, tlio \rife of Mcrio- 
lans. All thoiieuro slorios, whk-h ftecm to hiivo lernlod 
to the fame of the |iartie^ concerned on enrth, and by 
no means to their dWi^edit with tin* IniiiKiHal?^, And 
ajvam, if, ao ftome may take to 1>o the oaee. mo nr^ to 
interpret the three hV^q*'' of Troas na local deities, how 
rcmaikabTe is the fact that I lomer Mionhl tbtiti dcmrribc 
tlj^m HH taiiiled with fuiwimis which nuwhere itpiK^nr 
among tho eorre¥j*<*iidHi^ onl^r Mithhi the Greek 
cirdu! Tlitm--, iniilc deities nlonc are lii^entioiia, Juno, 
Kliacrva, Diatia, and IVn*e|duine, whom alonr mo ran 
call |>ro|K'rly Greek gv^ddesscs uf the period, have no 
eitch impuro eonnecCion with niortaK as ihe godflebses 
borli of the Trnjan and of the I'bcrniciaii imdilions, 

Wo hrnr indeed ofOrion'^ who wrw al»n the eboiee 
of Aurora: but we cannot (ell wbelUtr W belon^i^'d 
more to tbo Trtjjnn ilmn to iho Greek bmnrit of the 
common »tcm. To tin? (irei-k nu^u hu oaiiuot ha\b K-eii 
alien, £ji be h Among Gnn^k eoin|iany in the Eleventh 
OdyaBoy : but then he is iiot tbero as an otyjdct of 
honour; he appears in a etnlc of modified Biiiferiny, 
eti^ged in an endlew «ha:«e^. We \\\^n lind [anion, 
probably in Crete, who h n.»poried to liavo iwin \nwA 
by Cerea' : but he was immediately consumed for it by 



IL iUoB i 7*ri(faH* ami Ortriis ctnufrarrrt. 

i\iv cliumlt'tWIt f>i'iii|iiUT- Ami *" th(? <li-ti*iuiun nf 
Ul_^-w^ by tlif l«*autifiil mu\ inuiiortal Calv|M*o is uoi 
in Hoiii^r u ^li>ry« E>ut a calamity ; nnd it allays none of 
tlie imi'^ioiiatfi longingf^ of that lioro for hie wifo and 

Tlie marktvl coiilmBt. vhicli these* ir'^'ip*' t*f ''in- 
dents present, if pcrlinpf* j*L»tncwli«t liuiglitcnod by the 
cntliiiMfliflic obf*crvfttio« of the Trojnn KUlec^ on the 
Wjill in the Third IliniM. nuinj^h susceptible of B 
pHCod seti^e, vGt. wtion tbt? old a^e of the persona H 
taken into view, the passayc scemji to be in barmonj 
witli the Trojan cbnnictcr at Iftrg^e. rather titan tlie 
Qro^k : iiiid |u*rhup!< h uvax brar >;Dmi> niuilo^' to tlie 
Hocmious ^I(mc4>a of tint Snitora'". If ws it h very' 
viginlicftnC that Homer rthmild m^ign to iht^ inoei 
veiii*ralde **Wer* (»f Tn>y, what in Ore*("r* lie dot* no* 
think of imputing except to libertine*, who are About 
to fdA\ within tho swcq» of the divine ven^wnco. 

The dilftTcncf between the races in tJii» rc«|KN:l 
Mwmi<i to bave het>n di^'ply motetl* for tliere it «vi- ' 
dently some corresponding dllVerenee between their 
viewfl and n«aj:efi in rcs;>ect to marriage. 

The character of I'riam, which haA beea; bo happily 
(Conceived by Mure", undoubtedly Iwar^ on ItK »wy 
mirfoee the fault of o\cr indnljET^nct', along with the 
virtjc!! of Rcntlcncw and great wamith and kct-nn»0 
of the nfTcrtioiu, But it may hr- dmtbU^d, vlirlhrr thtf» 
poem^ warrant our treacinj^ him as Individusilly dlfMn- 
lutc. Him life wan a donn*»tie lifo : but the family was 
nne constructed according to Oriental mai^nen. Ao- 
cording to those manners, jiolygainy and wbole«ife 
eoneubiiiage were in some eeufte (he privilege, in an- 

• l^t Gntc^y^ vol I p. 34 1 and ^^77 

T^^irsiii ftfnru and mmi^iv iffy 


llit'Hu tibu«i>4 tiiiitiC tle(^*K^mly btr from ttioir nature (snH 
OS tlioy even now an* tn Turkuy), to tho highest rankH 
wliortsver llnjy prvvnil. Tin; liouHfrhMkl nf iM»tii, noU 
vrithslAuUiitg Lia <!iversilW n-laf iuiu tft woiik*i\ ii* fi* re- 
gularly or(raiii2or] as tlial of IMysses: and when h<^ ^poak^ 
of bis TOflt faTiiily, con&tiuitcd aa it was, be mftkca it 
kiiowD to Acbillcs. in ft moment of a$oui^iii$ eorrow. 
Qiul ovidmjtly by way of liH^iii^ » daim for symiiatliy". 
tbot]g}i ibo cflfcct ^»l^on mod^jni onr* may K- K}tiie\v1i»t 
ludjeroiiv. "I liatl/ b(* Mayti» ^fiftr §oiis: luiu-teL'ii frmn 
a single womb: the rent fnmi varioiiM mulhert iti my 
palara/ He mij^bt have added that ho bad also twelve 
iJauj-htcr^P, whfim be probably does not neptl to men- 
ticn OH tlic occ&Hon. as in this department lie wa» not 
a bim*jLvi*f| |»sri*iit. 

Hecuba, the oiotber of the nineteen, was evidently 
poeaecned of rigbtfi and a portion peculiar to lirr&ulf. 
TTi* very peaaage la«t ijuotoi distit]guiBbe-.s hrr from 
thn y^tvaiicn, and tbrotigbcwt t\\*i poem »hu nicivc^ 

Of the ehiMn-n of Priam wcmoc^ trith a £:rGftt number 
in Tarioiis places «f the potrin. 

Tlwpe are, I tbink, five erpi^wly metitioneil at 
diildrcti of lleeuba. 

Hector. I), vi. 87. I^ai^ilicc, vi. i^z. 

Helrnin, ibid. DriphnbiLs IK xxiLjjj. 

PaH», (beeau«o Hecuba was Uy^pk 10 Helen,) 11 xxlv. 

Next, we have two children of Laotboe« danghter of 
Altos, lord of tlie Ix^le^ans of PedaRUs, 

LycAon, [L xxi. 84. Polydont^ ibid. 91, 

" IK xxi*. 4W7- ' *l- ^^- **S' 

1 Sm paniouUffy T\ $7 ukd tM^q. 364 and m^i^ 

P 1 


II. Itios^' Trojam €tnd Oreaks c^npared. 

Next Gr>rgythioo,sciD of Kafitianeira, w'bo came from 
Aistinip, (!J. viii, 502). 

Then wo have, widiout nieiitioii oftbe molher* 

II. xxiv- 

Troiloe, II. xxjt, 257. 
EcheJumcn^ r, 159. 
CUniinkicis', ibid. 
Aiitipbo^ iv.490. xL lot. 
Ccbrioncfit viiL 318. 
Tolites, ii, 791. 


CaasandrA, xxiv, 699, 
Mentor, xxiv, 257. 
Aod, la«tl^-, illegitimate (voOm)^ 

IsoB, II. xu 101* DcmocooDt iv. 499. 

Dorjcloa, xi- 489. M<rcli'»icu»ti*, xiin 173. 

Tbo most itiijitkiiniit outicIuhIoii i1i*riviiblc from the 
oompiirifioii of the immcs tbufi colleotcd \»j that tbe chil- 
dren of Priam, and consequently tbcir mothers, Iclt into 
three rank** ; 

1. The children of Hecuba. 

2. The cliildrcn of bia other wives. 

3. Th(3 cbildrcii of concubin(^» or of cbance attach* 
tiit*nU), hvhiJ w(?n*, uaf^ot, bu^lurdii, 

Tho name i^o0ov Arith Homer, at leiwt amon;; the 
Greeks, ordinarily marks iufuriority of condition. 
The mothers of the four puOoi arc never named. Hkis 
iniiy, liuwuver, be due to accid«^r)1. At uiiy rate 
Lyoaon nppcarR fx> hare tlio full rank of a prince; 
bo wa»once nin^ouicd ^ith the value of a hundred oxen, 
aiivl, when again taken, \w promiaes tlince as much; 
again, in d^Hcrribing himself an tlie half-brother of Hector, 
lie nvowe nothing iilio Bpurione birth. The tofercnco 

' Poosiblj one of th*>c 19 r^», the tm> vroidd h*^ the choriotow ; 

ni^gitiniHtu - for they urc to- wliu nfm ffirainonlj^ Uiougli not 

f^eUiCT ED tbc eofnc {^boriot, M fttwAyst «a inferior, 
Auttj^xw ftuii Ini w«r«- Obtt of 


Th^famify ofPttam. Sid 

ti> liim Sy PHnm ox|)lfLln« In« position more ol^iirly. and 
jilftccfl it boj'orKl doiiht that Lnothoe wa* fccopjiwcd iia 
a vife. for ehc brought Friam a lorj^c dowry'; end if 
her Bonfl be <lead, s&yn the agrd king, 'it ^^nll be an 
nfflictioi] to mo and to Ihdr motln*r/ The hviguago 
UK^ in iinoUjer pnt^ago about Polydoruft ia aUo con- 
clusive', lie ia dc»cnbe<l aa the youn^st and dearest 
of the soiw of Priam, whieli evidently implies his being 
in tbe flilleet sense a member of the fnmily. Agniri, 
in the palace of Priam thcro wcro seporatc apartnwiits, 
not for the nineteen only, but for the fifty. Tim* they 
Net^Ti 1o hnvc (jiehiiled nil tbtf three e1a»8es. Ro that 
ft Ifl probable enough that the ittate of ille^n'^^^^y ^^^ 
not draw tbo wftmc clear line as to rank la Troy, which 
it drew in Greere. 

Lantboc, innlher of Lrcjuin mid Polydnni^ wn* n 
v'oman of princely mnk : ami when Lyca^in nay* that 
Vmm bad many more bofidrs her", 

he jiTobably fnoaii« many more of the »nme condition, 
wives aD<l other woM-boni vomcn^ who formetl part of 
his faniilv. 

So that Homer, in all likelihood, Dieaiis to dewrribo 
to u> the threefoM order, 

1. Ilccubft, &8 the principal queen. 

2, Otlirr wive^, inferior htit disthif lly iwTcnowlcdgH. 
3- Either concubines rec<>gniacd aa in a pu«itiou 

wholly subordinate, or women who were in no pertna* 
nent relation of any kind with Priam. 

Beyond the ease of Priam, wo haro sh-nder mmnfi of 
aweriaining the n<a^^« and idea>i o( nmrriage atn^Mig 
tlie Trcjmi9< AVe have Andromache, wifo of Hector; 
IlelcD, a sort of wife to Pans ; Theano, wife to Antenor. 

* n, 3uii.SJ,3. t U.XX- 497. 1x1:79, yg, " H u^-l^> 

and priestew of Minerva ; wlio alsfi took cliai^e of and 
kronf*1it n\i \m illegrtimato eon Ped^u^'^. Tlio maimer 
In whicti thb is mciuioiicd, a^ n favour (o h<rr husbands 
refrAinij^how^tlmt ttcnmrk of W^tiintv vat not \»-liolljr 
Qverlimked, even {» Tri>j\ But, be-^Mt-* ibi* Peria-mi, wo 
moet ill different pla^ee^ of t)ie IJiad no Ice^s tlinii ten 
otlier eotifi of Anteiior^ all. J tlitnk, ^vitliiti tho fighting 
ngc. This ia not dcinomtrntivx, but it raises a pro< 
«Lini))tio» ihat M>nie of tUein vievii prolHilily tlie u>m of 
other wivcA tli/ui Tbofino: who i« iwicv.' diH^rriljed w 
Theano of the blooming' clLin:k^ and am liiirdiv thcro* 
fore be fiup]Hweil t» have re^rhml u verjr advanci^^l 
period of life^. 

But it is ctoar from the important cafio of Priam, 
evtn if it stands nionc, that among the Trcuanw no 
HJiniiie atUuOitv to tbi.i plumlit^ of wii^es, or to liavlng 
rnaii^illegiiimate childrc^iL the birUi of vanoii^i m<;vthorrt. 
It 19 possible that the tnatnicnt of Trov* with r«*gnrd to 
}>olygamy. were at thi^ tJiiio the saftrif (tiuli'T*H gkst to ihe 
ri>»»on given,] uitli t1io*w vhieb Taeitu« astciiles to the 
Germans of hiv own d&y: Sinyttlu ttjvribm cwUeMi 
sunt; rx€cpii-i offmor/um pttnri^ r/wf, not* libiJinc^ ud <A 
no6i/Ufttem, p/urimts uuptiU amiitttitiir', ^Ve uiuiEt luld 
to thie, that Paris, in detaininj; ad liU wife the eponM 
of another man »tili hvin^, does an act of which wc 
liave no exain|dr, to ivhidi wii iind no a|>|irt)ximaiion, 
in tJte On.'ok mannuDi of the time. Uti ii>gi)i6cauee 
is tncrcased, when we fnd tliat after his death eho H 
given to Dciphobua: for this farther union alters the 
individual tiait into one which ranEttionn]. Her f Sn-ck 
longings as well am her reuioise for the ^iirrifhder of 
her honour to F^nn, aflbrd the ^tron^st presumption 

SifrvVrer itito* Qition^ (A« OirrAt. 



Itiat the ftirangemeiiL couM bnnlljr Iiavt* Ifet-n aJf>|>ti^l 
to iii«-<.'i lier own iiioltimnoii ; and that it iuii«t have 
beeu made for her without ber dioiec, sh a matter of 
supposed foiniJy or political convenience. 

We Mrvm tlwnpfortr lo Wi jimtifiwl in eonclrding tlmt, 
a^ sli)glerie«« tltd not rjittx t's«cnliallir into tht' Trojaiii 
idea of niarriageT tu> neitlior did the bond wiili ttioin 
citlior po£«eeB or even approximate lo tJie character of 
indi*M>liibilTly, Th<T dinrnriict" i« wry rtinnrlublo (hl— 
ti^'et'ii the biirror whtHi attaches tu the lintt rriuic? (»f 
.f^sthus ill OmQce^ the eorrnptioii of ClytemLief^tra, 
though it H&a analogous to the act of Paris, and the 
indHferenct} nf iheTrrijniis to th(> olVencu cuininilted by 
their omi prince, UV huM^i no moanc ind^crt of know- 
ing dii\'clly ho\* .V^ii^tbuTt was regiirdod by the Greeks 
&rouii«l biin^ dunn^ iUt? period wbicti preceded the re- 
luni aiid niurdt^r of A^itieinriou. But vm find that 
Jupiter, in the Olynipiaii Toun. distinctly de«eribc« 
\m adultery ae tt sub^tanlive part of bi^ sin*; 
ttv tnl vvy AT7ifi4li>v vn4piMHMr 'ArpiCbao 

And I tbink wt* tiiuv ri*sl luiNnred. that Jupiter nf^er 
would ff,ivii utterance on Olympus lo any rule of 
matrimonial morality, higher than that which was ob- 
served among the GmcLs on earth. 

Sa ajfaint it **tw a i*|ieeilk* prl "f the offeneo of tho 
Suitors in lh<-Ody^i-y, that they ^nijjlit to \ved lVnciIo)>tf 
while her liu^hand viu» aHvu^; tliat is to *ay, bt^forc hi» 
d'^ath waft aM^eruintn], though it wufi rvallj not extra- 
va;(unt to [>r&«fnnie that it had occurred. 

From both tiioato inF^tanei.% and tnorc eepmally from 
the luit, we muaU I think, re^wmably conclude that the 
moral ruil» of <ireere wa^ fur nture adtiU'^f to tlu? act 

• Od.i.j3. 

•> Od, xxii. jy. 


21(i II. MW: 7V<itaiu ami Ort^s ci>mpartd. 

of I'atis. coitsidered as an oflfeuce against matriinoQUil 
liinii, thnii lbi» en rre^pon fling ni\v in Troj- 

In coniieclian wlili ibis inpic, w<' iimy notice, how Ho- 
mer has ovcret^irca^l ttjc I>nn1mi:(l fatnil}^, tit the epoch 
of llje war as well as i[i former times, with rediinflaiicG or 
pprfiQiml lieaiity. Of Parip^ we are [rrepaiW to liear tt as a 
mutt«r of course; but Ik'otor lias al^c^ the ardo^Ayvrnf^; 
mil], even in Ins old jsgc^ tho o^rt ayctifij of Priuiii vra9 
;i(lmiTt'(l l]j ArJiilkT*^ IK-i|ili»liiii* agiMt» Ih ivilIcO 6«»/- 
*-rXof atul (^trm&ti^', mi'l oil twrt of Prlam't* flnughiera 
Kcnnvallyrloes Homer bestow the praineof b<rin;*e]U'h tlie 
inovt bomitifiil' qihoujj tlicin all. With this \Mi» nppa- 
i-ewtly cuttnt'^*t4-c|, in mnuy of thimu t'ffcininflcj, a»* uull 
as iii«iilfMce ami fnlsi^ncwA of rliarartv-r; for wc iiiUMt 
MLppo&o a groundwork of Initfi in tho vi-athftil tti- 
voctivo of tlieir fatlici^ vrho describes \m reiiiaiiiiii{f 
jfoita as (Tl. xxiv. i6i,} 

An iuvvciWo, ^'liich completely oorrei^ponds with thv 
Greek belief coneerniiig their gonemi HiaraL*tcr in the 
Third Uookff, Thegi'eatCinrekhenK'S are also beautiful ; 
but tboir mere beauty, |mrticulei'ly in ibe Ilia<l, is for 
the most part kept carefully in the $hade>. 

\Vc nill turn now to the political institutiona of 
Troy, LvnH advanced t<»wanl» organijcallou, and of a 
le** Hrin tone than in Groet-c, tbey will ludp to ifxplahi 
how jt could linf>pon that a peaplo s^hould bear pro- 
lon;;cd calMmity and eonstniit defeat, and could pfv« on 
t(> final ruin, for the \i'i<?ked and wanton \vrong of un 
nidividual prince. 

It lias been noticed, tbat the idea of heredilarj- tfuc- 

' IL ixil370L ^ 11- 632. ' The HcEiac* of Apurnt in Ho- 

^ II. Kii. 91- nnd Ck\. 'w. 1^6. mtr. iLuivu^ rinpWlii-. ih not m\>- 

Scc *lw the ouw 0/ Eupliwfl-uji, Jl folutc. 

xvii. 5r c Itm, rodi 

TrtrJKtH pfttll^ feM ^tr/^fy Orrftnuz^ 


Cdrian was iU-fiiiit<% as well a* ramSltHr, in Greocr. In 
Tmv it ftiJiK-ani to liuve bt^uii k'S» so. And Uiis !« cur- 
Iftinly what we might ex|'pct from the re^^o^iiticn in 
fliiy fomi, however qualificfl, of polygamy. It toiida to 
coiifuiitiri the |iot<it[(in of niiy une t^ife. althougli sup* 
jKued aii|mMJKS uitli tlmt nf otiicfx; find in coiifo<in(t- 
iiijC thc^ onlvr of ^uccea^ion^ as among tho iftsuc of 
diflcroDt ^rivc?, it altogether breaks up tbe eimpHcity 
of lb» nik of iirimogL'nitnre. 

And ii^ii, if, n» we shall prt*»cntly hw, iIk' Trojan 
rteo had n Icsb dovelotfc<l en|iaeity for [H^itieal orgaii- 
iuitioii, ibey would be los» likeEy to e^tablivh 41 clear 
rule and (iraciiee of tiuoeeh^ioii, wbicb is a jirliiinry ele- 
ment of |^4>litJeal of^**v ill n'^ll-govemed coantrie^. 

The evidence as to lUo Asiatic mlc of inlicritaiiee 
is* I ulo^it, JDdirect and scanty: nor do 1 attempt to 
placi* ttlmt 1 have now to oRirr in n rank liighcT thini 
that of I'rr^bAble conjecture- 

J. Sarpt?don wdtf cIcaHv k'a(k-r of the 1Jycian^ with 
M>riict kind id* jiit'crdeiKHf o%'ur Oliiin'iiei. 

The j^ncml i4^nonr of tbe poem clearly frivet this 
imprce^on. He epeaks and acts aa the pereon princi- 
piilly respon&ible'. But hy birth he v^ha inferior to 
Glsiicut; tor \w was the gmndson of lielleni|iliiin only 
ill tlio femAle lino chron^h l^odamia, while CSlftueutt 
ttood alone in the mnfe line tlirougU HIppolochu*- I 
do not ftfiiture I0 mly much on the mere onlcr of the 
name*; aud therefore I do not prew the fact, which 
indeed is not needed for the argument, thiit it makea 
Ijaodaniia junior to iIipj>olychtj**. It will Iw etid that 
Snrpediin wivf^ in chief command* because he wa« of 
itu|iorlor moriu But among tlio Gn?ek» w-i? Im^e no 
iiutanoc in v^hieh bU|>erior tnerit FTivett iirecmincnce as 
' See IL V. 4^7. 

aXa II. itioi: Trojoits and GrteJtfi r&mf//.tmt 

Ag&iaet birlb. Ant) tbe mimution ofilfviTiL^nrijrinvlcvrly 
oould not put fiside tlic jrmr riglit of 8iicx.vw<ii)D- 

AgaiD. both Sar|K'doii and GJaucufl nrc both CNpTt-^ljr 
<<al1ril ftumXTif^^^ kingN. Now^ Lliev yM*n*. fin^i couAiaa, 
ami clit^y Ul'^nf^il t^i thu ^nie kiii^iloin. Hippoloolius 
ftU!» pot'hnjitt titill aljvc'* ; for l»c ^vc (>laucuB » pfirtiiJif 
<<tiai-gi', »nil liii^ ilt^ath is not itientioiici). Iti Grccco wc 
fiiHl tbe beir ap[)sirent r&lk^d kin;;, nmnely, At'liillus: 
but tlic title i» iiowr giv<?n to more tliMi otK' fjcuioii 
fettiudiujT iti the line of ttucci'twion. A |>o:K»iblu tAj>}a- 
uutioiT, I Uiiiik. K tliat rl^o Ijvr.inn kiiigiltihi had beeii 
divided^: but if cb)« be not so, then the u^of tho tena 
hcemB to jirovQ tbat in Asia all the ctiihirctii «f llic 
common auccator bltrocl, or mi^jt stsud, upon tbc ?^iiio 
footing br birth : and as if it wnii* k*ft to otlii-r ratim'x, 
instead of to a dcfinlto and tinj^W rule* to tlutentihie 
^*ho ;«honld succeed to the throne. 

'1. Iti ji fiirnior part 'if tlii^ Mork^. I have ettated reo* 
M>ii$ fur iiippoKiag tbat -4!neas represent<?d the pidor 
branch of tlie house of Dard^uiu^. But, whether ha 
did 50 or iiot^ it h HuflicietitJy clear from the lliitd tbat 
hi7 was imt without pmU'iisiiinn to tUv ?iiii*ccs>iuii. Thu 
dignity of \m f;Uher AnehiMCH U tiiarked hj hi« remaiii- 
iiij^ at Oimiania, and not a|ii>eann]y: in tbo coort of 
Priam. il^ncoN habitually abstains from attending the 
nietliiig^ or awv;inhbt^ for coriMjItation, in which 
Priam, wberfi they are civil, am] Hi,cior» when*? they 
are mftitAry, takee the lead. Achilh« t&uutft him ojc- 
prL^wily with looking forward to the succession ailer 
ihir dcaLli of PnAm, and wiili the anLici|Kttiuii of iiublic: 
ImidA u'bic'b he ^lus tn gut fn>iit the Trcii&iis forthvitti, 
if lie could but sUy the grunt Grt^k warrior The {mr- 

1 tl. nl^t^. ^ II- vi307- I H fi tn 

k On ill* Afu{ ->V<^ (^* At'liMo, WC4. IK. 

SncceSAttM to |A« Tkrw^ ^Pt'lam. 


ieiilnr 8uccc(«ioii, to wliifli the t&imt refeni, is iiinrkcd 
out; it is Uie doEijiiiimK not itvcr iIji: uiqic l>aTda- 
tiiniix, Ifttii over tlie T^iwbc iVx^Aijuoi^, In folluwing 
ilon-Q the j^dmIo^, iEness does not sdhere to citlcr 
(jf iho two line* (from llus nnd A*«tnwnu ni*|K-ctiv«lv) 
throMghoul, ji-Hw*umr»aTid tlicrc-r<»rv »u|>rt-iii^; but, Afher 
imtiing l\w iiiti* of IIiih tincT in tite t>sirlier part of the 
cliah, he places \m oun Inrth from Anchi^e« before 
that of Hector from l^ain. 

.A|inrt from tlie (juL-^tion icfiicfi was tbc older line, 
the elTeK^l of iill tfaoKo imriinilaLrK, lukcii ttigetiier, U to 
show an ini!otvriniiMtL*iir-*w Jii the rule of succession, of 
which we have tio itulicnlion aniotig tbc Greeks. Even 
tii« htcidenl^l iioiici* of the right of Priam to give i: to 
iFjit^m^ if he [iIchmhI, is as much wirliitiit, t'xitinpli! in 
FinythiiijEi; HoDii^r telU Wi of tho Givek luanuera, as the 
common ding power conferred hy the Parliament on 
the CVijwn in Mir TuiJitr prrirHl w^ls at >7inaiieG with the 
geiiL-ntI aiialojfii*4 of Kugliiifj hlvturv ^nid iiistl tut ions. 

3. Th^ thlM ca^ boforo us is one in the family of 
Pri&tn itself. It appears extremely douhtful whether 
wo can, u|}on tbr auLlionty of the poein^ f-ontiileiitly 
msfk out oiit< of his iutun as having Ix't'ii the eldest, or aa 
Miuiding on chat account in the tine of tucce«»ion to tb& 
throne of Priam. The evidence, so fiir 0*9 it goQ», »eenia 
mtlier to |ioirit to Pari?*; while tbc ijuestion lies be- 
tween iihn ^nid Hirlor. 

Tbeocriius^ indeed calU Hector the ehlwt of tht* 
twenty ctiildren of Hecuba. But tliis is an opinion, 
nob an authority ; and tiie number ramcd fthows it to 
W unlikidy tlint Uv witH thinking of hmtortc aecunicy, 
Ibr Homer m% Hecu>ja had nineteen sonm whtir shi» 
had aleo ^veral dau^^blew"'- 

There can be no donbt n-haterert tliAt Hector ^Mia 
tliG iiio»l con^ticuoiifs jifHioii. tin* mowl r"nnii1<'nil*l** 
chani|]foii of tiw city. Ho wa* diar^d exclusively 
villi tlic direction of tin; wnr, mid with the re^iilatiOQ 
of the »<ti|r|ilk'H nrt.'e*isarr to feed the farce of Trojans 
and uf s11le8. PolydaiiKts^ nbo hi often tnlvo?f n dif- 
f(TT«iit \kw of &l!Uir«> aud Sttr|wdnii, whvn liavii^g a 
complaint in rimko, ntike npply to hinu -'Fmeoii is the 
only ^mon \\\\o ^y]n*nr^ u\xn% the field in the mwd 
mnk Willi hiiij, »iiil he Hlaiids in a fiositiun \«holly di»* 
tlncl frcni tho family of Prmm. As nmnn^ thfi nioin- 
hon of ihnt family, there can be iio doubt of the pre- 
eminenco of M»-rtnr. lie wiw, iiidceil, jti artitid fxerciite 
of the heaviest jmrt of ttieduLie« of fifivt^rdgiiiy. /f^.iieafl, 
in the genealogy, finishes t!ie lino of Aeftaraoiia witli 
liimself : and. to all a|>penrance, a^ not le^ it matter oF 
course^ the line (if this willi Hector**. A|r&Ln» the imnie 
A^^tmtimT. a>nf('rrL'd by llie [K*f>|»le on hit^ won, a|T]H'ftr< 
to »!how Hmt t)ic cn^wn was to come to liini. Uut all 
till* in no tli?gpee answers the f]iteEt!on, whether Hector 
held his position as probable kitj)(-4h>igiiuto by lurth, 
or whethcT it wim ratther due to his penional rtualitJCA, 
and hi» gront luid im?;lmrod rcGponsililitiee and exer- 
tions. There are several circumfitanccs. which may lead 
us Uy incline tuwardw the luLter dltenmtite- 

<i,) When his parents and widijw bt?wall hi* loi*. It 
iv the lo*fi of their jp-eat liefendcr and chief glory", not 
of one who by death had vacated the place of known 
Mirn«Hiir lit th« Kiivt?n.sgnfy. 

{20 Had Hector boi>n by birth aj;f^nrcd of tlio scat 
of Priam, his right would have been eu^icnt cmuto 
forgiving to his sou at oiiei; the name of Anttianax* 
But ihU w« »ro told the people did for the expre»* 

^ 11 ULa^^ 

o IJ- xjdi. 56, 433, 507. udv. a^ 

/Wu mo*t proh*ihtij the tld^H-bam. 


reasoa that Hector was iUe only real huUark of Troy. 
It w'cmn uiilikc*lv t!mt hi surli a «*st hh rlinr.irt-*t ns 
boir by Wrtli wonltl have W(mi wholly pui^od l>y. TUc 
imnte. tlicn^foro, appcnrB to tiu^goftt, tlmt k ^vas by pmv- 
ing hinihelf tlie bulwark of ihe throne tliat Hector had 
become af* it w<-re llie presiiiDpTivt* lieir (o it*'. 

Wlioii Hector inkvjs iw vh\U\ in h\)i »rm», lio [imy», 
on the iiifiint'H bclmtf, Umt hi^ may become, like liJin- 

that Is, that hi> ni&y U^conie distinguished ami valiant, 
and may mightily rule over tliu TroJuDg. This K*cni» to 
imiut lo ninTeflwiLJii by virtntj i>f [lersonal ijiJiiliti<-?« mtlii^r 
than of birth. 

There ar^ also sijjdb that Pari^ and not Hector, m%y 
hnvo been the cldc*t son of l*riani. and may h^ve had 
thiLl feebler inrhoate title in Hiirees'tinn, vtliicli, in tlio 
t\%iy of fi^Kx^M^ity, W\* broUier'M »U[itfrior cutiragt; and ehu- 
meter wuM U) set iL^do. 

TfaLi ftiip|)onitinn accords bettor with tho fiict of }m 
having bad tiifliiMic-e sunTteierit lo eaiiM> Llio rofiiHiil of 
the oHj^irial demand for tho restitntioii of Hc»lcn, (xnLce- 
fully made by the (ireek embasey; find tho endurance 
of HO much evil by his country ou Iils behalf* 

It explains the fact of hi* having had a |»»lRee lo 
bitntH^Lf on Por^nius; a diKtinvtion which bo ^harotl 
with Hector only', for the iDarried ftons aj well as 
ilaitghii^nt i)f PHiirn hi g<?ueml HK?)>t in ^vpartmenlA with- 
in the palace of their falher'. And also it aecords with 
his origUml expidition. which was evidently an aflair of 
great jKLins nnd coet ; &nd with his bein^ plainly next in 
military rank lo IK^'tor nmoii^ ihv voiv^ <»f Priam. 

r U. VI, ^o3. ind xziL ^06. 

1 R «. 477. 


] I . //loiff ; Tn^/un^ auii frrrrk'ji cowjunt^t. 

P«rthpr, it wouM rijilnin ttie fiirt. (illirn*iw vcrr 
flifRcnll tn rioni with, tliat nloDc unnmg x\w rliildrem of 
Pmnu Pikri« or AloxniKler '%* liom^ureil with tl)c Mgni- 
Kcflnt title of fiti<rt\eCv^ [Ielt-im4< is caIIoiI an^, and 
Hecfc»r ita/^ijv Xauiv, Ijiit ti«?itlier exprewiioti is nf tlM? 
game rauk, or has a similar <*ft-ect. This exclome ap- 
ptkatioii of the term l^<nri\^^ \s a very slron^ piece of 
evidence, if. aft 1 believe to be the case, it lit iiowhrro 
elve applied \n the lUai) to a pefcori thu>« M'leeti'd, with* 
out iiidic-utiiig cilfior the po^Gsxian, or llie hcrotlitan' 
uxpcctarcy of a throne* 

Antl imJewl, even if we rciuhl sliow (liat lloiiier bad 
applied th^ immo /iatriXti^ to two brothers in ono 
fAmily, llio result wonM ho tlie same, iw for a« tbo 
Tiiaiii rirgumeiit ir* coiicltdlhI. f'-ir thrn^ is no Hueb [jto* 
miiirtrrd mwrlc oftHpiiilitv fniiiid itiiioiig lii\>tbi*nt iii an)' 
of the roral families of Greece. 

Ajjnin; in cotiflideriii^ the Iflw of fluecrffiion among 
the Greeks we have fmiiid four cases in tic Catalogiie, 
where eontingeiits were placed nnder die cominaivl of 
two leaders Feemin^y cow^rdinnte; tboy aro in ovory 
instance hrfilht-r?*, nnd the four dun) rommandn occur 
in a total of Lwt^nt.j'tnntv Or h-l ii» Mutt? ihr ra**" in 
Rnolher form, so ii» to include Uie ctmos of Ba-otla and 
EJiH. Anion^ sixteen Trojan contingents, there arc but 
!>ix wbere the chief ftuthoritjr U plainlv in a 6in;^le tiand ; 
nut nftWiMtt)'*nine Greek contingents, then* »re twenty* 
chreo, and, of the remninin^ six, fonr are tbo cas«fl of 
brotbefft. Tliis fact is material, ns tcn<iing to thow ft 
looker and li^^ elTi.s-livr mititnrT orj,'ainxat ion in thn 
rarihfi of the Tntjariit and chi.^r allle«, (ban hi iham of 
the GrDek«; a cimiinptance which <loee not prove, bnt 
which hnrmoni^cs with, the hypothei'ia that they yrere 
wanting lAsn in a defined order of fiuer(*<Mioii to tlie seat 
of pMiiicfll powtT. 

Pariit MOit ftrnlaUti ittf ri^t-M-iMrn 


firrc are otiicr n^asons, Immcdintcly conmcUd nith 
llei'tur, W Mtipjtoniiz^ lliAt Ilornrfr intcmlcl to rrpr«- 
wnt Pnri* iik oUk-r thftn Iii*< UnHlicr^ I'flri* Iimi bton in 
marklmni) Tor ut IiML^t twenty y<?an^ ArconEJnj^ in tlio 
letter of lliA poem, ^ Itirli miiHt aI Itrajit re|>re^4)l ii Iniig 
jieriml riftime. RuC Hector lia^i one fliild i>nl^. a bftbe 
in arms vlich i^ in itsolf a presumption of tii^ Win; 
lew advanrofl in life. A^ti, wc most suppn*ie his age 
prol7Al>ly to 1m! nnt vcrj iliUm-nt from that of An'lrn- 
maHi(*. But it i* qui(o pl»iri thnt %\\t^ tin* jj }oui)j; 
nioUKT; sin^c nftcr the stniighUT of Ei-tionjivr fatl>cr, 
Arhillofi ^liortly took a miiHom for licr motlK^r, vi\\q 
tber^iipi»ti iiY'iit Imek to the house of lier own fath4-r, 
Andronincho'fi matemnl p^mndfiithcr, ami siihsi>qnentlj 
(heil ll*<*re°. If then the pnuuifttUKT of Aiulroniucho 
wan nlivc M-heu Tliebo wa« takon, and I It-iTtor* age wa» 
in dnc pruporlioii n» hi r own. he must in ^\\ lilcejjhood 
Uav© b«t»n yoangx^r than Pari'*- A;;aiDt i^ m^J" he noticed 
that l!w term f/3^ ib nowhere aficrihcd to Paris, hut it is 
a»i^'ned to Hector At hift dctitliV Notwithstanding its 
coinpIimetitAn' ui»e for Ulpm^ in Od.^iii. 1 33, tl^at Hx>r<) 
has a orrtftin Icoiiin^j to early lift'- But wo havo a 
stroller, and ind^-ed I think a eonrlnsive argumiml in 
the »)KH^di of Andnmniche afler hin ileath' ; 

^p, in' ^imo^ 1*0* wA«n. 
Tlin^ he ie diistiaclly called youuf^. And wo may con- 
sider it nlMO*t certain, under tlic^c circurj^tftnee** that 
Pari«i tva« ihr fii>t-horiiKouc)f Prinr])',hiil that lil^ right 
of eueee*<*if>ti ooz^d awny like water fVoni a man's hanJ* 
The relationM of race Iretv-cen the Trojana and the 
Gre<>)cn have already been examined, in connection 

1 ]L rav. 765. ■ II. VI 4^6-8. ooDVVjr tbi* u|3&nktn in tTio tinrilit 
« U. xtiL 363. Qviid iWM f ttf Mth^a rr^rt^t, 

' II njtiv 735, riRnffw t^ottu r:^ji ^^n^ n*sral. 


IL liioA: TroitiM and Ort^ks comp^trfd. 

with Uio great H*>mcric title of nt-af «fJptt*'; nnOcr 
antiie diRu-uUt^n, winch rt^olve tliomseJves into tliK thut 
Homer, on almost e^ery subjet^t so lunilnotiK a giiidi*, 
is in all likelihood hsre, sm it wi^ro, rotaiued ori cito 
ridoof sikncc; nnd that wclinvu noliifonnution, oxcc-pt 
Riicli 7i» lio m:ddcii!nil^ lit* fidl. lint lie was iiruier no 
wicli preoc>cu(mlioii with ro^rd to the inf^titutions of 
Tro)'; BO that, vhito bo ha<I do occasion for the same 
amount of detail as he has given us with reference to the 
Gfpekii, or thp tame inimiU* accur»<7 ns Iic' lias tliire 
olvsorved, <fiiou^di aj^poar^ to su|>jilj' a tolorubly cl^ur 
mid coitcibCcnt imtllnc* 

We have hcen acciiwtoiiieil too negligently to treat 
the Homeric teini Troy, as if It designated only or 
properly a sin;-lo city. But in Homer it much more 
commonly moans a country, with the dty sdniclimefl 
enlleil Troy for its cn)iital, and containing many other 
cities iH-widi? it. Tin? proper name, hnvp-c^xT of the city 
in the poems iH'IXiuf, vf^tT/witj. Ilio« is unrd abovo an 
l]nndr<'d and twenty times in the Iliad am] Oilyssey, 
nnd alwuvT* wLrirtly nic<-iriH (ho eity. The word Tpo/if 18 
used ntarly ninety times ^ri*^ in tlif* pro,it majority of 
cases it means the country. Often it bus the qnthel* 
t^jHitu rfiidof^*>^. rpifitoKa^, mIikIy speak fur tbeniHelvLM. 
But more cnimnonly it ta without an epithet ; and then 
loo it very gonerfllly means the country, ^'lion the 
Greeks »tx^k, for example, of the voyage Tpoi^j^it!, this 
18 the natural flense, ralhi^r than Co auj»|>nAi! h mcatiN k 
city not on the sea shore, and into whieh, till the eitd 
of tho Mcf^c. tlif>y did not find tbejr way at allV 

According to the ^ncftl<*pcnl tree in the 'iVentietJi 
Iliad, EWihLiiij»< hiitll l>an1anlH ninong the tnotinlatnii ; 

' A«lud*, Kcct. ix. ji. ^^r tliHt it mnjr l4n> iiiriiii tltr dratnat« 

■ Oa« oaly cf thn npillxta of II u fCivw^Dr* ii««d II r. :;si^Mid^ 
ibf word llioM KciikA to point out tn four utL«r fiUcM, 

Prutm md htJf dytMAfff itt TVmu^ 


ifa Bon EriditbofifuA becani<! wealihy by possessions [n 
tb« plain ; and Troa, tlie son of EriclitWniuB, was the 
rcftl founder of the Trojan etatc and name". 

Thm the immc of Trocs at tbftt time corcrc*! tho 
wbolc mr*r. But tlio t«wu of Ilifis unist, from its tiKm&, 
Iiave been built not earlier than the time of Uus, the tton 
of Tro«, AnJ now the dynasty separates into two lines, 
as A»anracuH. the brother of IIus> continues to Tcig:n in 
DiiritHiMm. Thii* tho local existence of the Dnrdanian 
numo ifl prolongwl; for it is (ilain that the Dnnlanlan 
throne v^o^ aasociatcil^ at least in tli^ity, xi'ith a rival, 
and not n Hnlxtnlinatv, sovereignty. Still it iloes not 
extend beyond the hills. It was over tliest^ tlint JP,ueitB 
fled from Achi1le»!^. But i>^«n the Dardunmns did not 
wholly cease to be known by the appcllati<>n of Tro- 
jans; for not only <loc« Homer frcijiiciitly u^ the 
dominant name Troths for the entire force opposed 
to the Greeks, which is naming the whole from the 
prrnciftftl part, hut he also uses the word Troes to aig. 
nify all that i^art of the forep, which was under the 
bouw of Dunlnnits hi eSthor branch ; and he distin- 
gniclics this jiortion from the rest of the force described 
under the name iirUovpat^ at the ojMiiiing of the TVoj&n 
Catalogue : 

This liuc is fi^llowed by an account of the vbold 
force opposted to the Orin-1<H, i[i Kixti-en divisions. Of 
tbeso the eleven last bear eaeh their own national 
name, beginning with the Pclasgians of Laris«&f and 
endijig with the Lyciaii« ; and they arc under leaders, 

* IL u. 330. *> Ibid. 189. « IL m. 815. tjc tiktviOT 

n. villi, xiii. 755- ivii. t«. itiMt^^. 


II. llios: Trojaiig and Oreeln e<mtpar&l- 

wbom the whole course of the poem marks as not 
being Trojan, but independent. These eleven evidently 
Avere the hrUovpot of ver- 815. 

The five first contingents are introduced and com- 
manded as follows: 

1. Troes under Hector^: 

2. Danlanians, under iflueas, with two of the (ten) 
sons of Antenor, ArcheJocbus and Acanias, for his 
colleagues ^ 

3. Trojans of Zelea, at the extreme spur of Ida, 
under Pandanis': 

ot 3i Zi\tiav ivatov {/ttoI "noba veiarov 'JAi|r 

4» People of Adresteia and other towns, under 
Adrestua and Amphiua, sons of MeropB of PercoteK : 

ot B' ^AbptjoTtiOi' T tlxpv, K, r. A. 

5. People of Percote and other towns, under Asius : 

o\ A* ipa YltpKtaTTjv, k. t. A. 

And then begins the enumeration of the Allies, each 
under their respective national names. 

It seems evident, that these five first-named contin- 
gents comprise the whole of the subjects of the race of 
Dardanus, First come the Trojans of the capital and 
its district, under Hector. Then, taking precedence on 
account of dignity, the Dardanian division of Mueas. 
Id the third contingent the Poet returns to the name 
Troes, which, I think, plainly enough overrides the 
fourth and fifth, just as in the Greek Catalogue the 
name Pelasgic Argos** introduces and comprehends a 

*i Ver. 816. ■ Ver. 819. 'Ver. 824-6. K Ver, 828. 

I'ii. 68]. 

' Priam and hU tij^na^t^f iu TVmu. SES? 

number of coiitlrig^^nts tlrnt ft^llow, benidea ttitit of 

There ar« *cvoTt»1 i^a^ouh, which toM plainly to tUs 
ciweluftio]). Ttc «cnsc of ^*tKpiOfv (815) «uni the refer- 
ence to tlie diversity of tungiH-s Apnlcen (804) almost re- 
quire tlit< (livUion tiftlie forre betvieeii Troen anfl allies: 
it i« ftlso the most natural itivlBion, Tlii> fjurth aiij 
fifth c<>ntii]^nt» are not indeed cx]>rcis?Ll}' called Troc», 
biit this iiAinE?, nlr4?ady given to the thini may itichido 
them- We iimat, I lldnk^ conu'lude ihm h diM'* so, 
wheri we find clear proof that iboy were not inde- 
fxrndcnt national divisional for the troopd of Porcoto 
wero 111 the fifth, hnt ihe tjnm of Porciieiaii ^Iitojih 
eomintiiHl thvi foLirtli. ft fact inexplicable if clic«i^^ wt^vo 
the forc^?!* of i»dotK*tiilcnt States but riatuml vuotiyli 
if thoy were «il under tl»<r t»iipremacy of Priam and hitt 

In tiK' great battle? of the Twelfth Iliad, the Tr»jan« 
aro TfUTtxj^ Ko<rfAn0trT*i (xii, Sy). Sarpcdon conunuiide 
rlie allk-:^ Viitb Glauoua and A&teroparns (v. lot), thiia 
accuiiniiii^ for ehiven of tht* HixlirvTt divinioiiH iu llie 
Catalog©, ^tineas, with two stona of Antenor, com- 
mands the DarJaiiiiiQs. thus dis|iofiing or a twelfth. 
Again^ Hector, with Polydanias and Cobrion<^ com- 
imnilv the vXfi^rci cnr upfTT«j, evideiiUv the divlvioii 
ittajuiiiig first m the Cataloj^uo. Thix makea the num- 
ber thirteen. Ilie tinvu remaining contingents of the 
Catalogue? are 

u Zeleau Troe«, under Pandarus, (siocv slain,) It ii. 

1, Adrcateana &c. tinder Adrestua and Ampluua, 

(828— 3.(4) bolli slain. IK v. 613, vi, 63. 
3, Percctlana^, under Aftiu« (835-9). 
Tbmo thrL'e remaining dimions of the Catalogue evj- 

Q 2 

S28 IL liios: Ttt^ans and Qrultjt coinpartd^ 

<feiitlj rc-^jiiK-itr in tin* sit-cotid aud third of the five 
OiviT^mn^ uf ihe Twelfth Book. Tlit Secoud is under 
I'aHs, with Alcuthoitv, emi-iiL-Iiiw of AiUcnor, and Ago 
:irr, one of his «ods. In (h<} command of the Third, 
HelenuA ai)d Deijliolmft, two siina of Priam, nre asoo- 
ciated with, and even |>!aced hefore^ Aeiu^. The juieition 
^iven in tlii>«9 divi^ioii« to cho fainilj of Priam np^K^ani 
to pnivc, that \hv troop* forming tliom woro ariong his 

Agnin. the lerHtorial jiixtupohitlon of these di^trictB, 
beCwueii Phrrx>it, which lay behind th^ mountains of 
Ilia, on tho ono side, and the «« of Marmora vrith tho 
/KgH'aii on the; nthcT, iierfi^rtly agn^i* with xhv dcsrrip- 
tion in fltoTwfnly.foiirlh Iliad' of the niiif^tt of country 
within M'hich Priiini Liad tho precmincnco in vvoaltli^AQd 
in the vigour and intlucncQ of his sona. Htmho <)Qotefl 
tbiH passage as ilircct eviik'tice that Priam reigned 
over the country it de?«critx^s which is rather more 
than it nctuallystotov; and he >^ays tliatTroaa certainly 
rt-aclicd to Adresteia and to Oyzicua. 

Agfiiit, we have varioua signs in diflerent pasiageaDfa 
political connection hetween the towu« we have n&med 
and the race of Priam. Mclcrnippuffi his nephew, was 
employed beforo the w&r at IVrcot©*'. Dcniocoon', bia 
flieptimatu son, trndc<l liorhi-J* at AhydiiM; doubllews 
8a>"* Stmbo'", ilie hor^<w of lua father. 

The fiarlial inclusion of the Uardaniane within the 
uuuw of TrotA i» further shown by the rerBe", 

AtvtCa, Tp(£«w /Soii^)70if^»' 

and by tho appeal of Ilelt^niis In /FmcTOS and Hector 
jointly. a» llic por?*onw idtiofly rc«jM>niiible for llie sufety 

fc !L XV. u^. < U. iv. 99. 

" 11 dlL 4H 

iViaot flrtrf fth d^jtto^tif i'i Trotu. 


of tho Troca ami Lyoiaiis: Ihu name LyciuiiH bt-iiig 
takfrn hem, a» in some oilier |tla<r«-»", to flt^Tiiiitt njusl 
probably a mce nkin tc and locally iul^rsperied with 
the TrojatiE, 

But the Dartlimiaim Imvc more commonly their pro- 
\Kr ileMgnatioti neimmtely given tlit^iii. It never in- 
clu<]e» llie True!*, And we never fiful tho two appHla- 
tionfi, TrooB and Dai-danB, covcrinjr the cntiro force. 
Whenever tlio I>Lrdan8 are named vrith tho Troea* 
tltere la al!to finother word, either cTriKwpat, or A^xitu. 

Tlio word Troes, it is right to add. is sometimes con- 
fined Btrictly Co Cho mhabitauts of tUir city: but tho 
occAsions arc rare, unil perhaps always with contextual 
indicnlions thnt such i^ the ^ensc- 

Anollier sign that Priam ex'^rpi^sod a dfro^t sovo- 
ragnty over the territory which yielded the live contin- 
gents may pcrlmps he found in the fact, that we do not 
find ajiyof hift nepliewK in command oftheni. They were 
led by their IochI offic&nff ^lht]o tlio bnitlLoni of Priam 
CODgtitntod a jmrt of the cofiininnity "f Troy, and chiefly 
inflneirced the Aaaeiubly: and their 9un», though np- 
piLri?iitly more con^hlerable pei-^uns than uio^t of tliowo 
local oflicers in geoersil, sim|)ly ap|war as acting under 
Hector without special command, Tho brothcre of 
Priam nrc Lampus> Clytius, and llikctaon. Ilia n&< 
phews utid other relntivts nn; T)idop9( the Mon cif 
Lompus; Melanipptis the son of HIketaon; Polydama«, 
Ilypereuor, and Euphorhus* the eons of Panthoua and 
his wife PlironUs. 

Had the fiemor members of tUo family ht-ld hicnl 

sovereignties, we should have found their sons in local 

oommandB< But we find only two sous of Autenor in 

command, as oitUor colleagues or lieutenants of j^ncaj*, 

» 8«* It Iv, 197, tet^. xr, 485, 

230 11. HifM : Tr<rjan4 and Orf*t* ntinftartd, 

oxer the Dardans, whom we have do reason to sappooe 
tbey had any ehare Id rulrng. 

Strabo, indeed- contends, tliAt there are nine Beparate 
Swaa^Tfitu immediateiT connected with Troy', besides 
the fXfVcM^f. or tfae^ states one he thinLs was Le- 
legian, and was ruled over by Altes, father of Laothoe, 
one of Priam's wives. Another by Manes, hoflband of 
Briseis, Another, Tbcbe, by Eetion, father of Andro- 
mache- Others he considers to be represented by Ao- 
chiBes and Pandaras : bnt this does not well agree with 
the structure of the Catalogue. He refers also to Lyr- 
nefisus and Pedasus ; which are nowhere mentioned by 
Homer as furnishing contingents, but they had appa- 
rently been destroyed, a& well as taken, by Achilles. 
He places eeveral of the dynasties in cities thas de- 
stroyed ; and they all, according to him, lay beyond the 
limits marked out in the Twenty-fourth llj8<K 

This assemblage of facts appears to point to a very 
great diversity of relations subsisting between Priam, 
with bis capital, and the states, cities, and races, of 
which we hear as arrayed on his side in the war. 
There are first the cities of Troas, or Troja proper, fur- 
nishing the five, or if we except Dardania four out of 
the 6ve, first contingents of the Catalogue. Over these 
Priam was sovereign. 

There are next the cities, so far as they can be traced, 
under the Svfa<rT€iat mentioned by Strabo, nuch as 
Thebe, and the cities of Altes and Munes> These 
were probably in the same sort of relation to the 
sceptre of Priam, as the Greek states in general to 
that of Agamemnon, 

Thirdly, there are the independent nations. Of these 
eleven named in the Catalogue; others are a<lded as 
P Strftho xiiL 7. p. 584. 

PMUimt itutitttthw of f'rvt/. 


irljan-ircd in tlif; Tcntli Hooki. m<\ fi^rtber addi- 

Memnon, ami cbe Keteiaiis (inrler Kurypylts'. NotMii^ 
perliapH tond^ so mucli, m tho powerful assistance lont 
to Friam by numerous and distnnt allic>, to slmw how 
Jujitljr In Mj!*H(Hiicf.' Hornet' has ilewcrib^jd Mkt Trojnii 
war ftfi ttio (Hianict betw<>ori the Ka«tvni anil tho We»t- 
om world. The two eonfeilcraeioB, whicfi tlicn came 
into cnlllHion. beiwtfen thera ab-^orbcd tbe v lolc known 
vrorld of Flontor; ami foreshadowed the ;^-at eoiiflirta 
of later epocljs. 

We may now proceed to consider the politienl ili- 
"■titutions of Llic kingilom of Pmin, ivbtrli htiH Uitia 
[ootfidy lieen di-finoiK 

The lUmrtXnff of the Trojans is loss clenrly mark^I, 
tlian he is anionpthe(ircoks: tor (as vre ftbaU Hnd>lbcy 
had no BoiiXi}, and ihereforL? we have not tlie mkho o|>- 
portuuities of wueinj^ the niemfvnt of the bij^lieMt eln^A 
collected for ftoinirote acuon in the conduct of cbe war 
Still, liottcVLT, Lhi3 name U didtioctly given to tUi; fol- 
lowing i^eraona on the Tn>jan side^ and to no others^ 
ri . Friani, 11, v, 4^14, xxiv. 630. 
a- Pari**, iv, g6, 
i 3. Ufaeeu&,\,43j, 

I 4, Sarpedon, xii. 319, 3CTi. 660, 

5. Glaueus, xii. 319. 
ATni>ng the Trojansas aruonf^ the Groeki^ it wak iW 
euMom for the king^ as tliey deM^cnded into the vale 
i>ryenrK. to ilevnhe the nion? ni^uve duties of kinship 
on their children, and to retain, perhaps only for a 
time, those of a twdentary eharaieter. Hence lleetcr 
at Icfl^t rfiares with I'liam the management of Amcio- 
blEes^ H» It i« 111}* nho dl»i«dveH that of The Second 
^ n. ». 4>(*-30. ' Oil, u. S"^a3. • a li. fio$- »iii 4S9' 

Book,and calls the military one of iho Eighth. Ifoneeij 
too. be speaks of himself as the person rc&)TOii«blo for 
ihvt liiirrloiiff iMilnilc^l by <hii HHr ij|jiiii tim IVijniin. 'I rinl 
Ttot,' be iaysi to the allfo^^ 'bring you from your cldist 
to multiply our numbers, but that you mi^ht ciefend 
for nie the wives and children of Trojans; mth thia 
objeet ID view, I e^thaust the people for your pay xnd 
|irovi«ioits^' IlfiDce wo liiive .'EiK^as leadin^r tho Dftr- 
dauiana, Mvhilc hi# ^fitlit^r AncliiR';! nowhere uppcar?, 
and« aft it must be proitumedf r^mnin« in bin rapitriU 
Henct?^ while ten or twelve soni of Anteitor bear arm* 
for Tn>y, and two of them are tlie collcairuoB of ^ncos 
in the command of the J3ardaniaii contingent, their 
(ktlier ap|icar* ani^ii^ the Stjfitfy/poirrtK, wbo n^re 
chief flpenkem in the Assembly within the dty. Wo 
do not know that Antonor wm a king ; more probably 
ho held a lordship subordinate to Priam, in a relation 
aomewhat more strict than that between Agamemnon 
and the Gre<?k ohtvfl&in^ and rather r9«;cnibliti;^ tl^at 
between PclcuK and Monoctiuif ; but tlio same custom 
of partial retirement Heem^ to have prevailed iri the com 
of fliiUtltein rulefK as indeed it would be dictated by 
the same r^sons of prndonce and necessity. 

Tlic ^o-iXr/iV riM^n of Troy was not, any more than 
tIiojH> of Oreecc, an absolute; dcttpoliwn. In TVoy. OM 
in Gi'iVi-v, the publie unkir^ were dlseu^tnl imd »vtt1ed 
in the A^^omblics, though with diir«ronee». which ^tili 
be noticed, from the I'rcek manner of procedure- It 
was in the Assembly that Iris, dis^ui.^ed aa Politea, 
addressed Prism and Hector to advise a review cf the 
army". And it was a^^flin in an Assembly that Antciior 
proposed, and that Paris refused, to give np Helen: 
whi<!m(i[M>n Prinni pmjiir^tHl thii nn^sioTi of Idi>-n« toi 
« a nvll iti-6. o IL Si. r^s 

for n tnire with a view to the burial of cbe deat). 
Wod tlje |ieopte awpiU^d to the prnpnsal* ; 

It waf) in tlie ARHcmblv, too« that thoae earlier pro* 
[NiRfllfi hnd been mude. oT which the frame personage 
procured tb^ deftest by corri;|>cioii. 

L&stly, til tlic Eighth Uix>k< Hccto^^ as vo have 
seen, hoWs fi military ttyvfih of the army by the hnnke of 
the Sojkntantler At iIiEa ho hivitO!< thtvn w bivcufto 
ontflidc the Clirepk ranipart, and they accept bis pro- 
posal !>) acclaoLauon. TMs A^scmijlyon the field of 
battle is an argument ajrrrtioti to t*liow, tlut mdinary 
aflaiint w^ro r«ferr4*d aincnji; tbo TrojanH to t»ucli meet* 
iti^. Wo bu\<\ini1(fod, no detail of any Trojan Aa&cmbly 
except thc4e ihfto. But wo hii\c rcfcrtinccj* to them, 
whidi give a similar view of tht-tr nature mid finictions. 
Idieuc, on liia return, annonncefi to the AssemWy that 
the truco is granted', it ifi plain that llic restoration 
of Ilclcfi was debated before, as well ns during tho war, 
in tlie As*?irdily of tbv (HJOpli-; bcriniw Agamtiniiou 
slays the twD ^ot)» of Antimacbus on the cpccJnl ground 
tliat the father had there pruprk?icd that Mcnclau^, If 
not INywes aliouhl be murdered", when they eafue aii 
Envoys to Troy, for the purpose of rlemanding hc^r 
roetoration. Tliia Autimaebus wa» bribed by Pariu, aa 
tbo I'oct tells U9, to op|KiH' the njeaxiin.\ Agam, 
PoIydaitiAMf in mu-. nf Intt ^pei<rhcH, rltargi*^ Hector with 
having u»ed him roughly, when he had ventured to differ 
fhoan him io the A&semblicA. upon the fifround tliat 
he ought not, as a E>tnmgcr to tho Trojan Siuou to (iro- 
mote dissension anmng theftn ^ 

* a vll 37^ 

T a Tiii. 4^ 54*. 

4 n viL 414-7. 

^ Ibi<L 193. 

« TLxiL9ii-l4. 

Tn^ui instimtioDs do not, then, present to oar view 
M gwvater elevitioo of the roral office. On the coo- 
trvT, it » Fem>rt>b!e, that the title of i^fioy€pmy, 
wtiiefa Homer applies to the chief spevkers of the 
Tn^an Ase^nblj, doC being kio^ is also used by hira 
to describe Hos the foaoder of the ctry'. It is, bow- 
eTer, pomble. peibaps even likely, tfa&t this title mar 
be Applied to lias a^ a younger son, if his brother 
Ananens vaa tbe eldest and the beir'. 

Bat aJthoagb It thas app^ir^ that monanrhy was 
limited in Troy, as it vas in Greece, and that public 
aflair? were coadacted iti tbe a^^mblies of tbe i^eople, 
the method and orgaaization of these Assemblies was 
different in tbe two cases. 

1. Tbe guiding element in tbe Trojan goTemment 
aeems to have been age combined with rank ; while 
among tbe Greeks, wisdom and yalour were qualifica- 
tions, not less available than age and rank. 

2. Tbe Greeks had tbe institatioa of a ^twX^, which 
preceded and prepared matter for their Assemblies. 
The Trojans had not. 

3. The Greeks, as we bave seen, employed oratory as 
a main instrument of government ; the Trojans did not. 

4. Tbe aged members of tbe Trojan royal family 
rendered tbeir aid to the state, not as coaasellors of 
Priam in private meetings, but only in the Assembly of 
tbe people. 

A few words on each of these beads. 

I. Tbe old men who appear on the wall with Pnam, 
in the Third Book, are really old, and not merely titular 
or official yipovre^\ tbey are'. 

There are no less than seven of them, besides Pdam, 

^ H. xi 37. e II. XX. *3a. f IL iii. 150- 

The ^rrmt^r' veifffkt <if A^ in TVoff. 

Tliroo are hie brothers LampuA, Clylim^ lliketaoti; 
the otlient [irclmbl}' relativea, we know not in \vliat 
prerise ilcgroe ; Pantlmus^ Tltrmcptes, IJraleg^n. An- 
t«iior. Tlipy are cutk>d collvctirely tbu Tfnovv iyirop*^, 
aa woll as tlio uyopifrai fV^Xm; and tliL-}' ^v^re itiatii- 
fcetlv bnbitiml ^pcuk«^^9 in tbc AM^onibly. 

Tl(*-ri- is not-luii^ fn i\u* f»rfi*k life of the Iloinem: 
poems ill al comes near tlii^ aj^gregation of aged men, 
Nov we liave no evidenccj that their being thus eolle<?teiJ 
waa in any de;»ree owing to lh<r war. Theano, wife of 
Antoiior, v'iupnesU.'T(5 of Minerva inTroj-; wbit-b mnkev 
it mem pn^bablc that \k rosUlod thi.'ro habituall}^. aitd 
noc only on account of the war. 

The only gnuip at all approHc^bing tins i«, wben> wc 
see Mencetius and Fbeenix at the Couit of Peleus : but 
we <>aimol say whether this was a permanent armngo- 
ment. Pbccnix, aa wc know, was lord of the Uolopians, 
and if HK could not buve been a »ituni1jnjr ft»iif!itaiit at 
the eourt of PekM«; wo do not know that tbir Trojan 
elderfi bold any inucb bjcal |>Of(ilion nport from Truyt 
even in uny single caat*; and on the other b&ni« w» 
haTe ro kriouleilge uln.'tber PhcpFiix aiii) \fen<¥tins 
G^ven when at the court of Peleus t>M>k any shiire in the 
government of hit) immediate doniinion» Tbo name 
yipoifT^u ^ Uffually vniployed iimong tlie Ureekft to do 
Hcn1)^aeW>ri»bHd no ne<^<^»ary relation in age whatever. 

Of the respect paid to age in Greece, we hare abun- 
dant evidence; but we tlnd nothing like this gatJicring 
together of a body of old men to be the ordinary guides 
ofitopnlar dt'lttK^nition in the Aht^»mblTt-ft. 

It i« true that we bearby iinplleationof both Heetor 
and Polydainat^, who were not old. as taking part in 
aflJiim : but all the indications in the Iliiid go to show 
t)iat TItrtar'* »hnro in the govennnewl iff Troy, though 

!tS6 11. liiin: Tr^m and tJr€eJt4 mmparHL 

cot limited to the men? conduct of the foiv\?s in the 
field, yet arose out of hU militarv officv, nud iirobably 
touched otil^v such tnattera as were connoctcd ^vitli tlie 
muit;i^(*tii<?:)L f>r the war Pulyilniiuu^ evuleiilly wan 
ti'entoO aft moro or 1o^» fin intorlopor. 

Uiit Gvca if it vfvro otlion^ii^e, and if the middJe-e^ed 
men of high mUiIumi aud ability took a prominont |>Art 
III sflairH, the existence of this grt^y-lieaik^d ciim|Hiny, 
vith Qppaivntl^ llio principal stnt^* ma unship of Troy in 
tlicir hiiiids, foniis n murkcd dilfuroiico from l^reck 
mannen). For in Grt^iv at peiiif vf& hane nothing 
akin to it; while Ji; Greece at war iijion the i>laiu of 
Troy, we &oe the youiip Diotufd ne woll as tlio old 
Nestor, and tlic rather yotitig Acljilica aod Ajax, &9 
wcdl HA tliEt idilrrl^ Idoirii'nt-tJh, aNAinnalin] with tliti iidd* 
die-cgefl m&iL In tlie goveninient of the army and Its 
opera tionf^. 

FifEt tkeo, 1 think it plain that tha Trojans bad no 
^oJXij, for thy fcjllowhig rvA^otm: 

1- Tliai although wo oftim htrar of dt^liUmtionv nivd 
doci8JoD9 tiikcn on tho part of the Trojans, and we 
have infttaiicefl enough of thuir liolding a**emblie!» of 
the people, yet we never find mention of a f^oiXij or 
CouncJIp in connection with them* 

2. In the Second Book, ilomcr describes the TVajan 
iyopii thus (11. ii ;S8, 9): 

(*i ft" ityop^t Ay^pfVfUf M Upid^ia jIi^^tlh 
vdortt ^t^iY*p^*i» li^" '''"t Oft* yJfiGVtti, 
This latter lino iu only to be accounted for by tho &up- 
poaitton. ihat Homer iiK-Aiit to describe ii ditn^ronoi- 
between the usages of the Trojans* and thn«e of the 
Grovks; whose yiporra were recognised as mombers of 
the j9o«'Xv, even when in the Aasombhe^. 

Of the wjtaratr place of the Greiek yrpa^rK in lh« 

The nhtenff ^fa RouX^ in 7Vn«. 


\A\e%, we Iiave conolusive |iroi>f from tlio SliieM 
vf Aoliiiles (xviih497, 503): 

ond nftervarda, 

*l ft* yiftovTie 

Aii'l n^ii), vUcro the UhRc&n 'yrpoirt^ make ^^'fty for 
TeletiiAcliu^ tiR Ijk pivv^t^ Lt> the rlmir of liie fiitlier. 

But in Troj the yiporm (audi ie probably tlie 
nicAinnj; of II. ii. 789,) have no eci^rato function : the 
yoiiuj^ nnd tUc olJ meet together : wljiJe in Grecccj 
hi-^iili'H (liHtincl plji<;(w ill tlio AmeinWy, tlie yfpovrtc 
bftd jin exclusive fuiirtioii in tlio ^ovKh, tt wtikli thej 
root srpnrftloly from the youii^n 

3. It wfiulfl uppear that tlii=f nyopi wn^ Mitli the 
Trojans not occasional, as wilb the Greeks for great 
(iut«tiuns, but habitual. And thia agrees with tho de- 
»criiilion in l\. ii. jH^ For when Jupiter sends Tns to 
Trtij, she fimK the |>eo[»lL' in Awi'inhlv, hnt iL}>prjri-alIjr 
for DO »pcoEa1 purpofic, itA die immedlal«ly^ in the Hk^ 
nesA of r^^lit^^ begtn»t to addrv^^s Priain, nnd vre do not 
hear of nnjr oiUvr biihiiirft^ So, wlien IdieuF came back 
froni the Greeks, be found (he Trojan A^^^nibly Ktlll 
•ittinfT* All this looks aa if the enliro l>n*iiiew of nd- 
ministenn^ tbc govcmment rtsted with that body only. 

I draw a nimilar iiifiTmic-c from ihe rernariiable ex- 
preaaioii in IK ii. 768, ayflpn^ <\yofHvov^ This seems to 
exprosfl that there wa.H a standing, probably a daily» 
assembly of the TrojanB. not formally 8iimttion<jd, and 
oprii to all comers, which .icted a§ the governing body 
for tlie slate. Tho line would ihvn mean, not wlmply 
Mho Tr*yans were holding an aMeinblj/ but ' tho Trojans 
were holding tlieirits^mbly aa usual/ 

Tlie nnnie^ ftouXMtft and nyop^n^ ap|>ear to liaro 


11 . Ilio4 : IVojaru tmd UrteAa c&nipilfrd^ 

Iwen merely doscriptiver, and net tiintan Bolli an* 
aE^pIit-^ci to tlic Trojan cWcrs. 

Aiifl Ml flii'iXtUt (ioiiXti'rtv, firivXtnliOftait ar«t e(ji}alarit1}> 
u*ei\ without any, ao to i^peaik, offidal meaniug. In 
II. X. 147, tbc cxprcw-ioii ^iovKu^ fiovXiCav omi harJIy 
»n:an * to attend tlie /iooXi/ for tlie ^in^ular imntUt;r 
Hoiihi lnr tlif^ |in»|ji.'r tt-mi for the ^«uXj7 spt^cially con- 
voked : nofl I interprei: it as meaning, to Qtten<f at or to 
hold the usiia! cauncil, Tlua ie amoD^ Iho Greeks* 
Anioi]g tiie Trojaiie. in 11. x. 415-17. I>i>Ioii ntiyx 

Now iIk* \\iiu\ Pi>u\rt(jJOf3o^ \st appTId, n xli, 414, to 
SnrpC(lon,aa well a» 111 xiii.4ti3 uiid ciscwIwK- to .F-ncns, 
Neither were among tlit? ytpo^Tts /invXttmti. Ujt fur* 
,ther, it itt apjiHeil, Od. is. 1 1 2, to the ^70^'/ it^lf: 

AikI thifrtTfoiv ilie word, though it mcutm coutidltor iu 
n goncnil mm(^, ihy^^i^ not mean ofHomlly tiK'niber of a 
^oi'Xi, OS opposed to an aytfpif or AsAcinbly. 

Tlko phratiO ^o^Xof ^oL^Xiur^, in tin? \mKwgG II. x. 
415-17, does not oppose, but snpportv what bn^ now 
Iteen ^id. It is quite plain that thie of Ileetor'f) wna 
a small milttai? meetiog. or couucil of war, ju»t aa in 
¥111.489 he held tin iyvpii,tir sssL'iuhU odhv; &rniy, both 
Trojuua and allies ; it was not a moetin^ of a /3otrX^ of 
Troy, beeati^ it was held in the fielil, far from the city, 
and without any of the Elders ^ho uere the j:reAt 
uyoftrjra) and ^otiKtirrui of Tn»y; for Iletrtor liad already 
arruj^ (11. viil. 517-19) that the old men should 
remain in the city, to defend the walls from any ni^ht 
titack: niosit of all bowwrr hecniise, hk we hear of no 

The ^/rifttfn' uy-ifjAl t^or*U*>i't/ in Qr^act. 


Btx>k, so «e liear of no Asseniblj fnllowiiig tlie meeting 
Tor delibenUJoTj in cbo Tenth. <«etiemh in njctdimi 
timos hold councilfi of yi^t: but no parnllel can be 
rlraHii betwet-n lljem^ sn<I Councils for iliejMitcibiii^ tlio 
afTkifK fif a State- 
As' w'c UL^'cr have occiwion to Ixjcomc ncquaintcd 
vritli Trojar |>ol]tir9 in [»c-acc, we ca[i only tirgti^ the 
cn«e aa :u ilio noii<*xiBtciiri< of a council from the state 
of war. Hut in (^ircece, it \vill be remeinbered, both 
war and pcaco |trc8eut their cases of the uec of this 
tnititutioD, as ODC rcgul&rly cfttablisheil, aiid appa- 
roiitlv ]iiv<.T4tc-il \rilli both a ilclibrmtivo ami an c*x<?cii- 
tive charftcter 

it IB next to Ik^ iiitfuired, ivbetlier the Trojana, like 
llio Greekp, cmployLMl clocjuenc^. detailed argument as 
fVimMiiiig. and tli«T <;t1ier |iart» of oratory, a main iti- 
Rtrunient of govomnient. 

I think it is plain, that tho dcciaiotis of their Ass^m* 
blies were govefneil rather by Miniiibi authofity; by 
the atfuvoi^tjcrn) ^ftttfrttf^ the sjuiple declantiocis, of per- 
sonti of irvi^hl- 

The reiwrt of tbo rc-a^nembk-d iyirpn nf this Greeks 
in the Second Book liegnnt with i\w iiitb lin^*, ami 
ends with the 398th: occupying 188 lines. Bot the 
Trojan ay4pn of tho same Book ie despatched in twenty 
ODO li[ie«( 788-808). 

A iiion^ nfrnarkablt- <-:c:iniph- \% iinbnii:'*) by the ae- 
cond Tfojan As8embIy(ll,Tii, 345-379), For this ayopi^ 
is deecribod as invii, rcT^jf;^uf« ; and well it niij^ht hoi in 
drcumsUQCcK so arduous. The Elder* in the Tliiwl 
Book wen? of ii|>itiIon that, l^-nulifnl att H^h^n wn*, It 
waa bett^ to rastoro her, than to continue the ftotfbr* 
\t\g9 and danjx*r« of the ^^'ar. Accordinffly, Antenor 

nrj^-fl in tliin Ai#<(^inb1v t)mt «lio tlmutd be restored, 
logoUier with the phimk^rc*! proporty. He referrod 
&Im> Io tbt; recent krnich of a ^wom cr^venaiit on tbo 
IVipjan ftiJe, ami *aiil uo gis^xj wjuM come of it. Thia 
lie <>fiect8 in a apeeeh of six lines ; the first of wliich i» 
tijo nif>re locathx nddrees to tlic Apwmbly. and the laet 
is marked aa surpluaego vritb tbcr oic/os (34.8-^3). 

PiirtWj the |iDn^n maifily crnipemi'd, it»|ilitT>i. Hn itotM 
not addros» liim-^C'lf to U10 AKftombly nt all, but to An* 
tenor : and he dlsjto^ufl of tho sul>TCCt of debate jd eight 
JiiicB (357-64), Four of tliem are given to the an- 
iioune{?ment of hi^ intentions, and four to abuse of 
An tenor. 

It wott iinjfo^ible to ooijccitc a snbjert moro JSkcIj 
tu nvm} ileliiUt'; and (■xciti^nient we see ihert* iva.v but 
nfccr tbe a|>e<*eti of Parly, fioibing more was «ii<! about 
Holen, i.ithvr for or against the restoration. Priam 
tln'n ftr(^^t^ and in a &pfecb of eleven lines (368-78) laji 
<lo^"ii another plan of prooretling^ imrimly, by a mt-wtaj 
to tbe Greeks for a tnico with a vkw to funcml obw^i 
fjulo^ which WAA at once accepted. 

Nowhere, in short, among the Trojanft have wc any 
('xanipli-, I df» not say of midtiplied or h^ngtheited 
Bpcodic«, but of rv^al reasi>fiin;r and delthoration in the 
conduct of bu«inc8Tt : though Glaucus t<;th bis story at 
gTCXKi lengLli to Dioiiied on the ti&ld of battle' (11. vi, 
145-2J1), und .^'ue:ut to Achilles (IL xx. 19^258) 
neariy equals him. Indeed, it may almost be said, tho^ 
Trojana arc long epcakcra when in battle, and short 
when in d\"half: th«G?eekH copious in debate, but vt-ry 
ffiicciiicC ill l>attle- 

A^in, we may observe the different descriptiona 
which the i*oet has given of the elocution of NcsCon 
and of that of the Trojan Svi/toyrpovrt^ in their re- 

ftratvrjf 4^^pffaUr nf»ijflu fn Ormt^ 



upoeLive oTopai. Ti> Nestor (II. i 248, 9) be seems to 
flttl^ & sort i^mttDuous flow jndi>fintt«ly prnlorged* 
Tlicir^ lio dL:wribca [us rcscmbliii;;; tbc uipi Xc4/?io<vo^r 
orgm»lio|ipers (IT iii. if 1, «), a clear trill or thread of 
voieOf not only thitliOQt any particuliir id^a of len^clh 
fttUbobed to it, but Apparently meuiit to recall a sharp 
tntorp^ittcnt cliirix. Vrt llicre is an odd proof that to 
Priam At lt<flsi, ii$L (i»e of tlic-Me old im^ii, llittrL- wai* at- 
taclied, by tho joinij^r onea, the imputation of favour- 
ing either too many or else too long oratiuntK Kor, 
in the ayopff of the Second Book, Iris in the cbaractBr 
of Polttve, tliQii^h there is no accotint af wliat liad 
pnteodvd bcr iirrivnl, <ibjtirpntc^ Priatn a« hoiU then 
eocoitfi^ng »hat may be called indiMirimitiate speak- 
iag, and hh hnviii|^ forrrijilly, Insfon^ ibti viut, Ihm'ii ml* 
dieted to the satrae pmelice' ; 

St yfyof, oJfi rot iMi'doi ^£Xo4 JEKpirof ritf'ii', 

tlpoii tJte whole, I think it iniiHt. have been Homer'a 
intention, w'hile rupresentlng l>oth Trojans antl Greeks 
as carryinf:^ on public alTsirs tn their public ANKfitibliev, 
to dravr a vt-ry inarke^l di^tiuction between thcni in n> 
gard to tho um* of tbul pi»wcrfij| enginu vf oratory, 
which played so conspicuous a part in the former, as 
well as in the later stages of the Greek hidtory. 

And it is important, that nowhere docs a sentiment 
escape the lijn of a Trojau chiertniii, which indicates a 
conMdoutneft* oftlio political value of cratory. lIlvKws, 
in a stAto of peace, defioribes before liie Pha^actaiift 
beauty and eloquence an ibe noblest gifls of the gods to 
tnan^: and employs rirra artd vJf>v» eloquence and intcl* 
lij^ncet aa con^'ortjble tonn^ PotydAUtaSt wheti re- 
buking Hector in the Tliirteentb Iliad, ^lolivcrs a paa- 

I It ii. Jf6. 

h CM yni 170.&7 


II. mo$ ; Tn^As <iW Ortfl'f cvmp^ar^tL 

eagc in man; re^pe^^tA strikingly analogOQs* lie HpcafcB^ 
lioiyevefr of p6o^ and ^m'Xj?. tninH nriil c^iiriMrl*; ho 
cloes not drop a \rord relating to public 8[iecch or to 
eloquence as irstiumentH of ^Tcniincnt, tlieugh lie 
(l0ikcril>L-9 itic mental rtualitr ninl the lialiit wtiich he 
narnt^ uh of pri(^4?U'<iH \alm» for the benefit uf Sut*?a. 

llie phrase opiilied to tlie Trojan elders appear to 
indicate, that ihvy derived their political character 
from taking n pn^minent )mrt in the As^ctnMy, and 
from tliaL alone. For tho woni irifmyiptcv indlmtc^ an 
cider acting in and among the i^not, or people. And 
this nanitt the i'oet uses hat twice : once in II. iii- 149, 
where lie enunjepatea the eight penwiis, who bore that 
character in Troy ; and once with referonce to llus (IL 
ii. 3']^)• ilonicr nowhere eraplovs this term for any of 
the Greoka, 

TbtJ want of th© j3orjXi whows u*, that there htw no 
balance of force* in the Trnjan |K>liIy, less *ocurity 
Offtinitt precipitate action, more liitbftity lo high*bai)ded 
inwileneo and oppresfion of th^t )>eo]>le, ami, on th« 
other band, unless the danger bad been neutralized bj 
Tnlldiie«t or lethar^^y of clmractort lilccwisQ in all tike* 
libood to revolntionarj" change. 

Again, im the Tnjjnn nide we do not fiitd ihe siletK^e 
and ibelf*pDSHeFtMon of the Groekit. After tbe cnumo- 
mtion in the Thinl Book, at \i^ opening, we find that 
the Trojans mandied with din and hixzz: 

but aa to the Greekn, we are told that the/ marched 
in profound flilenee : mid the Poet ftkilfulljr heightens 
tbe contrast by incntioiiing that they breathed fortb 

' It xKL7a6-jf 

7\'oJait^i IfM ^iftrtf with stif-coiixtn'iHiS. 


what thcv <lid not artif!ulAle, anO that tticy were »tcelfd 
tritl) iinii i^esolution to Btanit \yy one aiiotliev'^ : 

Wc nro fiimlly told tlmt each leatlcr ind<.-c<I gave th<t 
word CO Iii< fiiun, Miliilc ull l>c&i(!o were mute' : 
ol £' £AAo( dfn)!' rvoi', o£^( ■!« ipairff 
T6awuf Aahp ivtff&ai /^niiT' iv tm'fit/Tiv atSbi^p^ 

but from the 'i*rojaus there aroBc a souud, liko tliat of 
sheep bleating for tlicir lambs"*: 

And, tjgain, wo lind tUc? relation of tho bumiti^ <>f 
tlic duad gtvL'ii witb the uTtttnl consUtcticy of the Poct- 
TI1U ni<*ri of Hk* r.vro nrinit-H mrt : unci mi hfilh hiileA 
they filled tears as lliey lifted iheir lifeless pr>mrfl<1e<4 on 
the Wflj^oiiB : bult he adfJfl. Chero was eilence furioiig the 

and it hba 1»4.'aune liiit king liud frit tlinl there u'nuld 
be iiide(-(?rcy in h hcjUv show of (iitTrow : while tlie 
Greeks needed not the injunction (11. fii, 426-31), 
fn>m tlicir i^pontflncous ftclf-command, 

Whi^ii tiio Pui'L 9i|>enktt of llii^Tnijun A»(>t*in1ily iti 
the Seventh Book ati Sttyii rtrpnx^ua, be evidently 
means to deecribe an exciteniont tending to disorder; 
and one contrasted in & remarkable manner with thvdia- 
eipline af llio Grvekit, vtIhj wmt Muinnioneil to iru^4 
ailentlr in the ni^ht, thnt they mi^ht not, in xathorin^j, 
arouse the enemy outride the rnmpnrtii. Kvon in their 
respeetiro mo<1ea of expre««ing approbation, Hc^nier 
makes a sha^le of diflerence. When tb© Greek* a|»- 
platid, it it fTri<t)^w K^fc 'Aj(<Bj«r, or wliBt we ealf loud 

kaiiL^8> IILiY,^jj. " Ibid .436, 

R 2 


J]. Hw ; Trvjfi»^ unU Ur^4 it^Hipar^ 

or voli(*mciit cliceririj^ : but ^litrn tlio TWiJans, it t* rri 
Si Tftwec fffXifc^ijtrnk. whieh signifies & mem nneccllancmift 
juiil tiimukiiuun iioJM?. 

In short, it would a|ipoar to be tlie intention of Ho- 
mer to rc^prafiont ttie Grockf; aa poasesaod of a bigher 
intBllijouce througbout. In the (Mysser* vc find tli&t 
UlyswTO tnftdf.' bis wnv intn Trny fliHgiiisi^l hi^ w lirggnr, 
coiiiinuTi](*fiU'<l with Helen, duly imfornicd liiiiiftdf 
[ir<iT^ Si tjtfx'tvtv !ijay< toXXv^"), nnd contrived to do- 
•]ifitc1i cerUiii of the IVnjana before lie departed. In 
the Iliad w^ are >«ijpplied with abundant InsUnces of 
the superior matia^ement of tlio Greeks, &dJ likovriee 
of their auxtlinry j^ods, in comparifion with those of tbo 
Tmjanw, Juno outwits Venus in obtiihiijig from bcr 
the oo«tu«, and then proeeed»i to outwit Jupiter in the 
U80 of it- MiDtrrva, on observing that the Greeks ore 
losing. (II- vii. 17) belakes herself to Troy, ;ihere Apollo 
propoHPs just whRi shv u^Tits nniitely, n ceNMLtioii of 
the ^noral iiTigaj^'iitent, wiOi u v'ww to a per«on£iI en- 
counter bettt'ecn Hector nnd some choveii ebietloin : 
she imtnedintely ndopt^i the plan; and he rauws it to 
be executed through Hf?lL»(iti*. It both sitojr* the ge- 
neral havoc among the Greeks, and rodountlg greatly 
to the honour of tlieir champion AJax. At the end of 
the dajr» however, Nestor snggwit*? to tlie Greek cbiefn, 
on aeeoitiit of their heavy }n^t}» (II vii, 318), thnt tliey 
ibould, OR Iho occasion of raining n mound over thoir 
dead, likewise dig and fortify a trench, which might 
serve to defend the ships and camp. In tht? mean timo 
the Trojans are made to meet; and they *c^nd to pro- 
pOM tbo very mcQ«uro. namely, on armiscieo for funeral 
riles, which the Greeks desire, in order^ under cover of 
it, to fortify themwlvi'j* jll. vii. 368-97}. And th(» 
B Od. It. 158. 

uccarJin^ly Agumeiiiuoii u cimbled to gniitt ii» n »orC 
uf favour tn tlii^ TrDJatiA {l\, vii. 40H) : 

Thia superior intcUigcnce >9 probably mcjitit to bo 
figured by tho excbange oF ftrm,^ !>etween (Slaucufi and 
OJoiiie<l. AnJ, again, whcu Hector atl«niptb aii^tliiiig 
in tlio nature of a strata^om. as tlt« mission of l>oloii 
by niglkl, it ia only tbat ho may tail into the bands of 
Uionied and IJly^seh* But th<,-ro <)oea not appear tn b« 
in anv of tbese cns^s a violacioii of oatlu c?uii]]iact, or 
uay absolute ru)« of equity by tbo (ireeks. 

Of aJI these t?Qit«, bowover. it may be said, tluit tbey 
&re of no value m midence, if taken by tbeniBelvea. 
Tti^y lire nieftn* wbieb wwild obriously occx\t 10 the 
Poet. 2«alous for liiii own nation. It is tbcir ficcord- 
ance with other indications, appitrently undesigned, 
urbidi wanranta our relying tipon them as real testi- 
monieSf available for an historic purpose*. 

Although, on tlio whole, w€ Gccm to havo the ligns 
of greater wealth anioDg the Trojans than the Grc^ka* 
yet In oerlain |M>iiita nl«o their umj^ea were more pri* 
mitive and »mp1o- Thus we t!nd tbe youths of the 
house of Nestor immediately about hia person; and 
Patroclns as well a^ Achilles, was apparetitly brought 
up at tbe court of Peleu*, Again, tbe youthful Ne*lor 
trarels into The««aly for a eamjuiign : Ulysses goe* to 
bum Mt tbe Court of bis grandfather Autolrcu«. The 
Uhac&n Suitors employ tleinbelvcs in manly games. 
Bat we frequently eume u{>ou passages where we ara 
incidentnlly infonnod, that the priiiocc of Ltio boufee of 
Dardanus wcru ocenpicd in rustic employ tn en t$. Thus 
MelniiipimH, hiii (if lltkeUuiri, and cousin of Hector, 
who was residing in Priam's palace* and treated »« one 
of bis eliildrea had before the war tended oxcn in 


II. IHor: Ttc^<m» «nrf Chf^g ^otnpar^ 

PcrcoUf^ Anefls, the only fu>n atuI heir of Anctiisea, 
Iiad boon similarly occupied anionjf or tiear the liiltB, &t 
tlie lime when he had a narrow eacnpe from caplurc by 
AHiillp§P. Lvi^Aoii, fjon of Priam, wili: cuttiiTg tlio 
branebefl of the '^ild fi^ for thc^ fellies of chariot- 
whccls when Achilles took iLtm fijr the second time : on 
the first occnMoitt he ha^l at work in a vineyard''. 
AiUiplicis iiinl JauK lititis of Pri;ii»H had heeii cajiltired 
ty Achfl1e« whilst they were acting as shepherds^ 
Anchiecs waa actinia as a licrdsman, when lie formcsd 
Ilia connection with VtnusV The name of BoiKolion, 
an ilL'gitiniate snn ofLaoriieduu, ^cemtt to indicnte that 
he was breti f«)r ibe ['iktj occu[»at]QnS 

Fporn Iho force, variety, and extreme ddicAcy tif hl« 
OBC* of the- word, it is evident that Jlomt^r set very 
|freat*tnrrhy l1ii?Ki<ntiriiL'iit wliirh iMgL'tiendly cxpn-ic-i-d 
Chroup:h tlie wonl aiiutj and whicli ran^g through 
all the varieties of shame, honour, inodoMy. and r«ver- 
finire. Though a minute, it t» a remnrkablp rirrum- 
stane^i that ho corifiieH the ap[>lication of this term 
to the Grucks; except, I thinki tu one pageogc', whoro 
ho bce^tows it upon bis particular favountc^ the Ly- 
rlHtin^ uud n *iti;,'U^ otlicr oiu% vrlnm? -Fiiie-M»" irinphivs 
It under iho imnjciHato in^piratfon of Apollo, with an- 
other »en»e, in an appeal to Hector and hts brother 
^hiGf^ not to the soldiery at large. 

With the Greeks it supplies the staple of military 
exhortation^ from the cbiefu to the army; *Ai&i^^ 

But qjitc* a difTen^tt fonn of speech is uniformly ad- 
drcesed to tltc TnijjinK ]nv*|*er: it i* 

IL xr, 1^46-51. P II. XI 188. q n. td. 37 7J. 

rii M, 105' 'n. ji.8ai, v. 313, ' n. «. »S- 

oil svi,^^?, * Il.xvU 536. f 11- r. }9j, vfil 3f9 «f tffi^^ 

wMcIi is belovr the otlier, nnd ajipcnis to a lc!<a |>ccuti&r 
and refined fraiuo of ititvlligcutv tinil of w^ntitifotil, 

Wtmtcver inny ho tlioiijzh: of llic <logreo of dcHoll 
into ^liklt (g(i)<itvi as 1 think by the text) I have ven- 
tured In rnrry lliis ili^ruswon, and of the particiitarily 
of some of the inferences that bav*? been drawn, I veiu 
ture to bope few will quit Uie tubjoct wiiliont the coii- 
Tiction that lIonoeT has woiked 'with Ibu purpose and 
pr««]»ion wbi4T>i are br* wont, \n tbrt div<'r?^tR"» which 
mnrk the ^ni^ml outline of his Greeki and hi* Tmjans, 
and of the institutioti» <jf eucli rc^poctivcly ; luxl tlat bo 
ban not alto^t^her viitbheM fnjni bia national ix)itraitd 
the care, which be is mlmiUcd tci have iij»|ilicil to his in* 
dividimleharactoreoii botb^dev with such ixtmordiiLary 
8UC0CS& If wo look to the institntlons of the two conn- 
tried, altliougb the coin)>arison bi diverstlied. we niuftt 
U[>o[i the whole concede to the Greeks^ ihat tbey IjaiI 
laid n]o!x> firmly than their advcniarict; tlio^ great cor- 
ner etoDc*; of hntnnn society, which arc named in their 
laii^iagx-, Oit^i^:, «j«r/f, and ytMoa* In the jMiIity of Troy 
we find more «(-<0|^^ for imjiitlw, \v»* for dtdHiorAtion and 
per^iuof ion ; more weight j^iven to cho^e elements of au- 
thority wbicli do not dej>cnd on our free will and intelli- 
gence, lera Uy those which do; 1c«s of organisation and 
of diversity, 1e«s firmness and tenacity of ti«»ue, in 
tbe structure of the community. We are told of no 
^v\*t and no ^i^r^c. no intermediate rankn of olKcera 
in tbv Miny ; no onlor of nobles or proprietors, Ruch 
ae that which furnished the Suitors of Itliaea. Thore 
are, in short, fewer secondary cmincrnces; it ie a state 
of thin^R, more rcAcmbling the ilead Icvrl of the prc- 
avnt Orii^ntid nmimunittiTH Kidijt.'^'t to a despotic throiuv 
though HueU wa^ not the throno of Priam, Among th4> 

248 II, Ilios : Tt-ajans and Greeks compared. 

people themselves, there is more of religious observance 
and apparatus, but not more of morality : less tendency 
indeed to crimes of violence and turbulence, but also 
less of truth, of honour, above all of personal self- 
tnaetery and self-command* The Greeks never would 
have produced the Paris of the Iliad; for on behalf of 
no such dastard would they have been induced to bleed. 
But if they had engendered such a creature, they 
would not have paid the penalty : for man in the Trojan 
type would not have had the energy to recover it from 
the warrior-statesmen of the Achaean race, and under no 
circumstances could the really extravagant sentiment 
put by Virgil into the mouth of Diomed* have been 
fulfilled : 

ultro loachiaa venisset ad urbea 
Dard&nufl, et verws lugeret Gnecia fatis. 

■ £11. xi. 3S6. 



1 HE t^^rcndatr Geo;*rapliy of the Odj^sGy raaj in one 
BCDBO bo cotnimrcd vritli tliut of Arioi^to, tiifl that of 
Br>j;in]o. I c^fionM lie the fifxt, indccl, t^ ailmtt thut 
n f]Es(|ui«jUor, living fut \U ol>joct to t-AinblMi tlie de- 
limitation of thd Oeo^phy of dtlwr of tlios^ poeta, 
and to fix lU relation to the actunl surfticc of the tartb, 
wns but lubour tbioirn bwhJh For two (houuknd jrcar^ 
bowover, ]icrbn|>» for more, tlio Gcognipby of iho 
Ody»siey ba« biK^n a Htbjoct of intcro^ nnd of contro- 
versy. In entering: upon that field I ask myself, whr 
the COM of Ilomcr is in this rcspcrt fo diHbrcnt from 
timt of tbo grottt lUiHnii romancx^r^ ? ft U rot onlj 
that, groat o» they woro, wo aro dcaUng ^*itli ono before 
whom Uieir£:reatiieB8 dwindle* into comparative little- 
nee^. Ncir iH iL only, tlinngb it m-i>nih lu bt* in |iart, 
because the advoutures of ITIysses are, or appear to be, 
much more etrictly 1>ound up with place, tlian thoeo of 
Orlando. Rinaldo. or Rtiggiero. The difTercnco, ! 
think, muiiily ItLV in Oils, that uo lutL-nw' L';irni-sriif'\s 
accompfinieit Homer ovoiy where, even thrfm-ii 1 i' 
wild and lioble romancv. Cooped up as he was within 
a narrow and loi^al dnde — for *ur*U it Wiv*. though it 
van Tor m many centuries the centre of the whote 
grefttne«t» of the worid — here H his effort to ftm tlie 
horiiEon *by Hrength of thought;' to pierce the mist; 


lir. 7'Aalai»at 

wfr 4?e(]grn9»fry. 

to e\i&\>v i\\Q ilim, confueod, niid cotiRictin^ rt^purtA 
he could pick np, acn*r(iii)g tri llie besl of bis know- 
lL*ilgt^ mill iH-lii-^r iiitii UiilI and sea; to people it« 
liahkabl€ spots with tlie araniy o]at<?rml be cotifd com- 
mand, owrv whore enlarged, made Kood, oml adorned 
out of the wealth of his vigorous imagitrntion; find U> 
fiirrn, hy elVort oT the linuii, for i.lit*. (i\-M umt? a& far an 
v.'v kuo\t' in tho history of oitr mee, an idea of a certain 
oonfi^imtton for the aiiriAce of the Earth. 

Ilenre, perhaps, may have Howed the pntcncy of the 
chartn, which has attetided tho snhJL^ct of HokkVh 
Ontvr Geo^aphy, Tho subject has, ho^vevcr, in my 
belief, its utility too. It ie rarely cHhenvi^ than u-ctl 
worth whitti tu trare even the t:rn>noiAi!i tliotightfi of 
powerful minds. But, moreover. In the present instance, 
J apprehend we can Icarn, through tlic Outer Geography 
of Homer, ioiportnnt and interesting matter of biatory» 
which 18 not to he learned fnmi anj other source. For 
tho Foot ha« embedded into htft imn^irative »cheniG a 
niuliitude of real gco^phieal and plipienl tnuiitiona; 
and by means of theee, upon comjianii^ them with 
their projieT oi'igtnaH we enn Judge with tolerable 
accuracy what were the liniita of human enterprise on 
the face of earth in the heroic ape. 

The <pieetion Ixrfijru ns is, wimt map of Ihi^ rnrth did 
Homer sIl»)>c in liiu own tiijnd, r.hnt \n^ might adjust U> 
it thti Toyages and tours of hia hen»od Menelan^ and 
Ulysses, particularly the latter? And in order to a 
Icfptimatc imjniry the first step to be taken is rcgat^ve. 
Do not k't Uif en^go in the vain attempt to conMnict 
tho Googrophy of lh<? Odyssey upon the hftsit of tlig 
actual distribuljon of the earthV ^irfa^'O* Such a 
process can lead to no AatiMfurlory n^swlt, Wliatever 
materials Homer mav have obtained to Asaist him, we 

Pf^ucifffti ikfitde *>/ t/i« inffitity. 


rnL]»t€oiiM<lorii3iMiit]iiiiyAtr>ii]M; I »p{mk Afi*onnkO,n«co 
all tb&t lay be^on^l the narrow F^plion? oDii^ (ireck know- 
ledge aiid <^x|)pri*?nfe. He IimiI iui aci(?i|uate meaim of 
pi noil 1^ til e ilirtV-i'ciit jiartsof tlieacpouriu wliii'li rciiclieJ 
liim in th«ir true f;:<*r>j^m|>l}ical relaltori** to oru- nDotti9r, 
The cutler vrorM wmt for him bntketi up into fra^ncntv, 
Aiiil tlii'M' friignieiiN wcie n^rttruiige*! at his |>lea#'uro, 
vvitli tiw aiil of «nch lights only, as hia limitvd pltyvicul 
knowU'd^ could alTord bim. 

Atiftiimitifi: for the iircscnt tlmt the Phc^iiciAniani 
i}t tUif Out^T Oi'n^'rw jih J" lisu bt'Ltii »m thr- tvh»l<* Mifll- 
ciently proved, I |>ri>c*(>cd to a mure exact examinatiou 
of the eubjc(?t Jtaelf ; nnd I propose to inquire itito tbc 
following qtiMtiuni^ 

I. IIh«; ITomer Cho tiiodefi ofdealir^ ^ith the subject 
of localit}". coitGidered .tt large f if so. can it he shown 
that he applies them to two distinct gco^rnphicsl 
n^gion^; one the cirrtimHrnWd rrritml tract of land 
and »ea \(iihin ulJch ho llvo<^ the other n wider and 
larger xone, which Iny lK>yonil it in all diroctiotie ; and 
can a hue he drawn wicli reasonable confidence aud i^rc* 
GtMou between these g€ogra|>hk'al regions aeirordhigly ? 

3- If it bo esiablifiheil that Homer has a Bysteni of 
Outer Geogiaptiy, tcvcred by a Bufticicutly-^lcfincd 
b^riiT from In* Inner Oi*ogniphy, thon are there any, 
and if HO nhat, key»s or lejuUng fdeaa of local arrange, 
ment for the fonner scheme^ which, themselves derived 
from the evidence of \m text, i^hould bo used for tlie 
ar^ustnieiit of its details? 

3. Uuder the system thus ascertained, what waw tho 
rout of MendfliijT, and more ^speciftlly of Ulyaftcs, a9 
thcM* pieM:ntcd themiwlves to the mind of Homer? 

I *vi out from ihe pr<>|>OHition, uhich, ma I conceive, 
resu ui^on univer^iil conn^nt, that within a certain 


III. TWaM^ff ; the Ontry Geography. 

fiphere the pocma tnay bu ootimdered as a record of cx^ 
|H*riiii4>utiil g^kgm]}1iy ; utnl iMiit )utiiit'tiritT*ft ciLrritfd diiwn 
into detail with ^o mucli of accuracy, tliat it embraces 
even tlio miiiiacure of that branch of knowledge* to 
which wc uMially give Ibo name of topography. 

By way of cxmnpte for tlic former, I should «iy thai 
vAm^xx Homer dcKcribcw tbfi Bctotiau towns, nhuii he 
nicoaures the distnnoe over thu .^.gKAxw. nay, wlicn l»o 
maktfit |j|yxAeA represent that Iio floaled in tvii days 
fri,uii some pouit near Crc*tt* to tho llic'tL{>retiaiL coa^U 
ho is a gco;-r&pber. Ajn^in, in hit^ variously estimated 
accoutitof the interior of Ithaca, he IF) a topogiapher. Ho 
is tilt? same; on tlie wlmle, though jiroliKbly with prater 
liccnw?, when lie is clealinjf with the Plain of Troy. 

la K|tcnkinj,^ of the cxpcriinental gco^niplif of 
Homer, of coui-^ [ do not intend to imply that lie 
lja4l, even within hia narrow sphere, the ineanft that 
later science has afforded of eMabn^hin^ Rituaiionft and 
distarcee Mith absolute precision. He couhl only pro* 
ceed by the lar ruder tcstiniouy of the f^eupics. tmincd 
in the »ichooI of c-xprriennj. NeitlitT do 1 mo-an that 
the experience was in every caau hie own, tliougih to a 
great extent his g^rographioa) informatLon wa*< probably 
original, and aci|uiit^d hv him jiriuc!|rully h\ tht^ t-xt'K-ihe 
of hm prol^tieioD as an itineratinj; Bard. But by the 
oxpeHTiionl&l and real geography of Homer, I tneoo 
the^ two things; first, that the Poet believe*! bJmfelf 
U> he deftcrihing pm tanUt [H>iiith upon the farlh'a 
gurfoce »» they Actually were; secondly, that his ineatii 
of information were for practical purpoece adoquato. 
The evidence of the pa?4sa^ containiuj^ the simile of 
theTh0Qghl(Ihxv.58u) wouhl Hiilfici-, wen- ihc-iv none 
otlier, to siiow chat he waa himBctf a traveller; he also 
lived among a people already accustomed to travel, and 

/"A* tteo ephvrM v/ (Jtoffiaphy. 


familiar wiUi the iiAvigatiOTi of a rertain porllnii of tlir 
^nb'ft siirfui^e. Ill IL fftrmi^^r |«rt of tlii^^ work \ linvo 
given several tmt&nces to illustrato the t1lfl|io{iiti€ii 
of the early Greeks with respect to travel^. A jieopic 
i>f liabit^ likf? tlieirs w&k \vtA\ qiialiHi?^ to supply a 
prftcticnl KVitti^fti of p'ograpliy f«r the whdlo sphere 
with which it was habitually ooiivcr^cint. 

But Uio Wellies* ami maturity of navigntjoii may be 
Tneaiureii pretty nearly by tlie length f>f its voyages. 
Tl»e yt'ographicrtl particulars of the Wanderiii^fn, how. 
ever dtslocatctl and distorted, show us that the people 
who h&d supplied them tiad acquired ii cotuiderfthle 
fie<jL»i{ittaiie(' witlk all the waters ^%illiiii, utnl prolmhly 
aIho, nay, I should be disponed to wij certainly, iome 
that ^ere without, the Straits of Gibraltar But in all 
the poems of Homer wo find the tnu^ies of Gn-tJt 
knowlctlgv siiid ro*(3rf. Ut-cnMie fainter nnd fnlnter, as 
we paw boyonil o<.-rtaiu point*. On On.- Gr<jek Peiiiii- 
9iiia, to Che south of the Ambmeiait gulf on the west 
and of Mount Olyinpufl i>ii tlii^ r^itt , nv liaut thn sigim 
of ft confltant Intercourse to and fro. The tuune lokeua 
extend to tlie JBland^ imiiiediately surrounding it and 
reacliing at least as far as Crete. Indeed, apart from 
particnlar wigris mu may %ny timt, without fmiiiliaratHl 
frequent [Mti*rcour«i> among the niemherA that eoin- 
poaed it* the empire of Agamemnou could not baTo 

But, at certain dittanceit, the mode of giHigniphlcsJ 
handling heconieg faint, mi«tru>'tful, and indUtioct, 
Uijjtiuici*:( arc mi»tatcd< or ceane in be stated at all. 
The nanicM n( couutncw are nta*sH-<l Uigelhor in audi ji 
way as to fihow ihat the Poet hail no i<lea of a |tarticular 
mode of Juxtaposition for tbem. Ta]>ographieal or local 
features, of a cliaraeler such aa In identify a descrip- 
■ .WbaU, OT Hthnolo^ ; «fei. vii^ f. x{^- 


III. nitta9ta: tf*r Outrr Gfotji^tifJ^y. 

tion with noTni? jiartiunlar |)Iiice i>r ri^mi a« iu j^kH<v- 
lypo ill nature, aro orrotif^aiDcl}' tniufipOKd Uf som«f 
sttufitioiL vrhidr, from gent:nil iiidi rations, we can see 
miiHt 1w npiHi a ililVen-iit and jit-rliniiH ilistaiit ]i»ft of 
the surface of the globe. A^iii, by ct^asiiig to defiue 
distanoee and directions, he ehows from time to time 
that he has lost confidetice in hia ovm collocntioii, thnt 
ho is iii»r WLlling In r]ifilhni<rr^ Ji ronipjinMin uith lU'tlinl 
n&tLtn, 011(1 ilmt, from want of at'comto knowledge, ha 
ft«)ti lie must ftcek aoino clc|;rec of shelter in gone* 

It iTi obvious tbntj Glider the eireuni^taaeei as rhf^y 
hftvc thus far boeti dctincatod, the f^co^raphy of tho 
poems, with a centre iixcd for it somewhere jii Greece^ 
Mvy at 1))^'»tpiii« nr IM^c^ia-, nii^ht ho first nf alt 
dividutl into thrc>c xoriefl, ma^nf^ arouiiO that eentrc. 
Tbii Rr«t and innermost would ho that of the faniiliar 
knowledge and experiftine of his eoimt^yrnon. The 
MK^ond uxiuld he that of their rare and occasional 
rA£ort. The tlUnl woiilil Ijo a ro^ioii wholly iniknowti 
lo them. Aiid witli rrtpet-t to which ihcy ^<^ic wholly 
dependent on for<<igri, that ih vu rh(i-ii!iMHii, rciiort; 
much as a Roman, five hundred yearn ago. would 
|Traetiaally depend upon the nrpr>rt$ of Venvliimw uid 
Oetiocae mariners tor all or nt-arly all his tiltm*Tnnrine 

Now, thouf^h we m»y not be able to mark positively 
at every point of the cmnpa^^s thu particular s|>f>t at 
which wo step from the firit Ronc to tho soconit, and 
(wm the vecond to th» third, yet there ia t^iic^Uj^h of 
Ibe M-'cortd xoiie di^cemible to make it Rcrvo for au 
eflBictual delimtTntinn hctw^^cn the fir^t nnd tht? Uiird ; 
between the reg^Jou of experience and that of mjirvel ; 
of foreign* arhtlary, unclirt'ked, and «L^niif»hu1ous re- 
pott* Just as wo are unable to fix the moment at which 

/yrmcffr *(fthr Imttr Of^fnph^- 


niglit |iii«!4f4 into dawij, niirl tlnvrn into day; but yet 
Hie lUw'ii of monui% nud llie twiliglit of eveiiiii^ are 
tbeDifielves ilie litie« whicli broadly s^iiarate Iwtw^on 
tbc day and tlic nij^bt, lying rcqjcctivciy at tbo ex- 
trurriilir* of <'ftt'li. So witii iIh.' |ii»L'iti!« of IIonHT. it 
may \w a quf^iion vhi*ilHT a givefi plHoi>, tAv Plios- 
niciAt 18 in the first or the second zone; or ^vhether 
Bomc other, mcb n& S^rhrnn. or as tbc f^nptioni?!], j« in 
thv m?ctind i>r the tbini ; hut it mW never he iltfTicult 
to arirmi of aiiv iinjmriant plnn- iiniia*f] la tht* |v)€iii« 
eitA&r that it is Dot in the zone of (Common expoiionce, 
or ebe that it ia not in the xotie of foreign fable. 

Let uje now emleavoiir to draw 4lie line?*, which 
ihu« far have he<*n bid down only in principle. 

f. And fintt it ^cmH plain, that tho cxpcnmontal 
knowtcd^ of ilomcr esttonded over the whole of tlie 
conLme]^l£Ll itrntory t-mbraced willihi iho fii^e^k Tula* 
lu>(tLe, iiicludinff. along with (ho continent, thoae iaIandM 
which he ha*s das&cHl with hie inainiaiKl, and not in his 
M>parato insular g^onp^ 

■z. ft inny b*.^ ^Iij^btly dttnbtfnt wlit*tlier he twid a 
Similar knowledge of the i«land»j fijrming tbc bn^^r of tbo 
•fgiean. There j« a peculiarity in tbcCrctAD dc^riptioii 
(IK 11 6^^"^!), namdy, tliat afti^r eiiitTut-nUiiig rerliiin 
cities he cIcbcb with general words (649). 

Still he I1W4 chamcteri«^ic epithets; nnd in another 
plaee (Od, xiv. 257), he de6noa (of course hy time) the 
dietaoco from Crete to £gyi»t'. So again in Kliodes 
(656), CaminiA ba» Ihe rbsnicl eristic epithet of upyt- 
ptUn. Oi^ the wlioie we iiiay place thl« dlvMoi) witJdn 
the firet 2one of Homeric geognpliy, 

3. Homer would appear to have bad aii accurate 
kno^leilge of the poaitionM of llteUlaiid* ot LemDoat 
^ 11 H. 645-80. 


111. ITMUur^ia; tl^a Outtr Oto^raphj/^ 

Samothracc, Imbros, Lesbos, SankO«, and CbioHS TI1O0O 
vrc inny ci>n»i<lcr, tvitbout further detail, bb oiisvoritig 
jinK'ticiilly fur tlt<* wlioli; .^*lgi*iiii »<;&. 

4, Homer knew llio |i<^sUt(>iis of Knutthift nm! Piona, 
relatively lo one aniithor and to Oitjeoe; aud clic 
general course of tbe southern rangos of the Thradan 
niDinitairi»»''. The Tmjun CaUloguo ;t|>pears to sbow 
that be ftUo knew tbi' ouast-linp ^est\ftard from tbe 
Dard&neUc^. lus fur na to the river Axiiw, There wc 
tiifiy conMiIrr that !ii^ FJtTi:i begins *itli Grnwo ii]Kiri 
its nciuthcrn and western border. 

5, It would Qpfxj&r that Hotner bad a pretty full kn«>w> 
ledge of the soutbera coast-Jiiie of the I'roEKintiH. lie 
F^cL^mH Ui ptmxt the Tbmf^^htns of thu Trojan Catalogue 
on the iioithcni fclJe uf that »v^ but his kii;^age h 
quite gcni'ml xvith PcsjMjct lo tliis part of tt. On tlic 
south wdo, bo*vf?ver, niitl in th« wlhile north*w<-:tteni 
c?ornep of A*ia Minor we appear to find libn at home", 
ThuB mueh w-e may safely conclude from the detail of 
the Trojan Catalo^trtic : from Hic particular account of 
the Ida-an rivers in the Twelfth Iliad': from the latter 
pnrt of tbe jonnii-y of Jtiiiu in the rnurierTitlit'; }ind 
from the speech of Achillott in ibo Twenty-fourth^, 
which fixes the position of I'hi^gia relatiyely to Troy. 

6, From tlie point of Leeinm to tin* anijtbwi^. Ih- 
mer shows a knowledge of tbe coast-linL* as far as Lycia 
in the eontb-wefitem quarter of Asia Minor. But hsro 
we must close his inner sphere. The SoWinan mountains 
supply r,Hf oidy lonil notice in Ihi? p(H*rn« whirli eiui ]ie 
aiud to helong lo the interior country, and of the«e hi^ 

' IL aciv. 335-30. xiiL t&- 16, 
33. riiriSi xriv. 78,763,434 
Od. ill. lfii^7^> 

d II lir. >»S'-3'>- *^ V. 50. 

■ Furbignt thiuV» lir kufiv the 

(o n crrtAic extent. Hn»Hwidl 
dor AlUHi <!ougnipftii«f 9e<%. 4, 

|k^ to- 

n 11 1\\. 380-4, 

Tfir int'rirtrriitifr itn^ iimilt^i &iW- 


oonc<^f>tion» am evidently as far as jwsmWc from geo- 
gTA[ihi<^iil- In tlu' Sixlli HiihI^ In* uji|>eiir« to f'ntiivive 
of the Sofymmi |>eo])fe vl» brirdcHiij; iipun Lycla. Al- 
tboiigh the nniTio has Hu^^oAtod to aoine a rofincdJoa 
wHli JcniBaleiti. we ou^lit to consider it as rcpresoiitiog 
i\M for wlucli it ^tunilH in geo^pliy* a )iHrt of t\w grand 
inbnil n)a»4 of A«ratic moiintamfi. But fi<oni tho proxi- 
mity of Uio Sotynii to Lyeio, Homer vrowM apT>ciLr to 
bare moved thr*ni grrjilW we«lwArd. Ag;iin, wlien 
Noptiint? in tlic Fiflli OUyraey sees (TIj^m^a from tlie 
Solymao mouniains on Ins way from <^>sygia, we mtut 
HUp[x>so tJiat Homer coueeivcd them to command 
Bomo point or n neiglilwijrin^ and continuous line of 
set, vrliich would allow of i^uoh a prospect. He would 
liardly bavc mndc Neplnnc wcc UJysse* from Lyoia, «r 
from a point acro»» tbo moiiTit^inM of Thrace, or from 
one on the other side of the actual Moiiiu Tairrus. 

AVe have now, I think, made the cireuit of tlie 
whole sotie, and it is a bmall one. of the rcul or ex|KTi- 
mental geography of Homor. 

Ijet list biki? next the ititvrmi?i!iate xoitr, which nmrlw 
tko «]ctrenie and lnfre<)iient pointii of Greek report. 

Be^nning in thi* wc-^'t juul nortli-wei<t, we have 
found Hieania (now Upgier Calabria), Epinii^ and the 
country of the Tfa«fi)irot]ans^ marking tbo |>oinbf of 
ihifi intcmitdTale rejjimt. To Ibe northward, wo may 
Hx :t at I'^mathia, i[i the north-east, it ^-cm^ to be 
bouiithtd b\ thii iKirlheni xhurti of T.he Bi*a of Marimmi. 
The Thr^efaiis of Homer inhabit a country which ho 
calU ^^(^w\a^, IL xx.4%15, and whioh the HelIefi|>ont 
cncloAcd {ripyri}^ that ie to say. washes on tnx> sides at 
IvasU Tbo Holle«|)<Mit, as in Ihis place it i* ti-rmed 
iffi^oq^ ^giitfio« to the KiL^torn part of lti« waters in 

^ U vi. 184. 



111. TTfQhtw : tAe OuUr OtoQraphtf- 

|iarticukr; and ihe nftmtj i^rohnbly inrlutl«« Hie 
poiitU (wliidi lie niiglil well eQf>pos« to liave a Hlrorij 
current throufrbotit, liko tbe StraiU of GfLUijKjIi), t* 
^tlit^r n-itli tlio nortbcro i'Egvan botw(>cii Clialcidii 
and tile Tbrucmn Cbenit>ttc««, lie lias (l(<N<*rilH.-il tlicsti 
Tlirocmnx in vor/ vaKue ccniis^, ard willioiit utiv loci 
circunistunce, in tbc Catalogue: but t\\*i form of t\u 
C0A»t-]iric AppsrontLy impiied in the wonl rtpyciy ai 
the ejutliet of rertjitty, iij)|)ear to indii-sto tlie plain 
Adrianoplc mid tlit? \farltz. But tbi£ IncloFure ou two] 
sidca terminates when the tJorMicrn fiborc begins to] 
tr^^ij diieotly to tbc catlward: and tbc 1I^<i7«tu!i ci 
Bo&jtfaomv, vhic<It no ninii but Jamoii uvcr mncfuHMled ii 
pn^stiif^f lire to be considerc^d as in t[>o zone of a semi 
faUilous or exterior chorogi-aphy. 

Whew we pass into tbe «ioutli-cnit, wc fiixJ 
Cy]»rn», Phwincin, and E^yjit [imj" fierbafiiit most p* 
|Mjrl)- bo placed in tbo tloubifid /one. Wo have fteci 
that C}-|ii-u« yfdiV knou-n lu^^ a 8ta^ on the pa86n^ to th«j 
EitHt, and »» wiMiiJi tbii poHsible military venvh nf A 
metnnoo. I5ut its lord did not jciii in the war: am 
Homer has no detfiJIs &bout the inland, beyond thi 
ftpceification of Papho!« n» the scat of the rcaidcuccvam 
of tbe |irinc!|itil vvnrvbip, of V(*ini«. 

Wo have no limanco of any vlftit paid by Oro^i 
to l'ha*nrcia undLT ordinary circnin-stnnecf. Tbc toi 
of Mrnelnnx n, like tfiut of ITIj^nck, miUMle the >tphoi 
of ordinary life. He de»cnhea hioiielf In it to Tetoi 
ohus aji vrO'Wa iraBt^y >c<il WW twttXrjBusK wliicb may bo] 
conjparofl with Od, in 4, respecting IJlys-^ea. \\r. bear 
of the Ta|diianN there; far it was at 81 Jon dial they 
kldoapi^ed the ni;r«e of Eumfpus. Firaey in thi 
times [>robot)ly reached ^nicwhat further than tradi 

k ILii. «44>5- ' Od. iv.83. 

Thtf inifrttifdiatc ^ timthtful Zont. 


Tbeeo same Tapltians appear to be of doubtful llcl- 
l^-insni. On the one liiuit], Mcntcw their 1endE?T V3l« a 
friWr to UI}«M>s'^^ But ( 1 ) W(j thus titid tli4?iii in Ph<n- 
tiic9a"» ivhicb is not a place of lu^nul Greek rcA^rt^ 
{z) Tbt-J" Kill !'► Tcji>rWr in foreign lutrU, •»* itXXof^oow 
lu^piowAtri ((kK 1.183), ^'bk'b u'v il^ hoi, find elM-vrburc 
ttud of GivokB< Tbc ease of TT»e p^cudo-Ulj^eB eait- 
Dol itaiiil as a |>re^odcnb for t!ie reet orUreecd nor 
even for tlie rm*t of Crete^ {jj Tlie fjitbn cf Mentes 
bad jziveii Ulys»^s poi^n for his arrows, uIul^ IJuf), tbo 
IJcllcnr, bad from niotin^s of rcli;-ion I'cfu^e^l birn. 
Thia at ooce supplier a particular rca«ou for Ibe xenial 
bond bctwi<en tlicnip and nigj^*vtit tbnt tbl^ TtLplniui 
prirt^*© nmy huve been, thoui^b a ^<iff>t, yot of a diJler- 
ent religion ait<l race, (4) Th* absence of the TfLpUiaus 
froni tbi* var, i?<pet-jatly as a tribe 90 much given to 
navijpitioitt further itrengtbens tbe presumption that 
tber vpcfo not pro)K>rly Oroeke, 

I'liccaieia. tbct:, bangs ilonbtfulJy on tbe outer verge 
of tlio (iniwk ^rnHd, nud Iwtonpt to tbu iiitennedtate 
Hon^. Yet more <teebledly i» thift tbe ea>ac ^ilh Egypt. 
For ll}»>e» mciuis aooiethii^f; uni]:*iiinl, \rhen lo de- 
MevilHrM lb<? viiyagie aa om> bu-^iiiLg (ar 6\v day» nrrnw 
the o|M?n sea. even with tbe very iMriitviiiid ali the way, 
from Crete; and it id el&owhcro dcAcribcd as at a 
diatancd foftuidablv ^ji-cjit. Such is the idea appartrntly 
intended by the Matenient, tbnt tbe v-^ry birdti du but 
inako the Journey once a year over 90 rjui & sear. No 
ordtnavy Greek ever goes lo Kji:yt^: and wlim the 
pseudo-Uljaaea planned his voya^ thither, it wnn itinler 
a aJuiMter hnpuliie frutii Jupiter, who meant hiin IIH: 

■• OiL i. 105. • Slip EfJkiinlAgy. »wt Sv 

■ Jb«l r O.i. liu 3J^-3. ^I OiL xiv, J4j. 

B 2 


in. 7'fioiaitini : ttif Ovttr Gwjpt^^r. 

Agnin, tho Poet npfieitiv ft haro entirely nilscon* 
Mved tin* distanc<? of Pliaro*! from tlw co&fU llo 
plftcen il at a day's j^il from A?7txTo«, meaning pro- 
bablv hj tlint name tlie Nile. Vain aLU^irifitit Irnvc 
boon nin<le to ^t ri^l by ex]>Ifinati<tn of thU ffeognipbi< 
cal oiTor. Nilzr*pli' soye truly, that for the g(,'Ogmphy 
nf thift pnfl8age Ilomer WHh clepcTitlrnt on tbti ^uMnip i>r 
rafters and compares it with that of O^gia, Selieria, 
an<l I lie rest. When MetuIauH wont to E^ypU it was 
invclcntArily, as we arc a^urcd by Nt^lor' ; 

Heycmd the circunifloriptiona which have thus been 
dravnu lie the countrips of the Outer Geography. Oul^ 
wards Uieir limit in tlij.* iiiiiid of Homer vms either tbe 
f^ont Rivov OeesTi, or else tho land inimcdi&lely bor- 
dering upon it< Their timer linct thnt lis the linn 
iiL'Vira'^t Ui tile Uiiitwii (ireok or llnmvnc world, mmjr 
be defined by a number of points sp^-illed in tba 
pooniB. We b&v(^ for example, the Lotophagi aud 
Libya in the south ; the land of tbc Cyclope on the 
wi^l; (I |>»ss by Sicily, becTiuse it can, I think, ba 
fthown, tliat Homur inrnKplantotl it into ftnotber 
<|UBrtcr;) Scberia to the north-west, the Abii, Glac- 
lopliagi, and Htppemol^i. tn the north. Then come 
iht.' SlnJt of the UXayKraij or Hosphonis, prL^tly accu- 
rately eeticeived as to its «ite ; next towards the east, tbe 
AniaKoiiA and the Holymi with their mountains: in the 
Miiitli-east tbe *H/jcjujdvt, and then the widely spread 
AiOtvjTtv. All the place* und [tenpUt viaiteil by U lyri«Q» 
after the Lotophujp. that have nut boon named> iniut 
be conceived to he yet further outwards* 

I have nnw expbiined the groundi^ on wbieh I aMiunii 



cxNti^ics; of iv<v grv^i :«inL% tlio otic of » n-al, the 
other of an Itnn^iniitivo. fliiniinting:, niiil Bomi-labiiloua 
Geoj^pby in Ifonicr; Aod of a thini Kone, tlrrt\in ft» « 
^nwwhat indeU^miinate bonler-gmunii Ijetwiwn tliein. 

I come now to consider what are tlie keys or lead- 
inj; ittoae of local arranjrfTinoTit n^bich wc onn first obtain 
from the panirulara of tbc Outer Gcogmpliy of Ilomciv 
And whii-ft wvi niuv \.\ivn ^pply to llit* ftobition of nnch 
qtie»^tioii^ of flotail a» It jin^ftoiit^^ 

It is plain that we have tt^al of^ome such ko^s. 
To aficeTiaiii thi? gi^iiernl i]iri-<!iiuri of tli« riinvefii4Milk 
of the Wan^lediij^s of Ulysaea, and the ^neral ide* 
«ntortflino(l by tho Poot of the distribution of tand end 
sen, 11^ an c!>s€ntiaJ prelim inary to tbe solution of eucii 
qt]i*itiotiH nx. Whore W(*rtj thi? Sin'ri^i? or, Wlirn? wtrc? 
the Lftsttyj^notfF AocordSnj^ to the utalomenc I Iiavo 
recently ifiven, many of the pohite, that Ulyeeeo in the 
W'anilcniigs viKilvd bj seiL would appear to have he^n so 
fixed by Homer, as to imply bin bt'licf that ibe chieftain 
«Atled oi'er ^rbat we ktiow to be the Hurope^fi coiitinevl. 

Tlic two propo«jtionfl, wbich I have already ventured 
to slate lu being the Vtryn lo the Outer (Geography wf 
the Ody»»ey» are in the following terms': 

1. That Homer plaecd to the northward of Thrace, 
KpirQ!<. and the Italian peninsula, an expansei not of 
Itin^l. bnt of 9i.'a, conimuiiicstiii^ with tUv Kuxmt*; or. 
lo i*xpre(w iMTtelf in otlK»r words, that he gn-aily ex- 
tended tlic Euxitio vre«tward^ pcrhnps ol^o i^hertening 
it towards the I'^a^fL; and that he mafle it iromDiiuiU 
eate, hy iIm^ gulf* ef <i(*noa Jtiid Venice, with the south- 
em Mediterranean. 

2, That he compounded into one two icts of Phcs* 
ntcian iraditionii respecting theOcean-inouth.aiid fixed 
the mie of it in the North-East. 

* tUx UlhintU^. twt. IT, jh. 304. 


ni Tkaiatia: iht Outer Gfo^yipkif. 

lu ihe firat place, 1 assume that Jt woiilJ be a vmAte 
ofllnie l'>eiiU*r ujiom an elaLoratp conriUatioii of <ln» tra- 
ditional idetilificatiotmf vliidi the )»an1onftblc nmbiHoii 
of aftiT-timcs lm» (Icvist'cJ for llio vnrious pwiits of tho 
unnflt-rliigs. According to llio!<o ejc[insilcrj fignn-nt*, we 
nui^t Ik'Hovl* lliiit tlio Innd of tZio Cjr<^Iti|N U au Ul&iii). 
that it h tlkO &amo i&lnnd whfcli reapp^^ars at & later 
tiato i\» Tlinnacle, that ,^kilin is 811*01116011 in sight of 
that Uhiid tif X\iG Cyv\o\m, (ttiougli it touk UU^l-» niito 
ilays of fair wind to «ail fnmi ft U^ uitliin vt^a af 
Itliacm) ami that UI}'i^«<-n i-onld mW »itrarg:ht ^cro$& the 
»ea from MuVm to Ithacn- Wc must look for (bt; 
Ln*8trygonc'« and tl^^ir porjiettial day in tl)o latttTideti of 
the M*jditfirnineai>, We must either (da^e the 0CM?an 
nt>rthivttTd,(l>utv holly vrJtUoiU any protolyptr in nature,) 
ami llie viudffl'-.woHd on the wcat coatt of Italy, where 
th^re is 110 strcaui whatever, am) tH.'ck, too, ftir fog^ 
tkud darkiic^ in the ehoioi^et Atnto«phcr«i< of tlic vroHil; 
or else wc niuE^ remove Hk Ocrun-nKHith to a distance 
aIhmiL four tim^ a<4 far fnirri fIh^ Tftlniid iirCinM^, aa tliat 
ifiland is from Greece uliereasi tho [loera evidently pre- 
suniL^ their comfuirativc proximity. But in truth, it is 
u»t;lL*j<^ to go oti uccumn tatinj; »ing1c objections, for it is 
nut ijpoii LtivHu that tin* tiitiAil ntion pnin^ipnllv ilepondM. 
Tho ooitOitatton of thefio |iardonabte but idle Crni1itioti« 
re?*t» on broader grixmdf. 'Hio ground* iin? nuchas really 
ihrHc, ihaL in no one parliriiliir dn thr^ic Itnlinn fabU***^ 
for&ueli 1 niu^t call them, nolwjth«taiHlli)j; the partial 
cwmtcnaiK-i- they receive from the ehaotle and soetii- 
inj^ly ndiittoratt-^l purt?* of the Tlifo^<^ny of Ilettiod"^ 
sgtli^fy the letter itC tin- trst of Iltinit-r; that in tJiu at- 
tempt to give it a gLvgiaphioal character, they nilKcon- 
C^ve ita spirit ; and that they obli^ w to orerrtdo and 
nullify not only tht: facl^ of actual geographr, foi that 
Jlcit Thpog. loii^iy 

JJigtocatum factual mtfwv. 


WG mtfshi do witbout viokttng e^y law or reiuon and 
likelibooil nrder tho concijtiona of the cum*, but niso 
tho pCMitive indications which IIi>mer bafl given us from 
jiliunomt'iia tlml lay within liU tcnoutedge sinJ oxpe* 
riunco. In fuct, Ihcv ^ouM oblicjo ub to condemn 
JloiucT a.-9 gcogmptijcttlly tinwortliy ut' trust, within tljo 
l^»ll(?rv of tliu CTM'r^ ihiy lift- niul nwirl of iht^ (Sn't^kff, 
as well as in regions, which be and hU couDtrynicn 
never visited. 

And the resuU i^f all the violence thii9 ilone to 
Hom^ would be, that we sliould have sacrificed at 
once bis lanf^iajife and lite iina;n'i^^i^iii ^'^ the attempt 
to 5trtig^lo with contrntHcttons to the actual g^n^rtphy 
which ticfy i^rory »tti-nipb at n^'i^oncili^iti^jii. 

At ibo otilJioC> according to my view, both acbnift- 
«onB niQst be ninde, and prinHploa must be laid down, 
fifl cardinal and efte^mtial to the conduct of the inquiry 
W(> h:ive iit>w in hand. 

It must, I think, Ijo admitted, 

1. That Homer lia» dislocated or trani^phiiitcd the 
traditions he had received, K«r cxftniple, he has either 
carried the llo)E|>horu« wes!itwari!*\ or el»e the 8tntt« of 
ftlowina eastwards. 

2, 'lliat therefore a* we are on this occasion mciuiring; 
not into the geographical infonnation Homer can give 
UK, bnt into the orrort» he hnd einhnicod. we niuvt noc 
be aiirprif^ud if wo fnil to arrive ai any eoneluvionfl, either 
wholly *elf*conrf»lenl or demonstratively clear. Wo 
hitiAt exA4't from hifl text, viith wontrthing leiw tlmii geo- 
graphical ri^ur. even thi? conditions of inward harmony. 

It may ihcci rcai^onably he ofikccl, if thi^ be &*>, bow 

vre Co find aity clue to his meaning. 
My ait«wer t«. by hiying down ruteN which will 
' MUllcr'* OrcbmnciUHH p. J74. 


[IL Thulitua: t/K OaUr Gt^rap^. 

enable us to cliscriniinatc buivrircn his primarj Afid kis 
secondary aU I rriu-i 1 1:« ; lictweeiilliv rnsults uf liU kuuw- 
ledge, and tUe fruiU ofhU fancj. 

By Ills knowledge I moan, what ho hud Men, wlmt 
be had travelled over, what va» ^niiliarly and liabit- 
nallj known to liis (*r>uTitrjiiii<.*n, i-o sm tn give liini ample 
Oppcrluniti^^ of n^fn^hiri^ ra(*ollectioii» of enlarging 
knowletlgo, nnd of eormcting error. 

liy the fruUv nf hiH Cniu^y J mciin, the fiiriri* he has 
tliought f^t to give to ^tat^inents< Qf geography lying 
ouUide the world of tiiB own eip^srience^ and tliat of 
the Greeks in general These statciaGnts. gathered 
herr and {]irw a-^ tiiFii* nnd DpjH»rtunity might wr%v, he 
voiild hiu'dlv liuvr^ moulded iiiTu h eorrvet utkI eon- 
eitttenc selieme, Financipating himiteir wholly fVom 
obligations which it Via» impoedible for him to fullil, lie 
has treated them simply as the creatures of hi^ poelle 
purpose, and has analysed, shifted, and recombiiied them 
into a world of hi« own, in the creation and adjustment 
of whicli, the principal factor has of necessity been hia 
own will. 

I tbo^cfo^<^ lay down the following postulates; 

I. That, Homer having an Inner or known and an 
Outer or imagine*! world, hetwi^en whieh a Una may Iw 
dniwn wllb tolerable certainty, the voyage of (Jlyaic^t 
from llie Lotophagi to Schcria inclueivo, lice in the 
Out4-r worhl. 

2< Tliat wie may imt mily impltciUy bC4vpt tlie g<eo- 
graf>hi(*al «tatement*( of Homer, when lliey Ik- within 
hifl owii horisoh or the Inner world, hut may fearlessly 
argno from them. 

3. That argument* so drawn are available and para- 
mcunttaa iar a« they go, for goveniin;; the eonstniction 
nf jmhsages relating to the gcogniphy of the Outer vrortd. 

PiMttUattv^fin' the imyutry. 



4p That wu haw im title \n argue, when wir fin*! a 
)H>iiit til ihi^Outirr world dc^ftcribeti in ^u^U a tnaiin«-rjiA 
to corresi)i>iiO with some spot now known, tlai Homer 
gave t» thai irsct or region in hie own mind, the site 
which wc may now know it to occupy, but that he is 
quite AH likely to huvo pl«rt*il it dj<cwhfiv. 

5. That fifgitmcntft groufid<Ml on iho physical know* 
\o6gQ of the Poet ure to bo trusted. J would name 
by way of example, [subject only to a certain latitude 
For inexftctncfS&r) nwah Argtimeiils as are drawn troni the 
dtrcctionti of wind's, nnd from oilier fiatont and cardinal 
fact« of Gomiiiun oxpt^rioucc. for cxnmplc, the di«lancc» 
which may he Irawrnt^d within givni tiirK^i. 

^, So likewJRe nni tie iiidk-ationa, whicli harmotihcc 
with koown or reiisonnbly presumed historical and 
ethnolo^cal Tiewa. to tje truHte<l a» good evidence on 
queations relnting to hi» geo^rapbroal uieanir^. 

In order, howx-ver. to he in a condition to make nse 
of indications SLi|)|dicd bytlio AVind:), wc mo»t consider 
what the; Wimb uf Homer are. 

Tlie Wiiidfi oi lloiimr art- only fcnir )n iiunilKT, and 
the manner of their pbyrical arrangement ih rude. It 
by no menns corresponds with our own, but varies 
ftom it greatly, just as his points of the comiwiss varied 
from ourv. And iliuu^i ho nami-H nnly fuur winds 
yet 1 ajjprelicnd wo muet consider tlmt npon tho 
whole lie u»e« them with Hucb latitude, 0.1 to cxprc«a 
under the name of tome one of tlieni every giiltt that 

As to 6omo of thc«o winds, Ilomcr boa provided na 
with an abundance of trustnortliy <i€ia tor their point 
of origin: nnd tlirongh lht*in the evidinn'O m» to the 
rest may be enlarged. 

Homcr'» goveniing pi^intfl, from which to meafturu 


ML nttiaJAO : Uif OuUf Gtictfraph^, 

Again, tiK' Piiot fi])j>cjin la have entirely niist^«ii- 
ctfivtii ilio iJit^lBiicL- uf Pbaroi from tlie coast. II© 
piftcce it at A tUy'^ ^i\ from Atywr^f, moaning; pro- 
bul>Jy hy timt name the Nile. Vain attcnipts have 
biH'ii iitmit- u> gL'L nil t>y 4?x|i1uiintioii nf tliii; ^iM>j^p!ii- 
oal error. NitzM'li' wiy« truly, tliut for tlie ^oegraphj 
of tlii» imssage Homer wna <ie|>cn(loi)t on llic g(jwsi|j of 
(wiUint, utni company it ivith that ^f ^)^ygiii» Sclittnu, 
and the rest. When Afeiielaiw went to Egypl^ it hiui 
in voluntarily, as wo are assured by Nestor" ; 
arap Thi ^rti'T^ pint KuwvEpy^Jotit 

I^yond the cirL*uniHcri[iT,loiiH U'hi<']i hnvi* tliiiv Iwun 
drawn, lie tha countric*s of the Outer Goo^ra|iliy, Oat*- 
ward9 tlielr limit in the mind ef Homer n^s either the 
/(reat Rivev Ocean, or eUo the land iniinecliatcly bor- 
dering upon it. Their inner line, timt U, the lin^ 
nearest to the known Gretjk or Humoric world, may 
be defined by a number of points spcciHcd in the 
poeniK. We luive. for example, the Lotojifiagi and 
Libya In the «out1i ; the land of the Cyclapi^ on the 
west; (I pass by Sicily, bocnuftc it cap. 1 think, l»c 
shown, that Homer transplanted it into aiioihof 
c|Uarter;) Scheiia to the north-west, tlie Abii, ftla4> 
tophoyi, and Ilippeniolpi. to the north^ Tlion come 
the Htrait of tho nAo>«T«x, or Bo»phoru», pretty accu- 
rately conceived as to itsnilc; next towards thcca»t, the 
AtiiasEoiis and tliu Sotyini wkli Lin-ir inoiiiituins; in llie 
M>uth-east tlko 'K^f^^oi, and then the widely fi|>rc»l 
AiOivvfi. All Uie places and people mitod by Vly 
nfliT tht< liOtopbagit that have not been named, muHt' 
be conceived to He yet furtlK<r oulwKrdv, 

i have novi* exptuned the ground'' on wliichlawume 
I On Od, IT. J54. • <Kl in. J99. 

Po*tnlaU^Jhr the intptirf^ 


4. That \yc imTL' po title to nr^iKs when wc find a 
|inini ill thi'OuUT worM (lrM-n1»*il in Mwh x iimtiiirr ii« 
CO CDrres[iond with su>me spot now kiiovp'n, ihnt Homer 
gave to tbat tnwt or ro^ion in iiia own iiiiiid, the «itc 
which we mar uow know it to occupj, but thnt he 18 
quite a^ likely to ha\o placL^d it elfwwl^ere. 

5. Tlmt arf,'utnf.^tit» ffmuridL^il uu tlio pliydcal know- 
ledge of tlio Poet arc to be trueted< 1 woultl naino 
l>y way of cxamjtlo, (suhji<i:t only to a ceH^iiii lalitnde 
for inexuci ikt:*^^ ) siicli ar^umoni* 1^ aro dmwn from tht* 
directions of winds, and from other patent and cardinat 
fftetd of common experience, for eianiptc, the distances 
which may be tmvprsfd wiihin p\\vn times. 

6. Ho !ikewi«> am the indii^atioMt, which hnrmooize 
Willi known or rcnM)nably prc»<umcil lii»torical and 
ethikological views, to be truc^tcd as ^ocd cTidt-ncc 011 
qoeAlion*) relating u> h\s gt^ogn[ih\e^\ meaning. 

In onler. linwevor, to be In ft condition to make use 
of indications supplitd by the Winds* we must consider 
wtiat tlic Winds of Homer arc, 

Thu Whid* of (lomer are only fonr in number, tod 
the manner of their phyricfti arningemcnt (« nide. It 
by no means corrc'f4|»ondH with our own, but narittP 
from it greatly, just a*i bin jxkintA of the eom|KUA varitn] 
from ooTB- And though lie nanif's only four windv^ 
yet I approtioud wo mu»t eon^tder that upon tlie 
whole he uses them with such Utitudc, as to express 
under llie iianie of Hoine om> of thcni e\x'ry gtlo that 

^& to some of tbcso winds. Homer has provided us 
an abundatice of trustworthy dala for their |x>inl 
4gin : and tltmugli them the evidencv as to the 

-s governing points, from whicli to ineaaure 


UL TlnUtUiia: fhf Ontt*- O^jr^phjf. 

enable ue to diflcrlminat^ between bis primjuy ittid liie 
90COD(likrjr Ktfik'iiiontH ; Iwlvrcun Uiu rci<ulu n( biS know- 
ledge, ond the ftult» ofliis fniicy. 

By bift linowlcnJgft I mcnn, what he* bad eceii. whal 
he ha<l travelled over, wbaL wik^ familiarly and liabiu 
tmll}' known ti> bis couiitrVEiieFi. no hh U>g\vi^ hun am|>le 
opportuiiitiee of refrcshin;; rccotleciion, of enlarglnff 
kiimvlcd^i\ imd of convctiiifj error. 

tl}" Ibi' fruits itf bift fftiicy f inenii, tbo forirj* !ic Iias' 
ihnujfbt tit u> give lo stAtetm*ijiH of geogr»j»by Wing^^ 
outeidc tlie workl of bia own experience, aQ<l tbat of 
the (irccks in ^eneraL Thc-$c fitntemcDts. ^thfiretl 
\wrv mid llivrr a» time :ujil o|4|H>rliiiiirjr tiiigbt wrve, be 
could Itardly bnve uitiubK'd itito u c<orn.'<*t un<l eotr- 
MJfiteDt sdienie, KniniLcipatfng bimself wholly from 
obligatioua nluch it was iin])o»»il>le for hlin to fulKI, lio 
bw» Uewlwd tli«?in simply as tb<? creatures of liu potlic 
purpoije, a«d hti& aiialj'Hecl, aliif^ed, and rocomljuied tbein 
iato a world of his own. in tbu croatioti nnd Adjustment 
of which, the priacijjal factor ba» of jicccK«ity been liia 
own will. 

I thi>rcforo l&y down tbo foUowiiij;: po«talato« : 

1. Tbat, Homer baving; an Inner or known and an 
Ouk'r f>r iningini'd wnrld, lietwet^n wbteb a line nmy be 
drawn witli lolerable certainty, tbe voyag<* of LTIyMo%^ 
from tbc Lotopbagj to ^^oheiia inclusive, lica in tbe 
Outer world. 

1. Tliat we Tnay not only iinplidfly accept tlie geo- 
graphical 6t»tL<nioiit« of Homeri when tb(^y \'w wiihin 
hi» own borizon or tbo Inner world, but may fcciric«>ly 
arguo from tbem. 

3, That arguments so drawn nre avuilable and jjata- 
mouDt^ns far as tbey^jo, for governin;; llie oonetmetion 
of pKwigesrebiting to tbcgcogri^iby of tbc Outer world* 

P*iiiiuiate<tji>r itu^ i/t^nmy^ 


4. TImi Vrt.' havo 00 title i" argue, wh^n ^v fitiil a 
)>oiDt in tht- Outer worM clvdcrlbed in suoh a nianiicrad 
to cvirresipiuiil with Mime fl|K>t now kaoniL, that r[omer 
gave to llat tract or region ia Ills own mind, ihc site 
vlitcli wc may dov kmiw it to occii|iy, but that he is 
quite aa ]ikclr to have placed it cUcwhcru. 

5. That »rgijitii<titA gnttiiKlifd im the phyiiinLJ know- 
ledge of the Coot nre co be trusted. I would oauie 
by way of csciiinpks [Hubjtct only to a certain lotitudo 
for inexactuooa,) such ar^uients as are drawn from the 
directions of wiiidtv anrl frnm tjihtit |i»t4^nt and cardinal 
faotE of common exiwrienc^, fur exainplis tbo dUtoncas 
which may be travL-tvcd within given times. 

6- Bu likewise an? tbt; iiKliratloriM« which bnnnoni/'V 
with known or reaftonnbly proQumed hifttoricnl and 
ethnok>^cal viewsi, to be trusted as ^od evidenoo on 
<}uestions relating to his pco^phical meaning. 

In onk>r, linttvvcr, to \>e in a condition to make nw 
of uidlcations KLipplicd by tho W'indit, w<i inut;t conudor 
what the ^Vil1d^ of Homer ait^ 

The Wind.4 of Homer an? only four in iiamher, and 
the manner of their physical arrangement itt rude. It 
by no means corresponds with our own, but vanes 
from it greatly, just ȣ hie potnU of the compass varied 
from ours. And though he names only fijur wind?, 
yot I apiirehend wo niuvt ct>iiMiler that u|ion tlio 
whole bo unes cbom with sucb latitude, as to express 
under the name of some ono of them every gale thai 

As to somo of tljese winds, Homer ha^ provided ua 
with AD ahODdaiico of ini»tworlhy data for tijeir |KHut 
of origin: and through them the evidence as to the 
rest may bi* ctdargwd. 

Homer's governing points, from which to moamir? 


: Wt«i0i dto iwdt* of Ui 

Bt b Uj « Mg> I an. what br hid Mk «1» 

I* kii esaatniNB, ••■• tipfe hiti •■! 

fcwufWgu smI of comrtaig error. 
By ihe 6v» of Ui teer I aetii, tk form bs 
•C lo iflfe to iMeBtati of gcognfi^j 
ibtf «wU of kfe on aprriL-tirr, witl lloL 
tfap Gtveks fa guMBiL llMii AaivOveati, plb* 
fcm asd there m tino wni opporluiiUj migfal 
«mU hvAv bare iPOiiMeil into a runect aad 
airt^ arfacBir. Enuudpanii^ bicoBelf wbiUI^ 
ublij^atioiw wbieh it vai impOAJble for blm to falfi], 
bas tnatod them ^mflr as tbe rieatures of Uk 
puquae, aad haa analTvrJ, tliiftei), ami reoooibi'iMNl 
iuiv a vorid of Ua own, iu the creation and ai^stfn^ 
^^rWob, tbr principd ^tor baa of i>eeeaity been 
own will. 

I ilMTcfbre Ur down the fbUovitip portables : 

t- Tii^u HonitT hiring an Inner (t known anil 

^te or in^ned vroHil, beHreen vbich n line mnj bo' 

dniWTi uidi tole^a^a^MyJltJ^, the vnta^ of rijNn%* 

<V^>m the ItfialHi^^BrtftiJMltuiTO, liCK la Ifae 

acrept tie S^'^^l 

ibay tfi* vrtthin 

ittav Tearieasly 

and |Mkm- 


iC4>r uurid. 

Pc*tHiaIf4jhr Mtf inquiry. 


4. That we hatf no title to argue, w!i<mi wc fin<l a 
point in tiK'OiiUrr ^"orUI iliwrrilirtl m kik-Ii a m^mnr-rsft 
to corTD^^jioiiO V'iiii mine «pot now known, tUat Homor 
gftvv to that tract or region i» lii» own mind, tbo Rit« 
wluclk wo iimv now kntiw it tn omipj. l>iit tliat lie 19 
*juite a^ likely to have placet! U elsewhere. 

5. That argumeutg jt^rouiided ou the phyelcal know- 
ledge of tho I'oGt arc to be tnmtcd. 1 would nanio 
by way of exniiiplp, («ibjcct oiiij to a (rt-rtain hUitiide 
for tficxiictno^^] Huch ar^umeiiN iix iirv dmwii fr«>m the 
dire<?tion« of ^vi11<|Ji^ and fram v>thcr patent and cardinal 
factrt ofcomiiKrti cx|>erienre, jfbr example, the ilistfliicoa 
wliU-h may be travei'^ted wichin ghen times, 

6. ^ like vrifio are the iiLdioatJone, whieh harmoiiize 
with ktiowD or rcmRonably prcsumeti hi^oricfil aii^ 
ctbnologirat tIc^wk to be? trusted ns good evidence oq 
qneitioufi relating to \m f«»0£raphical ineanhig. 

In order, however, to be in a coridition lo make iiw 
of indication!! supplied by the Wind^ we mu^t consider 
what the Winds ttf Ilnmernre. 

Tho Wjiidti of Ilginer ai^ only four in nutuWr, and 
tbe manner of their pliypica) arnvn^^cnicnt h rudo. It 
by DO n^eaiie oorrL&ponds \»ith our own, but varit-a 
frani it gn*at1y,Jiittt jih lii« jHjiiita of the rtmipit^ vanifcl 
IVofn oura. And though he namen only four winds, 
yet I apprehend no muAt consider that upon tho 
vbole bo UBC3 them with such latitude, aa to oxpresa 
undvr the iiamo of some one of tlieni every g»lc that 

As to Home of theae windti, Homer hn$ proTided us 
with ail abundance of truf^tworthy data for their point 
of origin : and throtigh them the evidence aa to the 

a may be &nlargod< 

uer'8 ^Toming imnts, from which to measure 


llh Thatamt: IA« OuHr &M»^raphy. 

are^ of the Iiorison wcro, aa |« evMont. tlie sunrivp and 
XbQ sunpct. iluF i^ cloarlv sitowii by his c:£prcssion4» 
mcli M w^uf jj« T ^/\x*'*" Tt. for the caat» and tlieii in 
Up|»nt)iti()It to tln^i, TT^ ^r>^OP ^f^tfriTflr fuT tbe wvsl, 
A^ii> uliim Ulys«os uTgt^ upofi )jt« c<fm}mnion« Uiat 
he liri^ I<j8t nil mcaiifl of forming u jii<^^rtici]i of thcif 
jiEiHitidn, hi« nindu of i'X|)nWiuii ist tliiis tb^L he cliitw 
not know where h du^k or u*bere i» datrn ; vliere the 
joy-giving »im racfl, or where he links'- Wo must 
therefore ilii^iniHii from our minds the four cardinal 
liuHTtH to whieli wo are accustomed- Tlii-y wore not 
cftrdiiial points for Homer. Wo ntnst also renwmber 
not oti\y (i) that liomcr had onty two", bat Rbo 
{i) tliat \ih two did not i^i>nv^|»orid vilh any of our 
four,&Dd{ ^) that from the VHrnitioaof Minrisenndetinat^t 
with tho soo^oim of the ycnr o oertniii ninount of voguo- 
ncsH ^viiH of nece^Niiy introduceit into hbi coTu^eptione 
of the ]]oiiit of ori^'in for each of ihL- ditlet^nt vimls. 
■ Wo shoul<] not, however, css^^^^mto this vA|*tion«88, 
It hn<I ilfl caiwc in the varmlions of the ecliptic, atid, 
lihc itft caH*t\ it v!f^ limited. 1 ?inp|)o«e, however, that 
ilie eye gueKu-§i rudidy nt th« deviutionit of die ocljpllc, 
and that we most take N.W, and S.E. for tho two car- 
dinal point!* of Homer 

Ifomer^fi wesi then ranged to the north of vrest, ami 
Homcr*B (.-af^t to th^- !;aiilh of enst. But althotigh tliis 
must bo borne in mind when vro trandato hii» winds 

• Oil X. 1 90^ jp 

» Waort (is<^r(Ut'* fli tTc*ic*r. p. 
13.) anp. 'oulj fuiir,' mfftuias 
oalf four vtuUs. UqI it Lt pretty 
L'luixr tlioL Uu(uvr*)» Tuur uiiids 
wrro nut At niiytliiu^ hkii ii^mty 

in in Homtr nt> ironi mvunin^ 
»tnitJy nitbcj- ;tc>D(b> or uoillu 
iM^v^i. howrwr, tram vtruncc 
in dpfi»'i*ij >ffiAf, tuMUB AMilAeW^ 
AH W4<1I nii «^ fArf riffhi ; but {■rO' 
lir^lily a K roller tliuti S. lHli 

rt^ yVimU ^niomtr. 


* langtja^ yet of rounte tlio winda theaueUei 
were arni:igeJ» not technically so a? each to coter a 
eertain arc on itic lioriKoti, but \ritb mfer^nce to tli6 
directions in wlicb they were found by canjcrienre com- 
nicvnU' to 1>b»w-. Ami in ii9Kt>nating i.-ai^b >^ind with & 
Itailknibr |injikl of tin* lH<rIw>n> we must l^iMir in miinl 
t^mt Kiicii a point i9 to be re^rdcd as ltd <H>utn\ anil 
that the ^amc? nnme Vi-onlc! be given to a win<J within a 
number of poiiiL^ on citlief side of ft. 

As to cb4< r«*H|iectivo prt^valcjnco of tho <ltffi<reiiC 
windft, the rritorion i« certainly n rude one, still it \a 
a criterion, which »« prc^vtilcd for ds by the compaia- 
tivc fVr{|in'Tiry of the ocn^ionH on which tlti-y are 
mcntionecL Muniji ia mentioned In the poems m;vo« 
tunes, Notus bfieen: Horoa?* iweiity-scvcn. swhji.'ct to ft 
Miiall (ledncttiin fi>r CHSt'H Mbt>re be m nioiply it j>en<tMi; 
antl Zephyr twenty-six, Tlie latter pair are the lead- 
\nz M'imla of the poem : not ncceMarily that Uicy indi* 
cfllc<i tho prtvttiiiiig eurrcnts of air, but tbut ihcy to- 
prc?M!riK.'d »aeli cnm^ismf air iw u^nally pn?iaili-d \\itli 
force »uflid^i to mako tlicMn ji^ood poetical agents. 

Wo may also Icam. from the epithoti? given to Uie 
wimK the iinpTi-**ionfl whicii they rc^jiecUvily made 
npcju the niintl of Ilonier. 

Enro« never htx» a character atluchcd to tt. Nutus 
fehlotn W anyi-prllK-t; biitf^till il i» tueiitloned, by the 
iN>mmde af IMy^ocH in Ck\. sii, 2H9. as one of tho most 
fomiidable winds. This may probably liave been ou 
flceoniit of ila din^ctfon relatively to tho }daco of (lie 
speaker; because fr*mi lliat point it blew right npoti 
Scylla''. A^iiin, n» Zcpliir Qn<l NotuM aru nowhere 
eW »«»^?iut«<l by iTn- Puet, the )>iv«uuiption anitcK nti 
thai ground al^i that here Noti» is put in for a >^|Mx*ial 

* cvi 

x\i 427 


in. ThafttMa: tht 0%tter Otv^/xsfh^. 

iiiul locnl rwi-AWK II i* railed ufiyiffrttu iii^J »* w> ewei*- 
Hally Et1lii.-i1 witli (ho id4*a i>f niojMtureT ^^^^ *<TTiof stands 
eitnpl^ for \Tot fr&riAf iM^rD^, IL xK 8to). 

Tlio chARirterlfltic epithets of Uoff^A^ arc n^a^, <ra-ip* 
ftroft ami atBpfjjcvtff^ The fint of thefio iitrlicatf^ tliat 
lie btew tiarcl : nnd wo know tlie ^ano ttiiiip from the 
facta, that Acbilk^s dcsifXfd him to contribntv lowar<N 
mpidVy constiming the pyro of i'atrocluf«» and Ihnt he h 
oIWei used far a *tonii^. 

Bui, of till tlio mn^ the Zephyr evidently wiw the 
mo^*t proniinL^iit iu the view of Homer. It in /i<y<K 
(Od. Xiv.4j8), \a^(ivt i-Ttnyi^tav (FL Ji. 148), trXaitHic 
(fl. xx\\\. 2o8)i Sv^ntft (1h xxiii, 300, and Od. xH, ^89). 
frj>r.\^7for (Od.xii.408): and it Alorio of tlio winds roars, 
i^ti^i'puw iit'ij (ir iv. 276). ill Od. sii. ^Spt it U men- 
tioned with Niitiiu: tlitty am tht> wtndH ininit ajit to 
destroy ehips even desptti? or without the godi* For 
XotuB, as i have said, tins (Character socnie tc bo local; 
!nit the Zephyr is here called Sifljaijv, and tile aeiwo of 
tbo passage i« in acconJance with hit genen^l repufcft* 
tioD. lie, with Bon>-ai#, f« invoked for tho pyn? of 
Patroclus: uod IhcAc two are the only winda which 
an? rvrr eni|i!iijed ?*itigly to iiiak<> Ajii! weather. Ho- 
mer's other mcxlea of creating a tempcfit by tlio agency 
of the winds nre (i) to make a oomblrntion of all or 
aevenil of them. (2) to cover the matter in a geno* 
ntlity by spoakittg of tho tiXaot thr^m without diittino- 


Tbcro is, however, in Homer a faint trace of the milder 
character, which wa* afterwanls in(*i\? fidly n.-cogidsed 
in Zephyr, when he ha^l muvi^l doMU fn>m (ho north, 
ftud become a £iiu))Ie west wind. In the de«^^n|)t]on of 

« n. xxlii. 194, 

r/ie mutij' ^^ J£tm*9r. 




tlM3 Ki}>>'iAii f»1ii1ii, vro find thvU it ift ii^vot vex^ with 
tenipe«toruitli niin,liut thai Ibo littj>jiy*pinU dwelling 
there are m<*es^ntly refreslctl with tbi: Ztrj>livra which 
spring frtmi Oeea^j*', But «veii hem <h<? hnn-J^'H itrc 
XfTirri^iorrrr : aiid this word means what is cal W blow- 
ing ym*i. And tlio coiircpUon of the wind lure ts 
nthcr Bs a acn-wimJ, and therefore not a coM orif, thnn 
JI7A hriii^ vnfr. »iid ^MiMt^- 

()f ihosw four Wiiiils, Ilonu^r ha>! tnadt^', on various 
occaiu<»iK<, two coiii)k-s, lie rciicatcdJy a^tMcistcs Boreaa 
and Zephyr iu the Aame work* : 

lilt' i &^}Mi 6^0 Tt^VJVV 6p£vtTtPV IxSv^tWTttt 

And n^iii, for tlit* purjioECB nf Aclillkti, Hie two 
come tojTttfthor ov^r the fiea, and quickly fall to, that 
the pyrt! may bu coiiHunicd ; even as the pmycr of tlic 
hem hnd been ^Idremed la them in oomninii'. 

In the »ame way* Eiimf^ and Nofuh nre }iH<io(rtnted 
tOj:6Clier as exdlin^ the Icarian St*a. This pn*«ape jg 
euriouely ilhiBtrativc of" llomcr'f» di&tinctioiifi between 
the wiruK Her ha? two sncccHUVC aimilcs, txith de* 
scribiiij^ tlit- a;jitalinn of iln^ i*anK* Atiwnihlys, In the 
firftt it i« ci>m|)E;rcd to the fi*nriuii Sea lathed by Euriis, 
awl by Notua diargin^ from the clouds. Iti tfie »e- 
corul, to a eoni-field. on which Zephyr powtTfully 
iQWcepii dowii"*. 

From a jii^t consideration of theRc passages, it be- 
comt'« clear thftt the four winds of Homer were not at 
ef|iiidi^»nt |H>iiitH of the conipnAS, bnl that each two 

* Otl. tv, st»5-f. iamU«a uWh yowvrinWy ag^kuti 

* IL ix. 4, tiw wi^-tihtia lu^iiii'iit of Mr- 
I II. xxiii' 1941 3i>. W<Kh1 (■on(;cirDing ttio iHrtbpbic* 
f t1- ii iA4-^, 147-lJ- of lIoiEiiTt. (Jcniiw of Ifcinicr, 


HI. Thatosm: tk* OuUr O^ivifihy^ 

gf tham were caipnblc^ of itKaonlntion, u-lille udtlwr 
member of oiie pair is ever described, oxccpl iii a 
single paasa^o, wJiich I will )>reBently notice. a9 oo* 
0|>cratiDg witli one of Uie other. OF course I do not 
refer to Xhosiy cuue*, vrbure the IWt misos ^) tlie four 
windb Hi once, eiotply lo crcato a Iiurrkane; no ba«i 
coi^'i^cturc, I will wUl, for Uio«q times in antieipatioti 
(if l\ui iimderit dixciivvry ihtu linrnnim-^ ure eddic^ and 
tliat it ifl Uieir drouUi- mutioii whkh makcB ihtfiii Boent 
to blow aliuosi BimultaiieouftlT in all dircctioDa^ 

Let UA ROW ]nc|uire what can be i)(ii>e triwunln HJ^rorv 
taiiiitig more parlicularlj' tlw leadirg |)0]iits of tUevo 
v-jiiJs, of which wo have curvoyeJ the gOEH.>inl dcsorip* 

I hc^'iii with the tnuru |)rovfiiZiiig |)m'r, Zi-jthjrr and 

Tlicre L'nn, 1 lliink, be no lieftitiition in derivii 
'/jt'tjit/fivi fmiii iC^tpijio'i. It niav ho well to reuiin<I tlw' 
rL*iider th.-it i^o^o? iv the Kame woixl in fttibfttaitco wrtb 
«i'cipar and tc^op^. 

Thus tlio north-wcat is hia cmdle> But l*c is m> 
dl>r^^^ly u»»uumti'd >iiih Thran* and with Dore^, the 
ffwTnt»r hei[]jf his rcwdt-iir**, :iiid the luttet' lii« com* 
panion, that thougli ho may tnenn nny wind from wc8t 
up to no^[t^ wc must consider him n^ umuhII}' leaning 
froni tho itoi'tli-wc-^ti lownnb the nitrth, vliile he pro* 
|terly hclori;;^ to the nurtli-\i'eKt rather than any ottier 
Ijivcn point of the eainpaKV. 

Tlie jiositiim of Horua-H is the he*t tlcfincd of oil tlio 
w'uu\s of IIoiML'r He caiiNot conn^ fwm aity |>oint to 
the kien of due imrth : for all tliat space is A|ipn>- 

■ S«0 Qnkrad R«id*« Lttar of ^ JiuttdhilQ. L*xil. VOO? vr- 

Sli>^u ncid Viiiiftlilr WtutK Xui^. 
London, 1845. 1 11. xjLiii. J14- 

/VfitCtf iifMi^iM/or Zqtkffv and Itortaji. 


[mated to Ze|>ltyr* Ho ii cijnally woll del)ii€<l on the 
otb^ itido. For hi* bl<?H-» from Tiiniccs Iwtb genendly, 
flt in II. iXp 5t ftiid |inrti(*'iit&rly ou ihu Pbiu of Troy"^ 
1 lioM in Uo o( no uitLhorit>\ ii» fixing tho direction of 
lliii^ wind, tlif Hitrciii) »hirlj oiinieii tlie [»^eu<]iv-ljlrKH'» 
from Crete U» I'l^'yi't"; fur (here Homer i* iJn^iiOy 
beyond the liiu^r Woi-M^ and he only l;nons tho r>ost- 
tion df K^ypt from Phacnimn rciiort. But wo hare 
olhi-r trustwortliy iiidinit!uii9 Troni within tIk^ «]fhorc 
offirovk iiaiiticnl kiiOMk'd^t*, in UW c^nrryiiig Hc-rctiles 
^111 Ilium to Ooif*V in his preventing a vova^o from 
Oete to ilium >\ and in the Bute of Ul>^c«, who, in 
tomidJDg Malca, is rnmc'd off hy Biirea^ to (he M-est- 
ward of Cjthom'i, All thosu o{)erations cnu be per* 
^niied only hy n wind blowing from the quarter hc- 
tween cttHt and north*cH^t. 

I^itthl>f log^chirr tlii^si- inr!kation», I think wq mittt 
conclude cltAt tho i)or«iii^ of Momeriftn wind to the vwt 
of nortli. Hut it ^^ec^niB [flain tlint h« doc^ u>it t^mhracu 
near!)' tbt^ whole (juiiflrajit from north In easi. For, 
like and ercn morn than Zephyr on tho other eido of 
thu |K>tc, ho haic a leaning towtinln the polar bido, and, 
in the' abflcnct: of more t>articul&r marka. Homer »bonld 
\w Inlct'n tn niimii hy him n X-V. K- wind, ihnt iv, a 
wlitd ranging piinciiKtUy or whiolly fVom N. to N.E- 

1 teko the line II. ix. 5, whiWi many hare trc&tcd as 
a diHicuky* Tor a Bonnd and vaiuitble geographical indi- 
oataou. Boreas and Zephyr lilow from Thnice. To b 
Orottk, wiy at Mycona*, Thrace, whicli reacho* ttom tlio 
Adrialic to the Knxinc, cover* more than ninety de- 
grees of tho horizon. It h from within lho9o »inet^ 
degrees that every UoreaH, and probahly every Zepliyr, 

• IL «liL 214, M ifcbovf. * OA MV. 853- 

• n_ sJr. ?55, IV. ?6, 9 Od. %ix. aoo. 1 Od, lt-61. 


in. 7hata4^; th* OttUt' ti^/ra^'fit^. 

of Hotuor cnn lio tliov^-Ti to blow, Tliveo aro 
wlitoli wc m«y bold tii dopodit, rendy for ktvJco in 
i^-X|>lanHtinii oftlic^ tiif>v^ii(^i]tN nrtlit;OTitFrn«!fligra|ilij 

And nlorj^ with tbcni He tniiBt keep in mind tl 
HomeHc atlinity and sympathy eatabUehed Iwtwceii' 
Boreas i\ud Zephyr It i:^ so coDsidemblc, find cUcjr^ 
lire e«|>eriully m such locul proKiuiity. thai pntcticall 
we sboiild not gty far wroiij^ wert^ vte to f«y Horn' 
divides the ^hole eirciimfcTcnce of his hori^n ini 
ihtvv^ iii-firl) L'fjuAl nro8 of i £0 dt'^n~-es more or leat* tRii 
frst nf thoac, beginning from due ^tpst. in giy«n 
Zephyr and to Boreas. The next, roacbiii;^ to williii 
30'^ of the South Pole, to Eurna : and the thini, cm* 
bracing the rr*itliw ofthi^ circle, lo Nntii*, 

NotuM iii the great southern wind, Kuru» being coi 
panitively of little account. Now, one of tbe ehi* 
data applicable to determining the direction of the< 
Winds ia llie passage II ii. 144-6. Here they ai 
described as disturbing the Icari&n Sea, which wi 
within the apbcro of Greek navigation. Now iho 
wtion of tb»t i*ca. on the c^^niit of A«ia Minor lo tin 
wjuih of SaniOM, shc^u'^, 

J. That both ihene winds in Homer have a deeidedl 
southern character, 

2, That onc» of course Eunin, mnrt come from tlu 
east, and t!»e other, Notim, hi ihnl phw'^s from the wi 
of &outh Because the cont1i[?t of the two winds pi 
sumes a considerable space betwrcTi Iho points froi 
whi<-h ilii^y blikvv, wliilt< th«< pniMtiiin of th^ learian 
requires both to bo southern. Hut in the Fiftl 
Odysfloy, too, Xotua is treated as the proi)or aJitajr^ 
nist of Boreas. His centre thcrrfore lies a little 
tbe wi.Q<twanl \%i diu- Hoiifh; huL KiiruH due>4 not aj 
proAch the 8onth Pole, nrid <^very wind from aboi 

Points *f/th* C^mpiuafin- Notvt <utd £vru4' ^Td 

R.&K. Lo W. will |»n>bnUly fotl wnJiin the Honiortc 
4icfHr^i]>l ii>n of NoLua. 

The HssocianfiiJsof Noma atifi Eu^UHar€i^ue^u^ On 
one ocoa»ioi). liov,'ev(jr, Nutuit is coi»l>iiiecI witli Zeijliyr^ 
tliou^'h there in no corresponding case of juiirtion be- 
twet^ii Burnti mill Boreas. Notiis ?Lml Ze^iInT um H'lit 
from the f«ft by Juno to bln^t tho Trojnn nvmy uitli 
hf'at. BurcflA would of eour«o be n cold wind: and 
Euriisnirtihl he eold on tho plain of Troj*, from |ia««ing 
iirer the rliidti of Idii : thfinyl^ in firo^ee be ni**Ufl tita 
snow that Zephyr has brought. Diftert*tice« of aeason, 
as Well Aa of situfttion, niity b&vc to do viitii them 
Tariptks of o|tpration. 

Thougli less stronj^ l!mn Zephyr nnd Ikwx'MS, Xotuft 
U a fatronj^^r ^rind than Eiirufi. And tliongh gcnernlly 
tbc counterpart of Bori^iif, his power of cooperaSiug \Tit)i 
/4>phyr shiiuw that he niu^t rL-au*h over the ijuadnuit 
from ihe Scuih pole to Wt-jii, whoroas vsc have no 
lloreaA coaling down from Ibo North pole aa far hm 

As tile opposite of Zephyr. Earns Uow^ priiTcipxUy 
from tho ^uth-eA«teru quarter; and henco is in fra* 
qttijnt coopcmtioTL with Notus but ucvcr wiih unjT 
iilli<*r niiid. Hr lunid, hnu'evi^r, be uiidi^nttiiud to 
trover the whole vpace ffftzu ihi,> Hjfhlly northern Boreas 
down to Notu». or from about N\K. lo within ^o' of 
tho South pole, lior^as is inflexibly eonfined by all 
the evidence of the poems to a verj' narrow Hjiace: 
and Kurue, Uia neighbour ea^tu'ardt doe« not much 
frc<^uc<it those pojnta of the Gompa*^ tliat li€ nearest 
to him. 

' IL ii 144-6^ tvL;65. Del. r J30. xiijJS. 



III. ThaUwia: the Outer Geography. 

Jdomer, J 

Jftat of 

The accompanying sketch expresses what I believe to 
be in the main Homer's arrangement of the Winds. At 
the same time, T do not know that we have any prac- 
tical example of any wind in Homer which blows from 
within forty-five degrees on either side of due East, or 
from within about the same number of degrees on 
either aide of due West. Perhaps it was from their 
local infrequency, that be does not appear to have put 
such winds in requisition \ 

The name Eurue is further attached to the point of 
sunrise by the root iia^, to which it is traced*. The 

« Friedreicb has discuBsed the 
winda of Homer {Ecftlien der II, 
und Od. §. 3). His results ftre 
to me uDsati^faotoiy : but the 
fault seems to lie id his basis. 
For (i) he fixes the four Winds 
of Homer as the four cardinal 
points : rmd (2) he finds daia 
for Mcertftmin(( the Winds in the 

Pass^ea of the Outer Oec^T*- 
phy, instead of determimng those 
PftSBAges themselves by the Winds, 
after these Latter have been as- 
certained from evidence belong- 
ing to the sphere of Homer's 
own experience, 

I Liddell and Scott m voc. 

//ofiMTiV ^t^fsttix* ami ratee o/sjietd. 


rftets of AhIv^ arc ^^Ith Homer tTittpi^m <v/nmro (II. 
XX. 6 j). Miij roL tbifi fi'/irurk como from Urn Anme 
Houirt^ ? The Cimmerian <jarkiietis of Ifomer its <r]o»e 
to the nioiitli of Oeeao. and near thai cbatuber uf tho 
Sun^ which i» &t .fVa". Viewi|}>;C do^n a» tliu niitlctic 
point U"tw(H.'n ni^^lit aii«l ilay, llimnjr powihly con- 
nected it wiih oac^h. It aeeiiis further ]kossib]e, that 
he connected the Kaeieni with the Western darknese: 
both bccAuae this nould brin;; hi» two regions of the 
future world iiao rL^hiliotiF with tnicb other, and b(N 
caii»K? ho nt&ke« tho Sun (llgi^ort himfcdf uitli hiA 
0XC11 on the Mrne f<pot in Thrinacio ntlcr hi3« netting In 
the eremn^, and before bin rising in the tnonkiDg: « 
passage, wbir-b fur it'' full I'xplanatiou niiglu require 
tbe 8up|>ositiotj, that Homer believed the earth to he 
cjlindricd in form, and thu& Lho GXtrcnic^ of Eust and 
Wpat lo mt'et*. There will sburtljr be uociiMoii to re- 
vert til tbiK «tibjpct, in furtbiT roiiMdrriug whjLt vivre 
the coii^ritueni pari* of lloujer'w East. 

I «ball tru?4t matnlr tbcu to winder tbnn Mccrtaine^ 
from HoMier'fi Inui-r wurld, ah tbt? iuotuih of iiidicalbi^ 
the directions of tbi* movements described in Iu8 Outer 

e. But bo*ide& directions wo have distances to con- 
n And here too we have aonio evidence, supplied 
by hiH expvrinictittti kno^A ledge* to giiidn lw. 

By eomlttnin^ the inner world data of distai!ce with 
thoao of direction, we a[\u\\ obtain the etit^eiitial eon- 
ditiouB of deeimon for the outer-world problems. Coii- 
dillouw both i>Htetir.ial atrd miflieiiMa^ nhvti v\* nin biy 
hold upon them : biit we ^HhaU «titl have to contend 
with tbia dinicitlty, that in one nr two remarkable e&dc^ 
the Poet t&kc8 refuge in language wholly vague, and 

• Od iL i^tft tit t-4. 

T Z 


111. ThaUw^ .' rAc Outa- Gcof^rajthy. 

leaves us no ?uido for our conjocturee. except tho ruta^ 
of mnkin^ the onfi^ccrtained ronf'Grm in spirit to what 

ThedlHUinccaof x^'hioh I now tipcHikaresea-distancei. 
It 18 a BOtttewlint rcniarkablo fact, that Homer scarcely 
give^ u» \ainl-tVMancGs at all. Telcmaclins and Hai^^- 
tratus drive in two days from Pjhis U> SunrUi: hut 
It is not the wont of the Poet to i]i>«oribe ptaceji, which 
coii)»mnicatc ovorhnd, l>y the ninnijerof days oc5cupi<sd 
in tra\xdlinj^ bi?tw<^ft.<Ti tlivm. Thi» nrcuni&tance id Mlua* 
tratlve of a trait, wliich assumes great importaiice in 
Homer'fi Outer Geop-aphy, namely, the miniature 8CQle< 
of III* conceptions as to all land-«pBC€s; & trait, I may 
Ibdd, to \thic1i we nliall have fjccra^ion tfi revert. 

The sea-dirtniicoe of Homer are performed in no lees 
than six diHTcrout modes. 

1. By ordinjir}' sailing, 

3. By ordinary rowhig. 
3- By rafts, (>d. v. 251. 

4. By drifting on a limber. Od, xit. 310-15. 

5. By floating and Rwimnimg. Od. r, 374, 5, 388, 399, 
Sixthly, arid lft«i1y, the 8li![kM of the rhA*ArtHiia jvor- 

fonn their voyagoa by aa iinvard iiittinet, and with a 
lajkidity described bb marvellous. 

The laitgiifi^ of thi? poDma nowhere talcra cognizanco 
of any ditforonc^ in «ipced 9U bet^veea Mdliiig aniA 
rowing. For example, when Achilles apeaki of tbo 
time of 1]i» Tuyng« to Pbthia as dependent q{ 
nfT\ofij, wliirh Lhi^ favcinr nf Ni*pltiiie <riHitd give, b« 
evidently meann a fiom] soa and the ab-ionce of tempest, 
and docH not at all haigaiu for a wind frt»m a particular 
qnailer. whioh wa^ ntit a matter lying within Neptune's 
especial province. Nor does there «eem to be, on 
general gronnda, any cause for assuming a differtmco 

Ei^me^ 04 fo rtiU^s ^fttifttio^ 


&twoen th« average Sfeed« of rowing %x\A of luilliiig, 
when wo coDsrdcr, id favour of tlic first, that the crew 
rowed almost lo a man, with little cargo to carrr ; 
and, to tlio ]>rojudic« of i\\v M-rotnt. thitt Llie tirieDce anil 
art of building quick RikilerR could not then h&ve beea 
understood, I therefore tnke rowing and soihng as 
equal in celeritv. So Uiat wa have in realitj no moro 
lliaD five diflVrent cases to consider. 

But, again, I think there is no reason why wo «hculd 
Assume a dij^crcncc in ipecd hetwecn drifting ou a 
jiifcn? nf timWr, and making \(^y bjr Abating and hwmii- 
ming only. \\\ practicability thtirc* may be a comiderabic 
dilTorencc: but that i^ not the point before us. 

The ffinr rnT'thndri in^vr n^rriaiiiing M-om to require the 
&»5uni]>tlnu of dlftVrenl Bj^eedB re*fieetively. 

Now Homor hiin 5upp1io4l u* with the times necessary 
for performing known distances in two casc-s ; and has 
also given us a third ca»p, which may ho u«ccl for 
chucking one of the oth^r inDtanc^'S- 

A cose of known distance ie that from the mouth of 
the Straita of Gallipoli to I^lithta. Thi^ according 
to Achillea in the Ninth Tltad^ uotihl, with ravmtrahlB 
weather, he performed ^ as to arrive on the third day. 
It may amount to a little more than three degtec«, 
and may ho takvn at two hundred and twviity miles- 
Tlie timo U three days and two nights. So tliat^ for 
ordinary aaJltng or rowing, a day and a night may be 
uken at about ninety miles* of courw without any 
pretenaion to minute acruracy. 

Secondly. With a good psa^ago. a ship Milling from 
Crete to Egypt airiTes on the fifth day (Od, xiv. 157). 
But we cAonot conft]d<,T Homer*s opinion of tfao dis- 
Urice beiwt!i'n Crrt4^ ainl Hgypt eh t^ntitlod to the full 

T IL U 3<^ 


lir T^iil't^mt; t/ie Ottiet- (ivoffittphy. 

ni*I^liLoftjii«oxpc^rlin<'iital knovrlifdge. Agniii, it into bo 
borne III mind, itinl licrt; tT»e uortti wiii^I, uliieli canies 
tlio ship, was a prime one (ovpnqf ruAoc, 153). Lafitlv, 
niuirh Diij^ht depend on the jiarl of Orcto, frv>m n-bich 
wo KDppottc tlic ri-iiwl to havt* sailiHt. 

As rfS|H>cU iht* laKt-iinrnr^it queet-ioTi, i%<- niu?«t, from 
tho hitbit^ rt( stnc'ivnt nnvigatioiu ^ip|i<>^' llic eo^tcra 
extremity of lUo iftlant! to bnvc been llie poinl of J6- 
|Miriure : because no sailor woiiU! Ii«ve cnnimttted 
liimfldirto Boroas on the open sev. ne lon^ ns tie coutd 
make \^'ii}~ under cover of il ftborc lyiug: to v^inJwunU 

Tiw? di^iunoe bLtwc<-Ji tlie eastern \h>irM of Crete 
anJ ttie v^eMteni iiiontli of tlie Nile is about lliree 
hur^lrod and fifty mik-s; the time fiTe days and four 
iiiglUfl. This n'ould ^ive a aomeni'liat Ices rale of 
progresa ptft' item than the la^t case; but iben it is 
likely tlmt Homer took the distance to bf ifn^ater 
in tlmt almost unknown sea (see Od. iii> 320-) tbaii 
it really ii; ao ttiat wc have cause to view tlio two 
compiiialioJift lift in HiiliHlniir^* Hccordniit. Anil even if 
they had closbed, the former would still bo entitled lo 
our acceptance. 

What, however, does appear to he. thft raw is. that 
Homer miBiook the course fVom Cn^te lo Kgypt. It \% 
really S.W.: he has dc'^ned it by tho wind Bar\?as. which 
Dtjver blows frnm a prHnt westward, or at the ^^ery ut- 
tenuoiit nevi?r froiii one materially we^iuarcl, of N, So 
that the conno must have be^n about S. Xow, as 
Homer knew the position of Crete, this wonid fbow 
that htt br*iugl»t l"-g>i»t too much to the wrwt**»rd, 
by wljorteninif Mie ea^ti^ru reeewi or iinii of the Medi- 
terranean ; an error in exact conformity, 1 eoneoire, 
with all hie operations in ima^inin^ the geography of 
Ihu iTast, But this by the way. 

The tbird test of «ea-di«Cance« \^ supplied by tho 

RrUtncf 4W t^ raifs ^ motion. 



pretcnde<) pa«Mige of L'ljsfws. on n nuu<U from & point 
jimt ««t nf iiiglit of Crete* to Tbt-surotia*. lie »iri\^e« 
o» Uie t«ntlj nigbl. Tho 4jkUI)co oxcw^cU, by aUouI 
one b&ir. Uiia vojfl^ from Trojin to Phtliia> The (imo 
tfl reftrly four timfs as Inrt^. Hut tlit*ti »(Mm' allimimci? 
may be iiia^ie for delay on lhi> M^ore of tbe irre^ubf 
wiiidgiAooi uN/ioO wliicli [>n*vai]ed. We may ibeiv- 
foro jiiMtly calculate llto rote of a flfiAting or dnft- 
|ia»Mg« ul aTxnit oiie balf tbat of a sailing ]>»KugLv or 
IW4) luilt^ an l)Our jiutead of four And bore our direct 
evidence doeee. 

At an tntertnediate point bctweeri thefic, we may 
plac^L* tbe mode of |>ft>«3ige by raft. wUicJi brought 
LlvKW)* from Ojiyjfia, For iu<*Hmnt sliipe wete built 
broad in tlio bcain ; niid tbe mft vtajil as hnmd as a lucr- 
cliaiit fillip^. Tbu-s constructed, aad with it« flat lioU 
Uim, it muftt lia>^ been »efy greatly slouer tiiaii Jtii 
ordinary niliuff vetscd, aud I venture to put it by con- 
jccturo as low aa two and a half milcB an hour, 

LoBtty. we bavc to coiLsidcr tbe rate* of tbe Scberiau 
tliijia. About tlu-vt* tbt- tni\j Uitiig that ik cloar iw. that 
IIoTuer meant to repivBent chein ai &r exeeedtiij; all 
known Apecd of tbe kiud> They went, wya Alciiiou», 
to t!ulHi*a, or o-h tlje verse may be rendereil, to KuWa 
and back, in a day*: they are like a chariot with four 
hen^o^ scouring; tbe plain ; the hawk, svriftcM of binK 
could not keep up with tbcm*'. We canuot, I tluuk* 
pretend ut apjinxriate with great |freeiNo» Ilomer'a 
tneaaing in this point; but it is plain tliat, &■ he bad 
a m^p of some kind in hi» hoad« he must lia%v had some 
meaning with respect to tlie distance |>erformod by tho 
i»bip from ScbfriBr though probably a vngiie on<-. I 
think we may veuturo to take it at ibr^e tjinea tbe 

* d tiv. J0}» • lliiiL jio-15. ^ Od.T, >4V-Si- 

£ Od vii j^s. ^ Od iHi. Jit, »^ 


lU. TKalatta: thi OuUr O^o^rtiphy 

«|j«i^t] of tbe onlfnnry sailing verool, or ftt tbovt t«*elv« 
u)ilc^ iin hour. 

Tliufl, taking dnft-apeetl for our unit, yve kirc the 
foUowirif^ ecsle &jj|3mxiinate1y ei^tablishe'J : 

t. Drift=2 miles per bonr = 48 miles per day of 
24 Lours. 

n. Rnfl= i| rlrifts i4 mil^s pur )intir=6D miles 
l»or <lay of 24 linur*. 

3» Sailing or mwing filij|>=2 fltin = 4 milca per 
tiour = 9''i iiiileH |ter ciiiy of 14 lioure. 

4, Hawl<-sbip of Scheria = 3 siiiling ship^fi drift = 
12 mites iMjr hour = 2S8 mile^ per day of 34 hour*. — 

liCt ufl Dcxl proceed to consider, wlietlter Ukto are 
any mnlinTil iik^H)^ nf |iarticiil»r |>!a<Tt*« or Hn&n^-mcnta 
III tlio Otiior (loogrnphy of Homer, vrlilcli j^iern iti-, 
gciicnilBtnK'turi?. For such i<Ioii»nmy,to3feiherwiih lb 
Join tItiitwt-haviMiovr drawn from die nircle of bU Inner 
or Ex|N>riiiK'a<ul fieo^rapliy, aasi^t us iti llie cxamina* 
tion of wbat undoubtedly at fir&t sigbt sppcar u> bo 
almost cliootic details. 

Setting out frnm thi« |>oinlf my first ljnMne«x is to 
kIioiv, LJiat Hiimer believ<fd in n utNurmiio from tlio 
Medii^rram^ao to th^t Enxiiie. otbcr tbciti ihat of tbo 
8tmitA of UalHpoli and Ibe IIonijIhh-us, This mute wiws 
fanned in luft nkinil, aii I hUhII eiidea^tmr tn |>rovf^. by 
cnttiti;; oft' the tand from ea>«t to W4?gt, a link to the 
nortti of tbL> Petiiiisula of Greece, all the ^ny from the 
Adriatic* to the Euxine. Thus we [>racticjitlysub»titnte an 
rxj>;LiiM? (if M-a for the maw of tbv Enropi-Hii mntmcnt ; 
and Vie must not coTicciv<> of any definite boumlary to this 
0<xAaT<7a, other than the mji^Lcriiiua one ^litcb miiy tinaJly 
separate it from Ocean, Or, in other words, wumuAt give 
Ui lfM*Ulai'k Sen fin rndefinit^^ extension to tbe west and 
iiorth-weHt* frerhopit ul^o ^hurtollin£ it iu tbo dii-cction of 
the KaM. Tbih i* the one inaster variaticn fiotn nature 

Xntikmtni gftt^^iutt ic the fffwtim* 


m llitmi^r'tt ido«l geogmpliy^ ; aiid, wh<*T] ble belief 011 
this subject has been itufficicntiv proved, nlmo^t every 
ttiing ehe will lall iato it^ place with comparative 

I will rnrleni^iir to illintnite &nd iviataia tbig hypo- 
tln^sis from tbo p'»#iitivo cvMonro, t^ithor *!ircct ar in- 
ferential, of the [XK-m»: Aiid I bope to show that it 
fit«ni)fi u|>on grounds fndi-pendciit of the negmtUi; airgit- 
in«iit. that it is a1>w>lutely necesAary In order to supply 
A kity to ibo WniHkrin^B. At ibf» eame timo. 1 hold 
tliat thftt negative armament, if made good, vrould su^ 
lic*«: for, tlioiigli vit* do no iioIhico t<t pn^bRhiliiy in 
lEipuling to the geo^aphy of the Od]ri^<-y ftny Amount 
of vannnrt^, however yr^at, from Actual nature, yet we 
bhuuhi frOFfly oili-nd against reason, if we i^appiMed thftt 
Homer haft oniivt meter! a route $0 elnhorale tiid de- 
tailed, without laying it out before hi9 own mentaJ 
vi(»ion. Aiid pn^-ventin^ it to thai of his Iiearcm. after 
itiir fii^hiiiTi i»f >uiiii'lhiii^ like* a map. Thh was alike 
deinnnded hy the renli«ni (so to fi^eik) of the Uine, 
ami needful for tbo coni|ili;to comprelMMision and caay 
eiyoyiuent of ihi- romance, 

llie in^liciLiioifcii on ibU »uhj<>cc. u|ttrt IVotn the u>i- 
deiieo of the Wanderings ihcm^elTev, are a» follows* 

t. Wbcn. in the Thirteenth Iliad*. Jupiter turns away 
hi» cn<ft frmn rlie bnttle by the Ships, he turns them 
iouurtl» the n<nth-ea»t : m the direiHiou* that t«, In 
which, according to the hypothc»i» above »*Uil<*d, there 
wus for llonter not, lut we now know to be the ni9C, a 
wiile expanse of lanrl eapable of e«vnlnhiing a countleti 
miiliititde of tribea, l>m, after a certntn tntenal, a vtfft 
and unexplored Wk> Now the Poet tellA u^ not tbat Ju- 
piter Io«>ked over aii indefinite mara of continent, or the 

« On Uiii h^p<itb«ib • fiMAckd Um> H<>n)cn« KtnUffsrtt of F*t- 
Inj^tr, fl«utl1riiicb (Iff AtL Ocogr. L 4. « II uB, 1. 


III TAo/odWi : rA« Oia«r 0tOffrai 

uTifipfutt yaiat; Inii ftiftt lie lookt^l over ibe country at 
the Tliraojan», tlie MT*iaris, lUe Ht[i|>i^mo1j|nt tW ftlac- 
topliogi, mi^ tlie Aliii. Moreover, be intliatteiit l>y 
giving characlcristic epithets to cacli of these naliotis, 
that tljcy lay iiH>rr or l<^w wiliiin tlm spliuro t>r roritnct 
widi fin'^'k inlviT'oiirvi? «ikI i^xpcrU'tici*, iiirti fbi*r<*for© 
at no gi'ivit rliittaneo to the north^mxl : for not only an> 
the Tbraciaiis fillers of bor^^a; but tbe Myaaas are 
figbt£^ri band lu bnini, the Ilippemol^i aro lonnidabi 
or V(?uerabl(?, and tbe Abil are the riosl rl;;hleoii6 of 
men. The GInctophngi ai^e defined by ibdr riAnto fls 
fc(?t]vr» upcm milk. Tim limited and cliarACtenstic onu- 
mL*nition i« in conformity, nt tbo wry Ivjikt, with ttic 
tiypotbe»iii, chat Hoinor iniapiii'd iii that direction no 
conllnuoiis nn^oc-s^ion <jf bind and of inhabiianta, but a 
flea nrfinnsM-ribiiig tbe country ofTlmice to tlnr Dorlh. 

2. A more marked indication i^ 1 cbmk, yiolitf^d by 
the pasGtQ^ of tbe Od>T#cy, in wbich Aloinou« «>•« to 
Ulj'SAea, * We will convey you to ytinr botne, ctoii 
ihuiij^li it sbonld Iw nmna fiiKtant timn KnWa. tike 
furtht^Kt pi:^nt tttnt hm been vi»ite(l by onr people; of 
whom t^rmu- »iiw n, wln^n tbey carriiid ItUndamanthus 
thiliier, in tbe matter ufTityu-s Mm of tbe hjirtbV 

It appears to me evident, that Homer meanH in tliia 
place to suppose a maritime route between Sfjboria and, 
EnbcEa, to tb<; Nortb of Tbracc. Uc is not, we niusi 
reiii4*iiibor> rxponniviil^illy iiiforirn^d km to ihf. poHtioik 
of 8cbeHii Jtsolf, and probably be oonmvcd it to lie 
(|uito oiit&ide tbe i^pbero ofGrccee, at n considerable 
difttanoe to the northvi^ardn Though he brings Ulyssca 
from thence to llbaca in » day, ibis \n elfecti^l by tlie 
privile^d and miraculous rapidity of pa^t^^^e, whieb wr« 
the dittinjEiiisbin^ fpft of the Pha:acinnf. ufl the kin of 
ibe ImmortaU. Tlicy arc indwd in conUrt, anwrding 
' Od vii. 19-^6. 


to thvi |KK*inr with lh(- IralittaMr uorld, Eint cIk-/ are 
stHL-tl/ iip«ri tlu »mier Uii* of it. Tliej «ro of the race 
of Neplnne: related to the Cyclops and iheGintite: 
tli€ir ordinary life aiiiJ tbcir maritime roules could oot. 
whhouf dning iitl(*r tiolonco lo tlic cuiicrjifinns of tlie 
Poet. I)* brought within tUv *|ili(*ro of finlinnry Grook 
experience, Wv caimot, tlicrcforc, be inlctidetJ toifup- 
pD9o tbcni to hnfc carrioH the ancient ItliacUninntbus 
pi3ct ev<^n* knovrn tnun, fH>rt, iin<l point in (ireeee ; 
past Ithaca, Dnlirhinm, iIk> Ci^fifmlknu^ Pylus^and Hits 
reBL Nor «onM liubora. thuftftppnrticht'd. bo to Ulywes* 
who had liinisi-ir riiiile*) Aulis on hU way to Tmyp a 
good type of retiioieneee : nor does it anawer that do- 
ficription for th« PhaaHnns thomeolvem if wv consid«r 
it according to gccjijnipliic prn«e; f^r though the way 
to it iH long, it in not hh dixtnnL in h din*rt lini? aa othi^r 
part* of Gri*ecc\ Crcto for example: and any people 
who had niad<< a voyage to Kiiboea by sen. round tho 
peniMuU, wmiid know very well that the proper way 
to it was by land. We must, in short, prosuinw such 
A position for the Schcrta of Homer, a& to imply a 
communication by »ca between it and Eubcca, other 
than that, ihrcbii^h the known wati'n^ *if (jrt-vc*v 

But if wo «ii|>po<^* Ji maritinio pawa^ fh»m tho 
Adriatic round Tliraee to exists then we keep the Pbae- 
aeiana entirely in their own element, aa borderers be- 
tween the world ofiireek eiijerienc**, anil ihi- wiirhl of 
ftblo. Tlioy still, when they carry Rhadnmantlmi, aa 
in all M\cT easca, hang upon the Kkirt, aa it were, of 
artnal humanity. And, tbiiit viewed, Kubcra might 
fairly Ntaiid for a type of extreme renintetieHa. 

3. Another pORflage of Homer, when understood ac- 
cording to its geographical boaringfi, appears to me. q( 
itwir nearly conclusive upon this que»tioii. 


Wlipn Morcury i« oHorcd to carry tlio cneflMge of 
the god> from Olympus to Calypso^ did |>roco«diTi^ 
hrvt mmfiillj dut^mbi'il. Hi? i^(]ii ij>|n'tl bliiiM-tf with Ilia 
f<H>t-iviTi28 (Od. ▼■ 44), took In htiud bis wimd (47)j 
and g^ot upon the wing (49). The next step in tl>e 
narmtive K 

Uiip(^v a' 4^10^9, i£ atd/j>ot Jira**ff* T^vr^' (50.) 

Ho then bounded along tbo wave (51), reaolied tbe 
remote inland (55V landed on the bcaeb (j6), itnd 
firally nrrivcd at the care (57)- I thirik tm om* fan 
read t1ii« description, which €Xt<riuT« over fIxl«ou 
versoa, without feeling ibnt it is meant lo conKt>j' to 
lis, that Mercury mov^d viiiU great ra|kidity in a riglit 
line, tbu shurk^L by nhich he cotild reacli his deHtinft<- 
tion. Rut now, if tbivi he so, then, as Pieria lies to 
the northward of Olympus, vrc have only to o^k bow 
dut-s lie |iur»ito his further ruute? FVom Picrin lio 
tweejiK tluwri upon cbe »ea, an<t rides upon the vaveR 
(54) nil the wny to Ogygia. It is bofielcRB to lit this 
o^*cn l)y a moderate deviation either way to any exi»t- 
in;? *ea: wg have only, therefore, to conclude, in con- 
Hirmiiy wif h the other indications, that Homer believed 
in a Oti^-iifT't to tbc iiorthwanl of Plena, Wc cnniiot 
tJtkercfugi; in the pica, thnt Homer did not know where 
Pierltt lay, Fii-wt, benatise it ww* on thoOlympian Iwrder 
of Tbe*«flly. und a* Hnmer knew (hat region well, he 
must have known that Pteria lay to i\w north of It- 
Soeomlly. it wns pruhably xvithiii the Hrele of Oreek 
tra^litlons; since k is sonietanes read for nf^rjif in H. II. 
766, find at any ruto they seem to bi> in all likelihood 
dilTi-Tcnt form* of the wme woni, Thirdly,n complete 
|kriii>f iH j^ivi-n by lIh* nmlrt nf Jinio in llip Fmirf.n.-nr.b 
Iliad. She piis^^ in Aceordanee wiih the actual geo- 

y^rtAuforJ toat^t to th4 A'ujttw. 


gnphj, from Olympue tu Picric, from PiPiia (aj'parently 
rerfptip: castwarfls) to Kmntliia, nnd bo b/ the ThracUu 
iiiuuiitttjriK, i<vi[lMi[lv of Chaloidict', In Lt-miiosK 

4- TlK*re i» rnicUior piusst;^ which nmy be c!le<l in 
<lirect cijrrobomtion of llic*e vicwnj*. The H|i)riU of 
thci Siiiliini pasAc^i) ( i ) Ihc sIreaiH of Oceiu), And {i) tlie 
Leu€a<1ian rock; and also {Massed (3} the gs\tes of tb© 
SuTi, and [4) the people of Dream Land. 

Ncn- it mar be obi^cncd. that to ]}bm tht^ LnicuJian 
mck in lint i\\v \ray frotii Ithara lo tbt- StntiU of (Si- 
brttlifir; Uio cmitve would We round (-ithcr tbo nortli or 
the sAutb fmHit of Ccfdml Ionia. N<;itlicr i» it the y^tky 
to tbv Mo^iihoruH and Hlark Sea ; ivhich mtjat be* sought 
by »wer\ng first in a soiither)v direcUon. Hut it is tJie 
vmy lo Oc«at]. ^nd tl*o ncthtr SLadciH if I am correct 
ill my belief that Ilomcr believed the nmio to lio 
along the Admtic, ant) routid tbc tioiili of T!l^acl^ 
Nor am I nHiire of mny other view of hU goognipliy, 
on vliiH) thif {ttf^Knge can bo ^^xplalncnl. The evideneOi 
which it alTonid, ia atlir^t eight conclusive in support of 
the propoallion, that Homer ft route lo tlieOeean-mouth 
lar up the Adnaiic. But iher« are two ^oundf, ou 
which a scniple may be felt about it« reception. Firtl, 
it stiLndif in tlio socond ytAvta, the onlv eoiMtlentblo 
pnrtioci of eilh;^ fioein which apptv*ns tn nie at leftat^ 
o)M>D :o iJie 9UHpirion thai it tnaj- bavo U^cn gcriousiy 
tampc-K'd with. Secondly, the order of tho pn»Kn^ U 
aJngular, as il runs thua; ihey passed, of ihey went 
towards, the channels of Oe^u, and the Ix'ucadian 
rock, and the ^ates of tho Sun: vbilo, according to 
liomerB gcograpby. the Leucadian rock would cotno 
Srat, tbo gst«« of the Sun M^oond, and Ooean-niouth 
would lie the laac of the three pointa. 

* U. JOT. »3S-JO- • OA xxii. I J. 


ni TAui4ma ; iU Ouf«r 0^«o^Mj[>Ay, 

Dut ill anftwer to tlie firet, the Gusf>ic*ion6 nll^ctin^ 
this ]>a6eago arc loo vague and indetcrniirialo to war- 
rant our rejcctiDg Its cvidcncin nlicre it u in hannonj 
vi'iih iht- ^-rirnil tvittimiiiijr ti( Houmr. ICvt^n if tlievte 
lilies wcro intorpolatod, ttiey wuM he rt-markable as 
ortibodyiri^ nti niicioiit, probciblv u very Giirioiit n|iinicM), 
UM 1u Iliniier^ geogrftpliicAl vit*vr on llie point at i^ue. 

As regards tlie flecoii<), we n»ay cUe the pnralle) case 
of Mcti^^laus in bis narrative of his own tour. After 
Cjprus and Plioriiicia. be describes bis visits in llio 
following unlf-r: (i) Rj{}'|tt, (a) Rtbii>|ifan«. (3) Sblo- 
oIams, (4) Kronibi, (5} Libya. Ic k ovtdoiit Uiat chi« 
cannot be intended to he uiidc-nlood ai* the crdcr in 
\*blrb tbe several fdiirt^s wrre »(-tii»Uy viwiled*, 

Wg bave dius. 1 bopo. secured for L'hsw**, nithoilt 
drawing upon the \Vanderiii;rB for testimony, wbal si 
niea rail a jjood or wide bcrtli ; room cnouj^b for ihe dis- 
poKitiou of \i\s iiiarvLds and tlie niy^Irry of t\w diMtRnceA 
betwuon llicin. In tld** nnrMirni divr«w>n of ibc 0i- 
Aod-^a wo nwiy iinnjrino Ilowor to bjivo plftred, without 
any impropriety, or any violence done to bis experience 
of bin own lalilude, botli tbo douhle day of tlie l^f^try. 
pHirj^ and tliu fflg^ of tbo Cimmerians. Into it lio might 
^%cll drive riystn'i* by tlic force of tlio eoiith wind", and 
from it liring biiii back by tbe fttn-ngth of Zephyr or 
of Ii(»rffls"*. ha-Hitv. by niean>i of tlnr* SaXavfrtt, wc 
can avoid placing Circe and the Sunrise to the west of 
Homer's ovrn country ; and we nre not obliged to find 
his reprL^entation of the IlXu^fETci) invoinn^ him in iho 
bopeh-As absurdity of coritndictioii to bis own exijori- 
Dieutal knotcledgo of the ^^noral direction of Juotrs 
courw with the ship Ar^. 

* OiivnSa-s. " Od. vii. 32^437. 

n W. y. 485, X. ifl, xii 407- 

Amatffamat^ rtport* of the Octan-mouth. K8T 

now ^>a!« <m to the s€con*l of tbc two propo**itioii5, 
on which il. a]>)ienrs lo iti<? that ft nsi^ouahlii intfr|irt^t*- 
tion or the Outer Goo^mphy if to hc^ foumled. 

Il U tbis: that the Poet liQ-t oonijiouiided into one 
two wtft of PWniriftn traciitioiis respecting the Oocau* 
inotub, cue c»f tht^ni originaltj' (proceeding fmiij, or Im»- 
lonj^hifT to, the West, nnd the ntber to ibc Nortb-4>4i9t : 
and that he Ubs choecn tbc north-GOHtcTn mto oa llio 
groiMi'I on which lo fix tbo scono of liis amalgamalftl 

The argument, which h&« recently been adduced for 
another purpose from the Twenty-fourth t>dy**oy. is 
availahti? (o show that tho Ot*e»ri -month of Homt>r is 
towards th^ nortli : hiU it doett not i^iifTin^ to decldi^ tho 
question bi*tn'c«n North-enHt and Ni>rth-we«t, nor deed 
it decide whether Hoinor ^iiiply Lran^^pfantcd tfao 
Straits of Ciihraltar, ur wlit^lb^r he nnxed toj^i-ther the 
accounts of it and of soino other mniu and welde<l 
them into one, 

TItH qnc^on «e muxt examine from the evidence 
cunnfriiirig tho (X'van-uiouth Huppllt-d hv th«! Wander- 
iogn theniBelvefl. 

L'Jvsse* and hie compaiiiona, when tUey enter llio 
gnat liircr (kean. enter it at a point far nortli, hj the 
eily and coiiutrv of iht.* CiiiiinrnaiiK, who art* envt-1n|>«d 
in eloiid and vapnur"; and they are enrruMl np ^^r 
agaiiisC the stream irapa p»^). by the brenth of Boreas", 
to tlie moatli of the hferno. Itetuming from thence* 
they pome down the vtn-atn (*frtTri ^ar Oil, xl. 6^tj) liack 
10 the sea (daXarr^a) ; and they chore find tbemvelres 
at the i&le of Clree, \^ here; U the dwelhng of 'Ilwf, and 
whene is also the couch, from whirb the snn rim in 
ttie moniing. 

■ Oil. xl ij.»r " Od, It SOT. 


{{. Th<il<iMa .' fA« OHf«r Gt«»rntph^^ 

In clii# Acfouiit it ie tiot cliflieuU co imve r4^r<a!n 
outline* of truth. The idcAs of Hotricr respecting the 
gAU*^ of (Vtiiii would W i)nivr» fmiii n*]Hjrt« whii^li 
iiiBV have related primtl facie to any one of seveml 
j^c»;;r4ij»liiefll points; to the Straits of Gibraltar, to tlw? 
Bo9]jlioruSr to the btr;iit« of Yenikale It'AdiU^ iuto the 
Svn of Axof, uriunll llm tlnvct. At umt and nil nf iLi-ws 
iher^* ftfpoftffi to lo & eoiitiiMial fcirwim fltming Inwartls 
in the direction of th(> Mi.'ditcrraiiean or ^^Afur^a. CJiio 
And all, as &ea-^traits, pref^eiit tljo character of a va^ 
mnrine river In t*xaot acoordanre with the«» plijruical 
foct«i Hoinor nnikes the ship of trivT^eee, euu^twg the 
^at Uivcr Ocean, *ail «|j the btrt'am, Wc maT ob- 
sei^e in imswhig, thiit \io ik^cri1>cs his 6a\ufjra a« tvpu' 
vopoff in eviduiit cuiitm«t vrith the Oci^an, which i$ 
tnarkotl, therefore, by & contraction of ^lu^ivd. 

FiirthtT. Iloim-r hnd coiici^ived the existeiic« of what 
we may rail uUra-leiTeiie part^ both U'Evtwards aiul 
efifitiiaTd^ On tho one hand, MenolauFi, &Aer death, is 
t€ he carried to tlie Klysian plain, where ZepUyn oon* 
timinllj blow, spnn^ng fre^h from the bod of wr»torn 
Ow-an. On tht.» other hand^ the groves at Per«*i)hone 
are on the h^ach of Ocoaii, but in the furthest Katt* 

Still it doc4 not at ult follow from thi?t, that tiia had 
in his nijiid th«* idva of a dtmblt^ egi-<*^ from tht.* Mifdi- 
terran(Hin, or, the 0a>.atrr:fn at large, to the Oeean. On 
tlie contrary, we never heai* of any mode of aceoAS to 
it except one; and hi» placing the ixiint where Ijljntaea 
enters it ittnidst mist and doud, and hU calling in tho 
aid of Borea* to carry tli« ship to the ^jrovi** of Per^i-- 
phone and mouth of the Shikdc!* (which he pmbably 
intended to he the exact c^junt^iikart in )>Q»dtioii of the 
BIynan plain), lead to the belief that Im egr^^s ftxim 
MS to Ocean was in tho north, aiid that tho further 

OjNWJfA PcMC^ to Of4an*motU^^ 


footc to *bc ShA(lca lay, for the moet part* in a soatlierly 

Ttie reader of the OdyfM-y will otiwrve, ttiut IHyesos 
encounters on Lis pAASiigo tompestd iD(1i>«fl, but jot 
nothing in the nature of a daogeroun mnntlme |i&»«nj^?f 
bcfort* he \isn pntere(3 the Ocpan-river, sin<! (heii^ eom- 
pletiiij^ hii^ ;?xcut>'ion lo the n<rch(?r warhJ, h&« ruttirned 
to the i«liiii<] of CirceFp Therefore wo may say vHlh 
c<*rlatiityj thnt lh« mouth of OceiLiuii» lis according to 
t1i& Mt-dK of Homer. itcce)i><ibh? by the broui] ant! open 
80a. Tliim no hfLVc Atlainod a fir^i condition for ttio 
fletGrtiiiimtion nf iU Mtc. 

But» L^furo hi? sets out a socond time from Mtea^ 
Cfrco, now his friend, directs him as to hJs onn^rd atid 
homewnrd course. First, ho wa$ to reach the inland of 
tho 5ircn&l. After pawing beyond thU, the deity no 
k^ngi^r lav« b^-rore tiini ti »iiigl<? luid c^ntlnuoun roiil*)'': 
but mdtefiten to htni tivo nUcniativefl, each involving n 
most dangerous pawnge. The tirsi is d&'icribed in the 
lines 0(L xii. 59-7^, iK-glnning offer ftrv ytlp. T\te se- 
cond, which she recommends in vv, 73-110, begins 
urith w Si it^ (r-:i>!r*A<>i : Vp'hcre the H U tho apnjf^ft 
to the nif of V. 59. Now, it must be rcuicmbcrcd, that 
|diyHi[*]iUy litnrv wan iiolhiiig to jm^veiiL hix retiirntng 
by tlie war tw eamo, and thus avoiding both of these 
paanges, Wtiy then doc^ llomcr expo^ him to such 
extraordinary danger, leaving him no option but cilhcT 
total ilestrtictjon,or the eorCjnn Uh^, ut the k^ast, of sue 
moD of liiserew*? 

Tlic voyage of Clywca miglit liave beeti given ns by 

the IWi a>« the execution of a divine plan, comprehen* 

vively prem^itsted as a whole : but it is not so : it is 

E^iovm US as eimply prolonged frotn timo to lime by 

P Od. xii. 3. 1 Itild. 39, 1O7. r Iliid 56, * fhiiL 109* 10. 



111. 17tat<wm ; iMf tJtiUt OfOfifnpht/. 

»onic cm*T of lii# ow n or of his cotiipanion^, or bj llie 
ii|iit*' of N"ej}tuiio, or by tin* r»*ngc?aim' uIbUOi tlm Hull 
demanded &n<l obtained^ At JRaat he has nochmg to 
do* but to take tho best wav home. Ttrvsios had IQ- 
deed propbcsicd that ho ivoM come to Tlirinacic". 
hut no^iliLH^* intiiimtvH th^it he wah to he diniH^lj co4ii- 
polkd to do tbiff, or chat ho n-otOd take that rout^foranj 
otht^ reason than noeordhig' to hU own hc«t judgment. 
Why then doo* he not return, a* ho bad coniCp hy tba 
opfoi «ea, instead of templing either of tho tvo pnMH 
tigQ9 of peril i 

The answer 1 believe to be this. lie was Bubjoct to 
the n^i^riitntunt nt N'uptiine, who operates by storni iu 
the o[>en w^iL. Otium divo4 ro^t in fMteuii imtisus 
^.giGo. As in the heroic age, every wound, gcnemlly 
fipeakiDg:as storm either invariabljir or commonlr 
iiteaiii^ foiind(?ring or shipwreck- Thus then (f[y*#os 
mtgbt pnidcinly keep to landlocked waters and narrow 
was, cv<?n with a erisis of great danjiicr before hint, 
rathor than fuce the aiigry S«e-god on tho long pB8sag:ea 
over Llie ojieii main, b^ wliich he bad come to the laud 
of the CyclopB, and so onwards to jRu«. 

Riitio[iutiJc<;d, and reduced to its nimpleet form, this 
aeema to imply ttiat the routes pointfMi out to him hy 
Cire4.\ au<l perhai« eriper-ially ihaL wliich \its was to jav- 
fer, Vk'oro «horl cuts either to his home-, or at lea«t back 
into tho Inner or Greek world. Ami in coiiformit; 
with tliia siippoAition. the whole predietion of Circa 
appears to presume that a passage of moderate lengtli 
tt-ould bring Iiini back within tho known world ; for it 
never ^pcali$ "f the brvadtb of any unknown sea to }ie 
crtain^], which to llie iiavigatora of that day waa always 
its most formidabte feature. 

a Oct t. 7^ jdl. 3J3 H w^. • Od. tA. 104*7. 

irtf manhmr r<mit€» to 0«-ffn-w*o«rtA, 

In the mental view of Homor, ilien. the pas«ific of 
Scylla couM not lie miicl] l>i?yon<I the Liori^on of his ovrii 
Grpok ^orM ard of geograpliy |m»prr. TUin wmw tlio 
more tflif*i1>k> of the tno rt)ut««. 'die other ^mi» llint 
of thu llAa^KTuf, or Bofll>1ioru». It was rejected a« in- 
volving lUftairi (l(**triir(ioii : fnr fuilj Ja^ioii hud smfHy 
passed it by the air) of Juno« and PaUaa waf not now 
ftt hanil'to siic<roiiT I.lyssoH ; fonco ho wns outsi<)o that 
Greek world, to which her aetion has hoen restrict(>d, 
generallj" s|>eaking. ami in all likelihood for poetical 
reoaoDitiD the Odyssey. Now.eince both theae paesajtiefi 
tro spoken of AS npfiarcDtty lyJiij? near 1 he it;laG<l of the 
Sirens which i» il^ulf wpamtTHl, m fw a* we cnn jinlgt*. 
by rio long intervnl fruni /Fut-n and Circe, lie uvxt In- 
ferences wo have to draw are two of very great, im- 
j>crt&nce. The tint is, that although the one stmit of 
Homer phrsicalty corres(>oiid6 vnlh the Stniitv of Mos- 
«ina, while by the other lie ]>1aiii1y ineitiiw the Bospho- 
ni8, yL*t ho ooiiccivod of llie^e as within uo ^roat <it»- 
tancc of one another. The peconc! inference i* that, 
according to the belief of IToiner^ the waten beyond 
the lioBpboniH were accessible by some eliannel oilier 
than that of the Dardanelles and Sea of Marmora: for 
otherwise Uly^^s could not have placed hiniHrir oq tW 
farther »ido of thooe terrible narrow*^ exivpt by nnvi- 
gnting one of th{m. 

There were th<.^rcf<ire thrive maritime route» by which 
Ilirmer rnnei^ived th;it momh ofOeejin, wlueh niyMAi-« 
entered, to be approachablo : 

1. The routo )>y which the hero aeiually arrived 

1, TliG ronto nf Srylla uni Cluirybdiif, by whidi he 
rotumod (Wnn it: 

3, Tbe route of the HoeplM>ru«, by which Jason h^id 

u 2 


III. Tkattwm ; tlw (htttr 0«i«yn^v- 

piiSftMl, ftiid wluch Uly?wes niiglit, iicconling to tlie «1^ 
Bcnptloti ofCiTCQj Imve attemptvi]. 

But now, what in the vk w of Homer was tbie moutli 
of CkeaD ? that is, on nlint geographical baa8 rcatod tt]<^ 
reports or deAcriptious wliicli he aiTopted for the gfOiUKl-* 
work of his picture? We cannot but &<lmire, m wo 
peinB alotij^, the manner in whieh the Pha^nicianft guarded 
Cho trvosurca of tbcir diatont morkcU: no wut Uy to 
tbuitk trxeept Llirou^li » eho£ee of tcrron; terror iii tlie 
bound]e«» expanfjo of dcvotin'n^ waters ; terror in sbiit- 
wrcek by tlic HXayKra/, whicii none but Jew>n (so wiya 
Circe, the Pho^Jucian witncis) liad eseapcd ; terror in asv 
tain lows of inen by the vomcloun nmw of 8eylta. Wbat, 
however, waa this Ocoan-mouth that ky beyond them! 

My answer Is, that tliere are two moulb* of Ocean* 
either of Mbiob niigbt tolerably correspond with tlie 
ITom^Hc picture, tf tned only by tts relation to tho in* 
tL^micdiato points that are ro|iro«cntoU by tboso dan- 
gcroua pfisBagcs. 

Finally, ibe SLniitft of Gtbrnltar^ Ii-'iidin^ lo the Au 

Secondly, tho ^tmibi of Kcrtch or Yenikal^ Icftdjnf 
to the Sea of jVzof 

1. As regards the Stmits of Gibmltar, they con^ 
fipond with the Homeric dctMrripUou In rc£|ioct of theJr 
great distance from Itbnni ; of their current ever setting 
inwanl* to tho Areditermnean ; of their being acce*4]ble, 
without prcviotiely leavinj^ the wido or o|>«n sea for 
any narrow pcissftjfo: of their bcingf.wo nmy confidently 
U^lieve. within the m.iritinL<^ r3cpt?netieo of tlio l*lj«eni- 
cians. Fnrtlier» on the route to theiii there lies an 
tsUnd triangular in form, which wa? already deeenbed 
by the name Tlirinacic** Agnin^ it would appear that 
■ 0^. xii 1^7. 

Strttii* tff (fihfi^tMr 04 Ofwaii-fw>uM, 


there were olher isbiiJs lietwec^n Tlirinacipr anfl tliii 
Oceati-DiontJu For both Circe and (lie Sirens itiliabit 
islands, Kven the Dearest of the Balearic ielce, norticlj, 
Ibtm, 19 from the Straits of Gibraltar nboiit aft far tm 
Croi© from Eyypt, whicb wo kiiovr to Imvi- heeii e«ti- 
tDtted by the Poet nt five Ony«* wiil. It seema, how- 
0¥er,nt>t unlikely tb«t lleiuerhAviri^ reccired a notice 
of the Bahiarie isles In the Phii-nidaii reports coticem- 
iog the Pillars of Atlas, carried them over, together 
with Atlas himi^clf, into the eastern sitiintion, where 
he blcads twa seta of tmditiona into one- He may 
thereforo have Iwvn firig>|ili«?d rn>iii thi» votimv with 
tmC^rlftls for hi« idftitd of Circe ami islaiKt of the 

liAKtly, allhough th(7 mi«ty rjinnii*njui4 am Aim*, hj 
the OeeaD-motith, while the aitiin«|ihere of Gihmltar Is 
warm and sunny, yet even the fogs may find their pro- 
totype 10 Ht. Clcor^e's Cljaiint;!'', or in the HtiTUts of 
r>()V4-r, and it uiny ;ilsci be said that, in the ba/y ■li»tatied 
ofa Phcriiician captain's tale, tiioy might from Homer's 
point of view »com to stand notu'Iy together. Hut still 
this \f n drITicolty. Tlwre nre i»ther inoro wrimw im- 
pedimental, whieh make (t abi^olucely inipoKvibk* for ui* 
to my tlmt the Homotie mouth of Oixun Cttrir^pomk 
with tbe Stmita of Oit>rultar. ThiA one especially: that 
he has, bv ^ miihittule of ties, fastened down bis ntonlh 
of Ocean to an eastern rather than a we^stern site; for 
there«ai least hard by,ia the dwelling of Aurora; tboro 
is tlie morning conch of btie Sun ; (hero is Circe, sister 
of jF-'t<% to wbovo <Hjuritry Ja*oii mailed through the 
Boff|i}i»ruR; and thu*e both have liad the -Sun for their 
father, and Perso, daughter of iW-an,withont doubt aii 
eaRtcm and not a weHt^ni pemonAge, for their moUiirr'- 

/ <jiurt. Kov. Ti*L, Tor p. jJi- ' CM x. ljj-9» uiil xU. i-^. 



U. r&aJiMM; tU Qmter Ooiyn^pAy. 

Tlio ttte of jfUea wlll^ liowever, tof*etber Mith that at 
Ogyffd^ receive presently n fuller constUemttou. 

Let u-H turn ttieu to theottieraltt-mativeiiilbeimjuirj. 

n. As the Straits orGibmltar ofler u rcBetnblance to 
llio Ikmoric picture, by their lying beyond tho Straittj 
of MesL^iiiia. so do tbe Straits of Yeiiikali:, by tbetr )yiu£ 
beyitiitl llu* Bovpbnni)(. Ttiu |wqiutual curr^jt inx^^rds" 
is aiiotbiT feature of ci3rro»i>ondenee, eiieli afl may- apply 
to botb the ai^es, ami hlic-Ii or? [>rolw[j|y agisted the 
proceMt at which I shall pn^aenlly ^laii(%. The* whole 
j^oup of Oriental eonditious, attaching to Hoii^rV 
Ooeon- mouth, appear to be exaotly realixed iti tbc 
8trait» of Yenikale. 

The Ciminerian rouiitry of IIoiiK-r in represotited 
dovhi^ to (ht^ pr^Boiit dny by the Crimea, one of the 
most aoeient pa^Lsagc^ IVoiu Afiia iatu Europe, and 
probably known to the l'bci?Tiic>anit. uho ruuld ir«il 
enough po&H tlie Bofipliorim llit?iii«elveH, v^bile making 
It a bugbear to others> The elond, in which these Cim- 
morians arc wrapped, tiiids ite couutcrpart in tho noto- 
riously frcfjucint winter fogn of the Baxitic. Tlic pen- 
insula, lying on llie very Straits t1ieniHolfe<;, w vi exact 
eorrespofidence witb tho |ja5itage (Oil. xi. 13), 

Thu only point of the dr^vcnpiion ^thich is leas faitlr 
fnlly repreiiented at tliis point tbaa at tho other, » tbe 
epithet fia&uppoo^, Thia Qgrecft better with the iwp 
vrator of Gibraltar, than wiUi the (now at 1rA«L) »hallo^v 
eurrciit of YL'tiikalt-''. 

Nor i» it unnatural, that near the Cimmerian dark- 
nctt he dhouM place the home of Aurora and the 

■ Dniil>y Heyniour'i!! llbicti fim lu L« futtrt«*|j ff^et : l>ul it Henm 
unrl Sett nf AAitf, cli- Jivii- Id bn^x' hcL-u mu<h dPtfXT la tAd 

^raita ^ Tmikalk 04 Oman-mouth. 


ifftcm Snn: for it ts oat of dnrktiesa that dftvrii &ud 
iIajt rninfp rvftr riMf; ntid wp titivt^ ntvaNioii to itoUnv ii^ 
vsrSoiiB f4:>mii«, ilio associntion in Homer's mmd of idea* 
belonging to darkiiees with ttio Kftst* Again, tliero is 
a coiDbination of a northerly with an easterly directton 
ill the conditions of ihe Homeric deM^rijjliun, which iti 
•xacily tnot by the ]>o«itioti of the«« Straits rol&tivoJy 
to Growro. 

But if wo say. titat tlie»? Straits rorm the mngle pro- 
loty|)o of the Honieric descnptioii, wi.^ ore a^iii met 
by lio|>e1efiB contradictions. For then? do4^ itot lio any 
triangulftr ifdand close by tho Bosphorus, vrbich Q]ight 
anffu-pr to Thrinucii': and tlK-rr in nu fnrv inaritiini? 
|iaiHngi> *hat!3v*;r, <)th**r ilnn the Uoft|diorui-, by whteli 
the t>oean-mouth, that is, tho mouth of the Pa/us Mt^- 
oJi>, can be attainod by a pcrvou who has Troy for bia 
point of departure. 

ThvKe facL< npjicar to din,H?t n^ phdidy lowardfi onv 
aaCisfikotory, an<i cs it heetus ineviuible, conelimon. It 
is exhihited in the Hcntcnces that immediatelj follow- 

Fii«t^ it seems at oiice clear that Homer eithei' 
knet*'. or else dimlv ti^rnred to him^^lf by Ph<£DielsLn 
report, cortainguographical feet^, including Uiose which 
follow ;— 

I, ThnL tliorc wa« an island, wlios^^ figtiro was dofii»od 
byt word signifying three promontories^ and which was 
ac«6Mtblo by a passage on the wt:«tcm side of Grccccv 

X. That near tln^ i&Iand, there lay on one mie the 
Jawi of a dang^'TDUs tuimow, 

3, Thst cith^^^r on the other side of it or in tome 
other neighbouring <|uarter hy the 0|>cii sea. and u route 
idcmg it, by which the further Jtidf of tht; i«Und might 
be readied, without travervlng tho narrow. 

Thst at a point beyond botli the^ 0|iening8 (I say 


111. TAahMai th9 OnUr G^oyrtt^, 

notiiiitg for the prcftcnt of t)ic pottitff of the ronipaat] 

flowing alwnva {QvarJH to ih<f $aKttircat which he nip< 
po»eJ to bo tod hy it ( IL xxt. 196). 

5. That there was likewise a passage, wbich Elonier 
C'all^ the WXayirrftif ar-ep^ibk^ fruin the esskeni side of 
Greece ; and throuji:h which J&sou, and as be beUeved 
Ja»f>n alcnc, had sailed. 

6, Thai at a [Miint Ije/ond this [>fis«&^ t<*n, t.Uen' lay 
an expamu of m.*^ &ii\aa/rti, nnd aj^hi n great «ta>ani, 
m;cU M he cullcij 'U««Q*'6ff, flowing olwaj'^ inwards to 
tllc *XiA«^tTCi. 

Nnw we have seen that he gives u*< in the poem 
one month, and one mouth only, of "l>«ca^oc. which 
corresjjonda with evcrj one of these propositions l&kcn 
Nitgljr: it fn, according to lifm, bcvondThriruicic, bejond 
the StraiU of Scyllii Hnd Chary hdisi, atrainahh* 1>y an ogtea 
ecjv pas^ftg\s and hevonil the llXa^irrai or IWphoms. 

It MM^-iiM to follow almo^'t inacheniatically, U>at he 
Iwlii^ved ill an open sea rcmte, which niiiat hare lain to 
the north, and which e&tablisliLxl a communication, in- 
dependent of the Bo»jphuriia, between the Mediterra- 
nean end the liuxiac. 

It also her<_'by Bppt'arn that, he hail n-ceived fnuii tlio 
Phccnicians two sots of rt^porim one relatir^ to wexteni, 
and the other to north-eastern navigation, hut both iD' 
solving n di-i>enptiiiu of a grrat inw;inl ih>\^'ing Htn^nm^ 
i\s an ultimate point, agreeably 10 hi-i idea cf the River 
Ocean. These two ulterior points, obtained respect- 
ively from each set of rcport^K Homer. led by the 
similarity of fcalnres, lias blended intn one_ We can 
even nox\- take his unlmo ivpr««entation to pieces, and 
can i-cc wbcrt.- and bow it eeparntc;^ into twr», each of 
them geogivipbicajly true- In bis one mouth of OccnB 

n« bifuJa two 9tU qfrtporU mlo on*. 


liaa combiiiet) the cDmlitionf>r lliat in ncittiro iM^lorg 
(o Iwo 4ej>Brate ^ograpMciiI pomts- Both tlie iiortlt- 
eastern ix^port and tlie western report bo has amal- 
gatnatcil. by carnii»g the remote point of tliu former 
round, h> to »|tc*nk, in ordrr tu meet tliu 1ftlt4?r: anil 
having tliiiH tufidc* hi« Occiin-inoulli nortliern, ss welt 
0* oii«toru» lio eoLii^istonlly calls In Boreas to Itikc tlic 
sbi|) of Ul)'s»cft to the moiitit of tbc Shades bctow, no 
as In fix ihiii jioint in tlio oib-i> In^'autte >t wa» tlio 
counterpart to tii« Kly^iun twhi» which lay [n tho yve$t- 
Tlio two sets of Fli*rDJcian repoita are in this way 
oddly brought lo integrate one another. The Ocean 
mouth in tlir Et^iine gels the benefit of the open sea 
route; and tho Ocean mouth at Gibraltfir ha£ credit 
for Ijcing pUix^d iti a ncnthcni lutitttdc- ami eastern 
lon^ittldo; eaHi n-jniH thita thntuing it^ uwii w>|)ftnit6 
attributes into the common Mock. 
•$ 'n;o oflTcct of thus forchi;- YcnikalJ and Cibrottar 
t4> meet, naturally cnou^li brings tbc Furo of Messina 
and tie lltiyplicrntft tii^rtr to otw ftiiothtfr: iind ^u'lico 
Circe, in tl»e Twelfth Book, names tbt^m to Ulyi^scs 
o» ultcriiAtiTo routCH^ both appnrontly lyjtig in the Mime 

But again I ttay, that in order to comprehend the 
Outer or itnrt<;iiiary geography <jf the 0<lysscy, we mu«t 
L'titirL'ty dUuiisri from our minda cIk' niajiof Europe a# 
fi iH. \Vi< niu^t trrat a^ hjiving lioen n rt-al map tn 
Homer only the Ittcle sphere which was enibrfteed 
within the ncwrt of orvlinary Greek uavigntion. Be- 
yon<l tliat narrow range, we muflt con^idci him as 
dUtrihtiting hmd and sea in the manner lie be^st couUIr 
by the aid of reports neceesarily in that nge most lit- 
distinct. and in all likelihood exaggerated, and even 
wilfully darkened to boott by trading craft. Souietimee 

thercfriro lie |>uU a people upon poelic*! terra firma 
at |ioiaL», wtivre it fortunatelv but ftcculcatally tume 
out clmt nature haa provided an Autitypo for lk« 
imagery of tiie Poem, Sometime* lie loilf^ tlioin 
where tlicrc U none; f^i nil nhi ponin^ d Ofr. But 
tliuugli tlulniU arc to be thiH i]i«i»uNe(l uf^ >lill tbt; one 
maetor varinlloii from actual naturo i» thii ; the iea ei- 
tended frotn the Mcditerranecin to tbo Kuxinor behind, 
i.e. ti> the ikortb of, the iloephorus and of Tbr^ce. 'Lliis 
gives \\% that o^ieit pHiuuige into the Euxine, by which 
UoiQcr EuppoH^d Uly^e^ to have readied tho maritime 
region, thfit Ja»ou had eouglit and found tliroug'b tbo 

Til t»uiti ; U in too plain to rw]i)in* innrh c»f the d(** 
tailed proof which 1 hav« tried U\ give, that Hoinor 
believed in a grt^jit expanse of M'aters lying somewhere 
to the ni>rth- The jirohahitity is thnt from 9ome Phoe- 
nician source lie had heard rumours of tbe j^reat Gw* 
man Ocean. It need not to us apgKrar 8tntngo that 
his mind did not readily conceive an extent of ]and 
Itke tinit of tin; roriLinrrit of KnrojH', nhim we riotlct! 
thAt hie ox|ieneii(*e made him conversant partly witli 
islands, partly with countries in minute »uhdifiuoii9. 
and of small breadth from sea to sea. This gfeat ima- 
jfinary nmst^ of watore li« iuehuleil wtOiin ihc flflVirr-r*!, 
tc wlueh everything belonged a8 far u« tbe point where 
the great River Oceaniia wa^ readied. 

I think ilien tli»t we Iia^% now fcund the two kaj^n 
to the Outer Geography. 

I, In tbe «oa-route north of Thraco; 

a. In tlic amalgamation of the westcru with the 
nnrtlt-^^adttirrn report of tht> Ocean -mouth. 

From the wie of the Ocean-month of Homer, wu 
niay most natundfy proceed to examine the ajte of 

Jtaa^\ wbicb, as being \^-ith!ri one day's uJI, is a kind 
of porters lodgo to it**, and is a point of the utmost 
nuportaoco in tbe Ajr^tcm. Hitherto I have procccdod 
diiljr liy aim^rliotu «o Tar uh tltv Hitu uf Mio IToinitic 
.y.H« is conceived. But to defend tho second main 
proposition or key to iho aynt^m, in tho face of counter* 
ttipories it will be neeeftsary Ui c^xamine, with as much 
can* as may be, all tbe Homeric evidence that beam 
either opoii tins question, or upon the kindred otic 
of the site of 0|Tjgia. 

W« havt; then to iriijiiiixs mjbjt'f't Ui tlie rulen whlcli 
luve been laid dou-n, fint, whether .IVa, the island of 
Uircc, is to bo placed, ita norlhMard direction being 
generally admitted, in the norths-west or in the m>rth- 

Secondly, aii de^wndent xerj much upon the prk>r 
question, and as entering; at the sninc time Tartly into 
the proof of it, what is the site of Ogygia, the ittland of 
Calyjieo ? 

Now I tliink tlmt tho &Tf^tneut«* which have been 
need for the north -wcj«t em theory, have been princi- 
pally fotiiide^U 

I. U|M>n precipitate infi'rences drawn from aome 
one or mere of Momer's outer-world statemonta^ and 
then ille^timatdy used in order to govern the rest 
of Uieui ; 

1, Upon the counfO of the Inter trvdition, which was 
ledf probnbly by the eounre of oolonizetion. to identify 
and appropriate the juirticulars of the Outer lieo^raphy 
rather in the Weat iTiaiL in the East. For Sicily and 
Italy became at an early period J&milinr to the Greeks ; 
but it waa long before they grew to be well acquainted 
with the more dangerouv, remote, and f»olated navi- 

'■Od. liiio-ij. 


III, Thatfiif^a : Ut* OuHr Of^^raphy. 

Ration oftlif? Black Sea <^. Pcr1m]i«9, tndee^l.tlie main t9^ 
ton for piscing tbc tour ofUly^cs all Aloiiff in tho^^'etl 
bfts been no better than this; that Homer lias gtven 
UA HI) lu^rouiit nf aii Twlnnct iLp]mn*]itly tjnfn-'iiwnding Iti 
form with Sictly ; v^Uich it may vory veil ilo, And yet 
thcj conception of tlic *itc nrny be totnlly erroneous. 
Again, with ri«j)i-i-t to tmiliiioitjit Huthority. [ jippreheni) 
it may be asserted, that the Fragment of Mii]iiiprrau«^, 
vtbich CQirieB Jason to the Eoflt. to tho cli&nibcT of iho 
Sun. lint) to the city of «^*.etc^ B3 to one and the sumo 
poEfit, i>x])n*s^r.']« »n univrrKjil tnutitioii, wy tnr nH Uiti 
voyage of thti Argonmiti; \» coiiccnk^iI. And [ x^ ould ftlso 
obeene, that tho nintint Inoal ajipropriatione about the 
cofist ofltalysccralobegivtfn upon all hands as gcogra- 
jihinilly worlhh.Hw: theonly qae^ion i^* not so nnich that 
of removal, ^ into which of two quartcTs they *hall be 
tranAtklnnt<.^K On tho other hand, the principal BTga- 
nientR for ihr^ north-oxHtint hypotheMit are. aa I coTb- 
ceive, founded upon legitimate iiiference», drawn fVoiii 
the inner-wortd or experimental Btatetnenta of Homer* 
and then applied, by a law essentially sound, to deter- 
mine the cai'diniil [irt»1>[(:ii]» of 1im Outer (teu^vapliy. 

Fnr oximipV, much will depend u|hj» the aiiswor 
to the fjiie»tion, whether wc aro to carry tho Stmits 
of MesRinat or rather the fahle of Scylla aji<i Charybdia, 
tJkken to represent them, edist^&rt)% or uhetLer wc are 
hi preference to movo tho Ru«plKirus weotnards. 

I atifWLT Vp-ithoLit heMFalton, that it fa much more 
reaeioiiable to conetnie Homer m shifting essentially 
lh(? site of Seylla and Cljnrybdis, ih:in ibu »ilu of 
the llo6pb*>nJs; and for the following reasons. 

Wo hare not tho slightest reason to suppose that 

*1 Mlinn- Fivmm, x, quoted m Str&tK>, i. ]>. tfrf. 

AWlA-Muttm hypotiuinJt. 


eithor Siciljr or the Scylla i^nnSAg^c Cttmc widnti tlm 
•ipeniiioiital kno\Tlo<l^o of Hotiior and tlit; Ga-vk* of 
W% Uiiiti, cither JI4 to tho lAlantl ami the Strait tliem" 
■elreSp or aa to tUij dirt'CtioD in whicli Uieif Jay. 

We iinil in<Uv.'iI that n coiitinuiiDt*e of uiiidfi, wtiicli 
tftUf^ between E. and :^- W. dotaincd U1pN('t> in Tliri- 
liacic orTriiiscria. It hm Trom this bccT), ns I think 
by much too bintily, inferred tbnt Thnnadc lay to tlic 
uort1i-we»Lt nf Ilhiu'ac. Kvon if it did m, wo i^hoidd 
still niiis the rruobejirinp: of Sicily, which is weet, with 
an ircliiialKm to tlio ^uth, and not nortb-wcst, fri>ni 
Ithaca* Hut the as§uiTipt]on is in fact unwarranted. Tlie 
wjud, which principallj ladd UlysHM.'Js fest fn Thrinacie^ 
was, as is ovidcnt from Oic po^^age, NotuH. a soitthorly 
wind. Eiinis plays a sc^^oudurj^ jwirt (hca>V JWidcs 
tbJM, till? vhicl. which Uljwuut iietMled, luiiy hu^'e hu<^>u 
QOoded to brinf^ him not to Itbaea, but to eomo 
point on \m way to Itti&ca, from whciico W\% bear- 
ings would Uj known ; to Bomc poiut at which, from 
the Outer^ it would havo b^Hii pmrtirablo for him 1o 
re-«ntcr tho Innor or Greek world. The noodM coii- 
ditioiu wouhl be ftati^tied if. for instance, Thriiiacie \ty 
eilliRr north-vroHt or north-e^t fmm Uie Uardaitellce ; 
and ebon Ulyses would want eitlit-r Zephyr cr ol«i> 
Boreas lo pet thero- And the oppo»»ito lljcory pro- 
ceeds upon Iho cnlircly arbitrary, nay, untnie, n^ump- 
lion, that the way back through the Niinuws vai», like 
tliu way by which Uly^MS had come lo -■£»«, »ii open- 
frca rotit«, and not one in wl)tcli tho course would bsvo 
to tw governed by fix«d poinU of huid lying along tho 

Tiiere is then no middle tenn between Tbiiiucie 

•Ma1lcrV0Tth«incn(Mvp-'7'' Nitoc^ Od XiL $6t. 

:itid anv fixe<1 fxt'mt of the Inner Ilomoric ^orld, hum 
wbicfi wc cflu by direct iiifeioncc ar;fiic as to its rile 
Ami tilt! winclH, wliii-li itcliuii IIKhh^m in TltrifMrir, gi> 
far of tlieniAe]ve!i to $ihow tliftt ibiti ls]fln<) U noi on tho 
site of Sicily, 

The case ia far fjther\*iMi> in regnr<I to th<^ Bosphontft, 
or IIXiiy*fT«;, of tlie Odysaey. For bere we know, 

1. That Iloinor vttm famili&r wxih the Dardaoell^ 
Binge o» the way to lU nxir) not very fer from it: 

2. Thftt lie infikcM JnMMi [iftnM ttn- BiiM|ttioni<t : 

3. That he also makes Jfison iettio »t LemnoB, mid 
booome BOvrnvigiL of the ii^land, evidently in cornDction 
with his route from Tliespaly to the EasL 

But TliesRaly^ mid Lt'nino*^ too, nre places of tlirT 
iniior world: vith Lemuog tho Poc't appcart to have 
bco[i uccnnit4<ly ooquaintcd ; tind the liiic between tlint 
iftland and the home of Jftstni drteriniiieK jibwdtitely »o 
RiuMi aft this; thattht^geiioraldlreetionofhiH voyage was 
known by Homer, at leaat np to tbif^ point, to hare lain 
to the nortb-eaatward through the Straits of Galltpoli, 

1 hold thrnrforo thnt the pasHflge of the nXoTvro! in 
ftmd imninvabTy> hy knuuii-u'orld oiideuoOf a» to it*i 
gonomi direction: that to lnin»|daiit it to thovnst, 14 to 
break up tlie rouiulntioi^n of Ifomt^r's cxi)crimciital 
knowledge. wHicb is aEwayn to he trintted: vhereas to 
movo his Thrinaeie eastward in merely to suppose that 
he gave the sito which was poetically moat convenient 
to a tradition which, as it came to him. had no site at 
nil, ]>o |To»itivc local or gco^^pbic;d dvtermiimtioii. 

Again^ I take the \fh)v\ Thrinaoio by it«olf; and I 
eontcni that, although tlic rci>ort on which tliis deli- 
neation Wibfl founded may prohahly have had Itji origin 
in Sicily, yet the ThrioaciG of Homer is associated 
mthcr with the East than with the Woet* 

i%aixie4n' *m<i riu <if 7^um»H«. 



For, thon^li lie linwgiroii un tw> gr'ngripliiral nicmnt 
for Jireetly dotL-nniiiln^ lli^ >ilU\ be Inia aiiijtplied ti« 
witli other mean^ chat buloii^, not to Plicenician ru- 
mour or fireside tale, but to hia own ktiowlcd^i^ and 
expericntTc. Sincp notliing can be inoro ci."rtaiii» tliaii 
that tb(> li'fidinjT locnl ftSHocmtioii of i}w 8tin, for Homer 
Oil for all maukindjs with tlic east. It i8 tnie that lio i» 
iotbe we^t justaa often fis iu tbe eoat; but we c^^lainly 
hold \a|KilcH>u to beloug inoro tu Corijra than to Saint 
Helena; and so tho mind connecta tbe Sun wUb llie 
place of his daily birtb« and not with that of hi*' dailj 
death. Now, without entering upon any other ques- 
tion for the prcw.^ut, I only observe^ tlml in Tlirina<7ie 
ftpo tlio oxen with wliiuh tbo 8«ij dtsportK liimftcif when 
not CDgagccI in \m daily labour? ; thitt in. aj Ue biniMcIf 
BUjtpiies the exjdanation, both before tbey begin, and 
after they aro ended*- In deference, then, tu ihoiw 
aasociatioiiF, founded on actual natare, which for tlio 
prnK-nt pur[ioM: arc stnctly facte. 1 cannot hcnitatc to 
maintitin, thjit Hw. inland of Tlirina^'iit i^ npmi thi- wliolff, 
relatively to Grceee, mi o&«u*m iHlund. 

A like inference may ho drawn from the luiinei 
I^rnpetiti {\a^ittiv) and PhaetbiiAa l^aov), whirh \m 
has given to tbe Njinphs of tbe Sun. Had the i«Tand 
been in bie intention westem* be would have called 
them by namc« of n ilitrcrenl f^tymolo^y. 

And aa iIkt Srytia pa^wigr, wbirli U on iU comity ifi 
near cbe UXttyicrai^ I think we fthall pretty elocely eoi]<> 
form to the Yiew» of Horner, if «% make Thrinacie 
form tbe western side of tlif Boeipboma, and if we »epa- 
rate it by an imaginary or ]>oetical Scylla from tbe nmill 
land of Turkey iu Europe. 

Again, it ia admitted that Ain-rirv baa \m name from 
r Od zii- 3S0. 

SD4 111. 7*hataA^.' A* OittH- Oroffra^i/. 

AmiV Fmtn the jwrsonal retatiom of JRoit^ 
as from tlio^u of liU daughli?r Circe, wu may llirri'fnrc 
ttrgoa iv^pe^xltif^ t1i« Kite of Ma^^ prorldod «"« eaii At* 
ULcti tlieria to txxy known and fixed point of the sivtcm 
of llomerir idc-aa. 

N'ow their parenUge fiirDinbefl a point of this kind, 
on both tho father*s and tlio motlicr's side. Thdr 
fatlicr ia tha Sun : a divinity not, like tlio Apnllo or 
Minerva *■, dir-lond Ik »_*<!, bnl tin*? living hW tWAy Nijonm 
<oiit of work-lirjurs) in tin* wwt. The n>«r.li4tr 14 Pcrw: 
friid enough, I think, haii been shown with respect to 
the import of Ihia itaine for the Acbaraii Ti)liid\ to 
make it jinrttj certain Hint, when Momer fiven » 
residence to the children of Perse, he intend? it to be 
in the cast. 

It 19 now time to bring p>orc directly into tlic disnis- 
siua a point mneh conri't^led — llje ^itnuiioii of the ii*1nnd 
of Cftiypso. Tiie usual modes of solotion. which place 
the original of this pictUK- on the Urutlian coa»t or in 
Malta ^, are inadmiastble in spirit as well as in thtv 
letter. For rerygr^t remoteness ts the mmt eaentlal 
point m tho doscription, and to bring it near vmuUl 
wholly change ita ehamcten It rcquircrs ci^jhlcen days 
of favourdile wind^ to eomt^ hy rsflt uithiii Hght of 
Scberia from Ogygia: while even the distance fmm 
Crete to l''gypt. a greater one than from the BrtittiAii 
e»attt to (in^ece, might be performed, ait l|[:jintir think*, 
in five™. It h the nndpoint, nr ofitpaXo^", of a ^'aet 
expanse of »ea: and Moreury, pas&ing thither from 

It«. p. 39. NitiK'h Ml Od. V. i^o. 1L 

■ctt x; ftiiHOlympTi*, nevt. iv, \i, " tM, Xit, 357, 
3^0, on PCTwphtinr. Od, L flo. 



Olyinpns, mpiCTora tltp route aK one wliieh travGrwsi «t 
might}' space ofHaier, without biibitatioiis of men he- 
twecii\ A^in, the namo of Calypso (woXiVrffu) place* 
it wholly beyom) tlie circle of Grcfk maritime cxi>o- 
rietice: as doet lier relation to Atla^. u-ho hoMs tJio 
pillars, that is^siands at tlio ostrcmity, of earth aotl sea. 
The first and cardinal point to bo fixed therefore i» its 
decidei), if mrt t'xlrutin? n*itioUMiL'Mf, 

Kexiy if it Is thus remote^ wo find hv a proc^es of 
oxiiaufition that it Tniitit be in the iiortli* As far as we 
know. Homer recognised the African coast br placing 
the Lotopbagi upon It, and the EthiopiHriK nilami tVom 
tbo East all the way to Ibo extreme Wont, In cbat 
dirLxljon there is tto more OilX'ti^rnt or jica- And a^ain* 
a3i NiLxxeb truly r<'Tn«rk*, Srlu-ri« is on ibe j»rnjier 
homeward line of the vojage of UlysseaP. Consequently 
he cajinot p&i«, nor can he oven approach, Ithaca wbilo 
on his way to Scheria: I add. bo tmist come to it down 
the* Adriatic; ox\ bifi way to Itliaea. 

Now wo ore provided with an ini[>ortsint argunioni, 
drawn* like H.>nLc preceiliiij^ one^ from what wc may 
fetrly call Wiuner'Ti cxpcriencL', ami icfiding to fix the 
«ite of Ogjjfia in llio north or norCl)-cra»t. It in dcritwl 
from the roulc lakeii by Monmry, when be carrioa the 
menage of tho Immort^dA to t'niyprio. which in another 
point of view we have nln^iidy had lo e?(aniine9 ; 

nt4p{rtir b* i^ifii^. rff nJtf»/w»f Iftitttt* -itivTw, 

Wr ViTV obliged fo KOpjKm-, a» bna In-en olMcrrfd, tbiit 
M(*rcury. who doe» not mareb, but flle» like a bird wont 
to hunt for ft«li% mu^t move in a direct line towards 
bia obje^rt. Hot I'lerift i« a district Mn^Vrbirg along 

r S'tUtch on Od- v. 2'j6-i. 
r Ibid 5 1 -J 


Ui9 sboTe or >ran>donift ; It twj^ns in tli« acMitb, ict tlio 
eastward of Olym[)ii^ niid then extoiiiis duo north of it. 
It« UmitA are variously dWiiied * ; ImL tt*e onl^ tjui^tioii 
alxjiit it rould W, whether it verf^es^ not to tbe west- 
ward, but to tbo eastward of North- A^in, from tbo 
route of Juno in the Fourteenth l\'mA\ uo <gu<*stioa 
can ariAe, e%cept wliat would Uniil tii give Pivrin ait 
eastwsLrd turn. 

A Irno drawn from Oljmpae over the eoiitre of 
Picria would carry Mcrciir>- to the North, It rnigbt* 
conKUf-i^nlly wilIi ibi* cotiditiuii of cmc^ing Pic^riu. di* 
verge a Ihtle either to the cast or the woet of due 
North, but only a little. Coiiscqneutly tho inland of 
Calyp9o may be aQIrmed to be> aenording to tlic hi- 
t45ntion of llonier, iu the North, aiid not rery far ftroin 
due North. 

Thiicoticliision iseotifirmedbytwoothcraryjtnenta; 
wliirli an* liolh af the cln^t nhidi I havu doscribed lu 
lejfitiiimto, f>feau«e they an? founded on Hoiner'd |>hp- 
sicnl knowledge of the direction of the winds. 

After tlio Morm hni* de^trnyt-d the *h]p of t'ly<»^fl to 
lh<3 south of T1inn:icii!, Notns, a wijid of docidi-illy 
souttjerly character carried him baek again to Scylla, 
Od. xii. 426 : and a^in, when he ban pasAcd it, he 
piv>ceed§ Urns': 

Now there is no mention between thc^e wo passagee 
either of any change of wind, or of any jiarticular wind. 
CoRrti?f|nL*Tilly it aeem* rationed to ii««umo that flomer 
nu-aiit ni to understand a eontinuanco of tbo wind judt 
uanjod, ntvmely Notits. Even independently of thi5 
4!ol]ocatiun, vie should be Uinj^\n b;urL ii[ion Ow gi-iieml 

* Ci^uucie Qrococ, I 204- ^ tL uv. jj5. ■ OcL xU. 44;. 

£b'r« iff <^i/ffia to the Eait of iV^-f A. 


rul« of tlio WAncleritig«T vrliich iu ilint tfoittlierly ^nds 
blow Uly»»ot« nviny from homo, wiiilo iiurtticH; oii» 
bring liJiTi linrk ugairi. 

Con«eqiientlv,ihe nniiirftl construction to gmt upon tho 
pfissa^zo is, Ibat it was n floutli ^inJ* whottior a little 
ewl or Meat of M>utb niatl«r» not mnch, which continued 
to Itlow, iLMil wUic-li drifted UI}i^'S mvi^y fruin THmcm 
(0 tlie iaInuTi of CalfpBo. This K« in cntiro &ccor(lftnc9 
witli the pavsogc \f-hicb dctfcribcs bim n» wimlboiujd 
bjf Eurus and Xi>turt At Thnnarie; Muce lJ:c iahv from 
home 18 prwuniably the exact reverse of the way lowardfl 
it. But it u-ill bo said, this iiii|>Uefi that he made weelin;; 
on his nay to Oj*y^ia from /Kfco- I answer, tjiat thit is 
proljabCy w> : fur Circe is iTescribiHl jm iiiiTiiE^ilintvl^ coii- 
iiUGtcd with Ibo mftt, wlillv Ca1y{i«o U far, a» Morctiry 
coin|ilfur», fn>m ull lund aud bnbitaticin : 80 Uiut ap- 
parently her iEilAiii) ;\ in the liilentiun of Homer, ina- 
Lerj&lly to the wvfttward, as well aa greatly to the 
northu^rd, of JFjpil Bui tho main direetion taken 
from Scylla h iiorthward ; and. «ncc Scylla b m^ar the 
ItAuycTiii, and ihe riXa'^vTo) are the Iio«phorii4ofartual 
nature, it must be taken from a )wint near tho Bospho- 
ru«, alonf* tile intaj^inary expanse of an enlarged anil 
wcstward^rcadiinj? Euxine. 

Acc-ordtiig to tttit« argument, then^ Ogygia nngtit lie 
u|Hjn a iine drswn from Mnnrit Olympus in a direction 
not \'<>ry wiilo cither way of St, Putci^burgb. 

Sot are we wholly without mL<aiia of mi^a^urin^ the 
diBtanee, He flonlv (rnini Scrlla) fur iiinr ihiyN, titid ar- 
rives on tho tenth. Now i\m [» ju^t whnt b;i]>)ieniHl 
to the f«cudo-UlyH9c9^', who in tbe «»ine .sjiace of time 
drifted from a foint near Crete to tbe country of ihif 

Od. juv- jio-'is- 301-4- 

X Z 


111. T^cfA/Aht; fAf Ouffr Or^yraffhjf. 

Tliesfirntmm, Wu may ihercforc fix O^jpfia as (rii the 
intpiMitiDlL of tlir IWt), lit nliniit lltf> NJUna< itiKtBtiCV fmin 
Sijlla, which u'e mea«urc from the flcutli «f Kpinw (» 
A fwiiit near, yet not in sight oU Crete* Dut this in 

The corresjjomling argument is ilprive*! fixmi the 
homeward pasaoj^ of IHys^efl, nnd dtamh ns foHo^-e: 

I'or seventeen days L'lyases ptimucs \m raft^vovftgir 
fmni Og^ygia to Scheriji; and the raft thri\Ucn9 to 
^0llTl[1^^ ui) rho rtj^htt-^-nth. Ho t!i©n ttnau, I>y the aUI 
ol the ginlle ho hrtd rcocivod fn>m Ino. U|» to tbie point 
tbere \$ no {lOHitivt* indication of the winil ; tiw arma- 
ment frcni the relation (x^l^'tH^n hi# coun» and tliB stafH 
I ttill consider fthonly. But afti>r ho has pnt on the 
ginJIc, ami when Nej>luno ^^Ithdrawit his ])ersocution, 
mice bo ifi now approaching the hori2on of th« Inner 
world a^^hi, MinorvaT!; s^inicy revives niid »tic h*i»1* a 
fiorih wind or a iiorih-north-oa»t wind, Borcofl, to bring 
liim to bcherjft. 

Now tt]4*re in no r<*a.4oii for our ftnppuHliiff that Ho- 
mer meant to rep^eat^nt Ulyi'AOH oh chan^inji^ his general 
direction at this jiarlicular point. The orders of Circo 
with respect to the *tars all ihilicate a ^agle right line 
from OgVjfia to 8c-ltem, nnd iioilher thi> wind nor hia 
course alter, until he Um ^*«<n the tHlaiKi on the far hori- 
zon» The natural inferen<x' lh*?rcforu i:*, that Hon^aa, tho 
N. or N. N. E. wind, wUiv-h at la»t driftitd him in, waa 
the xrind %hUOi had brought him all the n'ay from the 
i«lnnd r>f Calyj)^, over an tiuhrolceti am! unincumtieTcd 
expanse of sea. 

We flpjiear to have ^eeii. thus far. that Ogygla n 
greatly to the northu-ar^l^ and pn>bably sonR-what to 
tiie wcstwftitl, of the StJ-ait of Scylle< Wc shall obtain 
fiirtber light njion the riie of that ifllan<l, if vn? cait 

BegUti iiit<£ the DMrda riWJf^, 



moie prafisely olefin© tlie |)o»iUon of Sr^flla wiih n*ganl 
to wbat lay soutlivarO, as well «s with rea|j©el to wbat 
[a; tiortliwBrdf from it. 
Our data are ss fallows : 

1. TImnacie ajipL-ani ti> be cinsie to BtvIIa, for it h 
re&cluMl «tV/ic« (xii. 261), 

2. TUc omrados of Ulyssut*, wlicii tlioy srrivc nt tbc 
iHlanci, und wlicn lie uttcmpts* to di88iiA<Le them from 
laitdliig, rc>{dy by nakfng vtUm isi to become of thorn ff 
thifv Aift Mill nt iit^ht, mill are then caught by a KqunU 
of Eunis or of iCc('hyr ( 184-93)- 

3. TIte mhiji iH wiiidlHKiiul in Thrinacie for » raontfa 
hy Eurua and Notus ; which may be taken in Hom^r as 
the winds that f'OVLT llio wimie Immon Irom a imnt 
iiortli cf eafit to the western quartt-r', 

4- WIm*ii thvy Bnally trt «iil, wu am mrt tnid with 
what wind it wb»: but, after ihoy bnvo got out of 
Aight of the itslniii, the »kr ifarkens, and misobicf 
followfl* ; 

tint] the flhi|>gnes to pieces i[i tile tem|K-«t. At loDgtb 
Zephyr €0»SC«» and Notux blows Uly»fH>« liack upon 

5. If it wan tho iiitctiiion of iloTtier to jtbice Thrina* 
cie by thi> EVMjdioruM, tlmn th« next |)oint which IJly^w* 
hafl to make \rM the DardanelloA. 

The ijncstioD therefiire x^ what conclu^on can wo 
draw from the evidence non- befure us a^ to Ihc posi- 
tlmi nrScylla relatively to the Dardanelles? 1 thi:>k a 
pretty clear r^ne- 

Wo hare at Icaat two of thoite !UaU<nii^iit», which may 
bt? (balled rxpt-rimi-tittil, miw Wfnreii^, Ilomrrknewtho 
T 8oraup, ^ a;«. ■ Od. ail 402-CL 

poKitioii of Uie mouth of the Dardanellei. Ho knew 
the nature af tlio wind Notua, And ihorc i« a lhir<l 
piece of evidence not unimportant, which 'wv may hcru 
|)ro|)erly bring into viuw. We liu^o «ot-n tbsit, in II. H. 
845, JloniGr confijios or contains his Tkirocinne {fvrot 
ttfijtt) by the nel1eti)iont : niid tliQ Hellespont with liitn 
inentis ull tW wiiU-rs from iUv: Swi of MurtiH»ru t4f llii* 
northiirn MpQ%i} incfuftivc. Now by this ho intends 
only a part of the ThmciAn^, Uiomc* mv, of the plain of 
Ailrimiople. It In pi-e^unirthUi thereforo that he be- 
llex'cd tlie configuration of the const tit the X\rn ex- 
tremitira of the Uardatielles to be sometbinfr liko at 
least two of tlie skies of a square, ninniiig N, end W- 
iw»pi'"'tivrlr : for niiloj^s it fnrnied u portion of ?*oinw 
ninrketi figure, it would not answer his deseriptTon of 
inchtding a certain district, mid tho wor«U would be- 
eornc -'ipplitable to tho whole of Thrace alike. Thcnv 
fore it appears timl Homer ihuuglit the northern coast 
of the Sea of M.'^rirora trerj<Ied, from its w^teiti poiDtv 
more rapiilly to the north, than is rvnily the cofic. 

Tin? :niwt *lcci*ivo evidence, liowuver, is tluit wliicli 
line) hei-ti pn-vionvly iiamod. 

AVIicn the tttonn camOi vihieh nhottcn^d tho ship, 
Uly8^''* wa^ on the true c<rur3o fixmi 11:rinaeie to tiie 
Hmtlaiielleti, But if we know the |Hiint for which he 
wiw making in a right Line from pc^int jr, and if we 
nW know the wind which carried hiin hack to ]>oint a^^ 
then the line on which ]*o\nt .* it**e]f lieit im ;Jmi known. 
Ill other wonb, a« Voins, ur say the S>8.\V. wind, car^ 
nod him hack npoii Scylla, Scylla lies to the N.N.E. of 
the inner mouth of the HAnlanellcs: and the nnnamod 
wind which talced him Lraek to Sevik !« NotiiK, which we 
are eiitjiled to consider ba blowing (oven »« Dorcas, itfi 
countei'purt, blows from due N. to the castwardi from 

Wh}j y^^Fij itmnoi Ur \farUi'WflKl*vnnL 



fitly i^oint li*?tween ihe limit of Eurus on llw Kast of 
Soutb, aDcl 45 or eveo godBgretiB bejoa^l Soutli to the 

jCcca, then. Ja in the Kut ; ^-itli sontcwti^ of an iit- 
cliruliDii, tut tnciwureil from Grucco, towunti tlio norch- 
UlysseB hnfl much ^vesling to niako, in order to get to 
Scttcriu, Part of thU i^ made on hin pansagefl between 
JliBcti niid Ogygia in tlio farther north. Tine r»t in tliO 
cour^ of kU long seventeen days' voyage from the north, 
wbkh U propolleJ, as it would appear, by Itereos, and 
therefore includes aTso a sli^jht westerly inclination. 

All ihiT^m nrguumitK eoiivcrrgi- towanlv Mil- iwmecon- 
clumu«, and all of them are mainly founded, not on 
IJoiuerH outcr-vorUi rc^presontationa, hoi upon indi- 
caliona drawn from \m knowW^e of nature, cir i<ls« 
irani liiH experimental or otherwise familiar acquaint- 
ftneo with tbv ttinor world : tbnt jti, thoy aro Uiilt not 
on the l^j^urcs of Itiit fancy, but on the facts of his own 
and Uh ettuiiirynu'^:i*% t?very-dny i-xpiTienri-. 

And now lot u« consider the adverse coii^tructtoa 
put upon the text of tho Od}'£<3ey; parlkularly with 
rejfard to the island of ^K^m. 

It is quite plain, from the oecounta ^ven of the 
route both ^^ys^ that the Oet^n-moutL h meant hy 
Homer to be near the island of j^<a; that is vrithin 
A day'H MiiU of that inland. Mow U i\m nxTinrrlahle 
Willi the doetriibe, which ploeec^ the li^land in the far 
nortU-west I In the north-cast wo have an 0(?can- 
mouth, the eituation of whicli the Poet, guided np to 
n c<?rtairi point by hit* inner-world knowledgt^ bn<* not 
very inaccurately conceived. In the north-west there 
i» no Ocean-mouth. The Straits of Gibraltar, though 
they lie nitlier to the south of west from Tttkaca, muHt 
V Od. d. I Ik 

Sn 111. Thalassa: tht Ouier Geography. 

be c&iried far ioto the nortli for the purpose ; in what 
form, or ^^itb what accompaniments, it ib hard to con- 
ceive. To attempt bucIj a transi^osition would involve 
the complete abandonment of all actual geography, and 
would after all leave us involved in hopeless coufhsion 
in the eETort to construct any tolerable scheme from the 
text of Homer 

At the mere transportation, indeed, we need not 
scruple ovemiucb, if we could justify the proceeding 
hy other clear indications of Homer's intention. But 
there is no such justification. It is hardly possible to 
exaggerate the violence done to the text of Od.xii.3,4t 
by the interpretation which Nitzsch (following, as I ad- 
mit, Eustathius), puts upon it. The ship, leaving the 
dtream of Ocean, reaches the sea and the island*: 

olKia KAc \opot cffTt, iroc &VTokai ''Htkloio. 

The avTo\a\ the rising, or rising-point of the sun, 
does not, he says, mean the east, but only the first ap- 
pearance of the sun on their return from darkness, which 
ts a kind of dawning on them. And the dwelling of 
the early-boru Dawn, and the place (such appears to 
be the meaning of x^V^O ^^ ^^^ Dances of her kindred 
or attendant Nymphs — who in later mythology became 
the virgin train of Hours, that now delight us in the 
frescoes of Guido and Guercino — not only do not mean 
anything eastern, but apparently in this place are con- 
ceived to have no meaning whatever, and to be an 
idle. Indeed a most inconvenient and bewildering, pleo- 
nasm. And thus the magtc poetry of this passage 
and all the curious traditions it involves, are destroyed, 
in order to make room — for what ? For the hypothesis 

ttrutiion o/Ofl^l^rT 



that Homor )>laces cbe dwelling of Momhig hikL [1»u 
chamber of tbc ririiig Sun fiir lo the weetwanl of Uie 
countr)r Uial lie; hinuRrlf inhabited*! 

Tlii-rv Wf I c(jnri*Mi, voim^thirg almost of nair^t^ hi 
tlio confewiioi) cfNicx^h, that *ic sounds rather strange 
to interpret at^aro\ai without any rcfcronco to Bunrise, 
sim-e jt is the i-UBtoniarv counterpart to ivan, llio sau- 
Bet.' But fortuiiut^ty there Ih nu Honivrir ^viilvuce 
ftgaiiiBt it: as indeed thero caunot well bcs since tho 
word occurs in no otiicr jm^Migc. With respect lo 'Hwv, 
Nhnoli onntendfi tliat ll niei4ii» not dnwii, but tight: 
Ami ho quotes tho pusKigea ivhich say, 'your glory 
ihall fCAch as far aa 'IIc^?.* and ' horses, tho best to bo 
found beneath the Sun and 'Ilwv,' Certainly it i!^ most 
allowable, (though T by t>o nieuh« diink the sense of 
dswB iDadniiwiblo in tbew two pai^^age^) et»|>oci&tly a9 
day goes nowhcro except prcci-dcd by dnwn, to geuo- 
Ta\tr.o the wimiI 'Ui-i «o a^ to nuikv it njuivalent to light. 
But die fatal flaw in tho inti'rprolatioih t% thfa, that xthoii 
'Hcvtifi lhu»u»cHl, it i» invariably a|>ai-t frorn aityeircuro-* 
8tanco« vtlmh can gi>o a local irolour to ica meaning* 
But ^^hen^vvr there h any thing local implied, as is 
admitted lo be Jn tho case heforo us, tho »)t^f iinifonnly 
meam tho caat, though nith a certain indetinitenoas 
perhapH aa to iiorthwnnl am) »onlhw&rd inelinution. 
For it)«tanet.\ when Homer n|»t.'!iJty of cnnOTi-hinlv flyhig 
eastwiinle> he describes ihcni aft ftjing: w^if ^« t irXt- 
o* Tf, aiid the oppotiite movement as -ntn'i X^i^** vrhidj 
here evidently mean;* iiorth-wost, although it tw* may 

* In tiM wr^l known cMv of 
a nchle rWKriptioat in ttir Aiiti- 
tffuryt Walt<T Sc^t litu m*J« 
thv vin itn OH lh« i«el coMt of 
OrMkt BritAiD : bat CJU* wm uti- 

awpira ukiL not on purpoMC. H&d 
\n> rccit«cl iimtciul i>f u-niirg. xhv 
error o^uld iiot !iAv« cAO^pcd c**r- 

ngnify dnrknc9« in ^*Roml. The wliolo aim of t1 
poamgc (Oil. Kti.i— 5] ii<, to Rx locality; ami it is 
llir* lvi:lU of M IloTMiirtc iiMi^i^' tij de^jrni* itn^r in flui 
a fkowa^e of loc»l force, vrlule it coofe^edly <An ha< 
1K> local vnoQiiin^' but nn costcni one. 

To me. I fonfrs**, it apfieAra that Homer had nowh' 
done tuore. and rarely tto niucli, in a single pAKsag^p, 
in ibiB, with a vig^- of declaring his iiiteiition. Tl 
island .Effa. irrespective of all gco^rapbicnl at^^nuicnl 
is a* wr? Imvt? wt-n, *lir>.^t'tl}- bound nnd rA«Uf!<»<l tn 
caitiorij i^itc l^y four »i.'|iarjile eord«. Fir*U m ilio rinii 
point of the Sim. Sceondly, Il^ the ro*idoiico of Dnwi 
Tbirflljr, l>eeautie Circe* itM mivtreftt, lias the iSun, ll 
most eastern of nil iiiytliological roncepltoos exrei 
tbe Dawn, for Iior father. Fourtlilv% because tslitj Ui 
alM> Pcr«L-, whot^c tiamc indicatta a tnins-PlLCcuicij 
origin, for ber mother. And furtltpr, I am ctmvim 
we eannot alter tbo plaoe of iCica without uprootin] 
the wbolc Phoenician echemc of tl>e Outer Go^'Mph; 

Thv sco|"o and nin;^^ thun ^ivon to the advi-nlan 
ofUlj^MC* eoiifiTH-K tbf-nj uHlioiit {k>ulic Ut tbe tiorUx 
»omi-cirele, but ullowg tlicm to reaeli, within tliat ^i 
drvie, to lU eA^lern nml U> its v'earcm extremities, 
tbey ftfw inmgliietl Ij}' Ui« Poi*l, /F^diiH and the [, 
goniniiH are evidently ]ila<'ed by bim in the north-' 
'Die hvpothesJH. wbiob haa here been tnainUinod fi 
/H^*a :ind Cnly|i5o, fvnppIieH an QfTectn^l eoimtorji 
and pro[.icHy ftWn up the eastern comer. BuU indepei 
dontly of all otlior objections^ the north-wvEtem by 
thesis for thcMo islanda jumbles tbcm* if 1 may 
fpi>akf m *nnf hi-ap wilh *!i*' other", ami I<»nT<*< t] 
eastern quarter towanjs ii\o North wholly uiioccupii 
And yet that Kaat wn^ for a Grock, the ^uroc and tl 
5ccue of tJic richest le^^miary aud mythological repi 

Cbnffriftfff^n A^Od- r, 176, 7. 



Benutione, Hucli nii inconf^nm! vi^^w of the qovKtiob 
^-ould itol, I tliinki l>c dt all in kocpin^ wjtti HomcrN 
ofxlinnrv hkhIc^ uf conc&ivingi Ijauillitif, and presenting 
bis iiiaEuriaU, 

But 1 Jim nviare that, up to tb]«i timet vc Imve loft 
out of view a |iii8sft[»:c, of whioh I fpctly cclmit that tho 
|ifevaiiing, and ir so fnr the mo»t obvious, mterprc tuition 
is a^iDnt' mo. L'ly«w.-M mih over tW «<ca fmm O^ryi^in, 
jfovcrninj^ tbo rudctor of hiH mil vrjth art, unit wutcbiri^ 
Ihc i«tan^ cepcciallv the (-rt-i^t IK-iir; >vliicJi at tbut 

coiisi|iicaoiiK and i^lenrlM astronomical abject, tban tC 
SOW in. It was with nt'spoct to this con.'ttcllution tbat 
lie had received a particular order from Caljpfto'': 

( >r, orcording to the common cDonstruction of the wo^d^ 
hf! wm to ktvp tliat coiisti?llalToii on tlie leA diinirg 
lii« vrryn^i.*. But If bi^ c<>utf« hy in the direction of 
a rifitit lino drawn from St. Fctorsbar^h to Cortit, it 
fi|^Ktar« tlini Arctus^ Vihvn rUildo tu him, would be 
vUiblti on the ri^lil, and inkt *>n tUu Ii'ft- 

J could not, bowvver. nccomnioilntc myself to tliin p^m- 
sage at such a co»t as that of ovctm^tting an inter|»rct- 
atioii nf tlie general idolienie, wbicb ic ffo deeply rooted 
both in ibe Icrtt^r and spirit of the )>^em. as is tho 
eastern, and Jikoui^o Bomc\rbat north-caetem. hypn- 
tbcBia for /V'OS, together with h northern site for Oyygin. 
T1m»9 tvo, it may hv observed, stand together* It is 
plain, from tbo tinier occupied by the serenil «t&g^ 
between iV/Oi ainl Ogy^in, and from the laiif^iagQ 
used vrlten- nv> prt-ri!a< tiriin \s hIaIi.-iI, that the Pout 
conceived the di«tanco bel^'eon them to be limited. 


III. 7'Katataa: the Oui^ Otoyraphy. 

thougfi vcTy cmjaulcnibk'. AnH inOocd tlie north' 
wc'sii-rii tiy|Hil1i^}«H fur ^Wa w*mid <io iiothiiig fur Llie 
])nBfla^<> 1 Ijftve qiiciod. uiiloss we also carry Ogjrgia 
into tlko iiortli-wcst, in order that Vlyssos, on \m way 
Imnie from it, may have Arcta^ on hU Jcft, Inof^much. 
liowever, n*i clie adiiii»*»-Ion nftlic riTcirivl KeiiHc for the 
lilted would involvci uk in a new «i>rks of i\w mod com- 
plicated and bopc1u!4S rontnuJictioii«, wc mu»t look for 
rt'lieF ill some oilier direcLit>ii. 

T ilovit'E> CO er^L-liew, aa a general rule, tlie iliiiigeroi 
and acductii'o practice of queetioDinjr tlie >fenuliionoat 
of tho text because it seems to etand In conHict witb 
a fa\aiir('d interpn^atfon. I may lion^ever slate, with- 
out unduly rolying on tliom, miv or two p&rlicutan 
wliiclj, dru.\vii from the i^ocm ita^clf* iiwy nUow tliat 
tlicso two linc-a art' not UEiJu^tly open lo the «U4picron 
of ii]tvr|ifdntuiti. 

1. Tlio two linos aro wbolly void ^f any iKKSMfeiy 
connection with wFiat precedes ami fcillow? tltcm. and 
tlie text is comfilete withuiit tliein. We Miotild nut 
br(>&k up tlio passa^ geaerally by roinoring cbem. 
TliiB argument, liowcvwr, t« ono purely negaUvo. 

a/riieSL* lines tell us.tliatCalyp?M5 had bid L'lys*ej*keep 
Art'tus on \m li'ft. Now Ifiinicr hiis given us a sjwech 
of CttLvpi^o' on tlio eubject of thi« royn^o, in wliicli Bbe 
pr<^mt»c-^ to scud, from l>chJnd hiiti, a Ureczo wlicb shall 
t'nrry lilni luatii-. Hut llien? is in lIih H|H"erfi im nnlvr 
to him whatever about observing the etars; and the 
promise of the wind in somo degree, though im>i porhapa 
cjuito conclusively, tends to show that no such injunc- 
tion www ocwletl. Fnr h is plain that, if the MJnd blew 
fair acrogfl the open «en, he did not depend at all u|K>n 
llio holm, and notieiuj? the stnr^ would be ^f no a«siat-J 

On the ^atiitm/^MS Iff' i/tc poMo^, 317 

ance to him. I rclr, hon^cTcr, niorc upon lliis, tbat 
tliere irt iiere a sort of jmlclinork, very unlike llomer'ft 
iihueI ntetlicil, Iti tlio mocto in which tho mjunelion is 
pccordc't. Clrarly, if Oilyp»« gnvo n dip«;tioii respect- 
ing tin? »Uir*, thu pnipcr plnce for H was iu tlje apeodi 
uhiTe stb*' ili-Hveri'c^ in UIvmh-?* what may be mlleil liia 
jj^neml instruction for the voyngo. And I am not »aro 
whethir another iu^tanco can he found in the wholo of 
tile |i(H?irfi, nhere nn itniif^imi of »omrtbing rt'k-vant 
and mnK'rial in ont^ nf tlie ^poeHics i» Kii|ipliitd hy u 
recital \\i the t»ulwc<|ucni narmcivc. It H wholly con- 
trary to tlic ninnncr of llomcr, who «a uniformly lliroiv's 
into ftfK'trli anil tho dniniaiic form whatever ih stifiee|]- 
tiblc of being Ihtiv hanflled^ 

3> Tbc cx|ire!«ion iv aptffT*f>i X"P^^ '* found uo- 
vhvre ulw in HonK^r, though the jihnue iw' apttrrrpa 
occtirt many timc^. 

4- Tlicrc is no other pansnge in the Panderings o» 
elftevhere in the |x>em«, which descril>ea the conduct 
of navigation by means of ihu Bt*n*. In the Iliad we 
have the mention of a star in cennectlon with sea- 
tfttveliing: but it is simply a« o |«jricnt. (rut'tixri ripat. 
II, if, 76). On thi", linwL'ver, if it «tood alone. I kJiouhl 
plaoc no commandinjf ^trc«s: and it should also be ch* 
mtroi tl}at the objection is one which, if admillod. 
would diM|klAre eigbt linen. 

So mucl» fur the geniiineitess of t1»c pafvage. 

Am respeetA the fframniatical nieanhi^ of the lihrase, 
I have endeavoured to discuss it at lar^ in a separate 
|iiI|Kt; and to ^how tlint its rc^al i4eiiM.r Is in rart the re* 
vvtite of that whieh iw ordinarily aj«umi*t1. It rueiinii, I 
believe, n Kiar looking Imrtirds the left, and tbercfora 
a fttur IwAiiog/rom and situated on the rijrht hand in 
the sky. 


IIL nahma: thf O^er Gtaffnpksf. 

Id no caw. hoircTer* caq I ulmic it U> be thfi tnio 
Beviiri^ or lirMncr, Uiat Ulmes » lo IbUow a south* 
Kesiwnrd coume from O^gia to Schem : becaas© tliiv it 
at Tariance wiih all the trriMworthVp I xnn^i a'H with th 
amngi-iReiit of the touMis wdl u in tlio particnliu' di 
WTiptiot) of Circ«'« island. It is ft1«o in contradictioD to 
tboae indicotioiiH, dm^^n from bi9 inru>r or cxperimeiitiil] 
geogtaplir, vhti'U ili-U^rniioe at cvrtitm i>oints the bear*' 
logs Bjtpticablt* to tlie OuU^ or Phcehiciaii Kji\few, 

Before proceedinj; to dnw up in pcopotiliotis tl 
whole outline of tlic iutcrprctatiou wbieti I ventuio t« 
givo to t]>e route of I'lTMeft, I vkiuIiI call ultriition to 
the meaos, which the Poi-t h&« a<lopl4Hl ui %tgu'i(y to um 
hift own <(oaht and jueettiludc n>]HM!tiiig its aetoal 
beating at several im|iortanC poiuts. 

Jlj n^^aiis of the uiml Bi>rt-TiH he indicaimlo u% tho 
dire<?tion, uot hnu-ever the dhtance, of tbe Lotopluifji. 
After leaving' tlicni. he tells os nothitifr either of d{»- 
tauco or dirciction between their counlrv aud llial of' 
%hit Cyclikpi^ Prom thin point he pnniflc* na wfiih 
eortain aidH uiiItI wo mich .l^lia- W'Uvti in .^>>)ia, 
Ulyascs is to the n«rth-wf?»t of Ithaca: ft>r the Zephyr 
given hy.fVdiiH, ho ^vk, would liave carritfd him home. 
From this isle^ sue dajs of rovrin;; takf him to IjuMfj- 
gtmia. Auotlicrpaseof^oof indoGiiite Icoj^th next earriaa 
him to JEtcBi and. arriYing here, he is entirely out of 
htK hi-nnngK; hi* cJinnot t4-tl uhtTn? k vnr^t or w<<nt^, iho 
point of dusk or tho |>oint of davTii, unlit he hut been 
duly inftrueted by Circe: hut he 8ces on uiihouoded 
sea (W»T«( *ttrttptTw) on every «de of him. 

TliiM rxprc^uii of i^onince, put into the uiiiuth of 
lUrwiw, proluthly erMivoys the true fteiiee of tlw Pout; 


HotHcr"^ f/tcip-ajfltical mi 


wbo^ more or lcs« puzslc^l witli oi-cd hit own metbnd of 
Ii&nuoiH/iiig lUe PljtL-titfmii ro|Kir(:s Ami ftu»;iectuig tli:«t 
it niigUt Dct bvflr tlio lout of ftppUeation to actual ualum, 
ebieldecl him^lf Ijt antiH[falioti, thmiigh giviiiji; iic to 
undervtand that ]ie dfd not aiean to fubmit Clrrts'fl isld 
to tlie strict lulei* nf gengmi^lifral m ensure meiit- 

And indeed k \nis no wonder tbat be f«lc eotno dif- 
fidence, when we ixi^ollcet that ho had lo c^necntrato 
in a «Ti]^<} point fncts or tmi}i[ioTij< thfit i^mtirnccd cuhI, 
nortb, and wi»si. Kauitem his niie muKt Ur to allow of 
the ming of the stin, and tlic aecouipanjing kj^end*: 
lie nmr have had mi«givinjp^ lent Im Ttirinueie, ard al»i> 
ntlior tni4ltUi»n« nfuhirh he had to viork u\> the mate* 
rialn, nhould in realitr lie woatward from Greece: 
Ia«tly, an CLp|ireciabie northern element was invoked in 
the general direetion of the navij^ntion through Uie 
BuKphoniH, which in f&et wipplk-if a krnd «f nii-etin^- 
point for the tno furmvr. The reine<ly ift, thw to 
baii^ the bland of Circe in a ^iigue and »badowy d]»- 
taoce» uhich giTt-w \\m mKurml pmcti(?able approach to 
an exempUoR from the Uiw^ I]n|>o«ed by aity deti^nui- 
JULte conSgunitioD of the earth. 

>fer aro tbcae the only cases, in which ilonKT hw 
afK>nlfd us tokens of hts o^n Aiaiit uf rk^ai kunwWge 
and cojifidciice in rej^nl u> thi> ncone^ through which ho 
Itae omicd his hero. On the contmrr, he l^as indicated 
the baxirK^iM of bifi viewm, nud the insecuritj of the 
ground be trod, by forbearing in several other in^tnricetf 
to tix with precision the j»anicolar winds vrhich favotired 
or opposed the voyage of Lly^scs. or to particularize the 
dtstanetn Iiu travi*II<^. 

We are now at liberty to approtbcb the bist portion 
of our subject. M'e hftvc. I irutt, fixed the dtfltinetion 
of thv Inner ami OuU<r tieognipliy ; ascertaitjed the 


IlL ThaiaAm: tht Ouirr OMVjr^tphff, 

kvy^ of tlio otiter M}-^cm, find fixed its gDVernii^g {viiiilft. 
It rt intiinit to iiu|uire ivhat, rtcconUnx to tbe data itacer* 
tainod, (lid tbo Poet intoncl to be tlic route of UIv8k-« 
over tliu faix of his t deal ni^tp; ami thi*n. finallj.toehow 
itA ri-ltttion Co tlmt of \fL'iict]Mi>c, nm) to HoiiiotV ^>iK>nil 
«onGGi>t]on of llio contigurA(inii uiid ili«tnbutioii of Lhu 
aiirf&ce of the earth. 

L IIiH first li»lLlif^-|ilare, Aflf'T igiiilltiij^Tmir, i^ vrith 
the Cicones, in Tlirace. This vi*iit wna paid with iwarcely 
n dpviaCioD from hie home^-aid route : and chereforo it 
does not belong to the Ooter Geographr. The Ciconea 
of tie Odj-wL-y uerp probable jdaced near tW northern- 
most point of tlio .'Kpicnii sea (Od. ix- ^^9). 

II. From tlie cotiutry of tlK* CicuDesi. ho mU Houtli- 
witrd, iiiidi^r ft hi^styy itiirtlt'tiirrth-i-a^fl gnle {Od. tx,6y), 
xvliich lasts for three dajrs. He baa then fair w^eetlior, 
till he gel* to Cftpe Malcn. But, aa he is roundiD^ 
C;ipn Maleft, the nortli-norL I Heavier retumn, and drire^ 
hiDJ down tbe w'e«t coasl of Cytbera (now Cerigo), ami 
80 out to sea (>98j)- After nine daytf sail, Mith 6X001 
Sttsioit he rcRcbes the liind of the i^toplmgi {S2-4), 
Now^ n» it fin>k fire dsvw cif iht- WaI ihiMibk- wiod to 
sail from Oretf to E^fvpl (Od, xSv. 253), wo inny per- 
haps air(»tinic tlmt, in the ten days of veering gnlet, 
ahont ao er^ttal dii^tance wait tnade ir the gimoral <lt- 
reotion of sii>nlh-«iintb'eiLptt iiidioAteil fur u^ hy the Bo. 
?cafl of v> 8a. This will place tho Lotoptia^i on the 
SyrtU Major, now the Golf of Sidra. Hero the r»- 
(pon of the marrel-world begins: and the mention oF 
the oXW ottM^oi, III lieti of the ]iua* Rorea>t, may ha 
taken as &ir notice from tlte Poet* tlmt he had no pre- 
cise knowledge on what portion of the coa-H of Africa 
UlvKKeji WRK 111 %ri hi* foot. 

The I^to|thaj;l are full of E^^linn resemblaocea : 

Hi3it*e4mrtl rwiU (^ U^yjtwa^ 


awl \i i\i)\tran tlmt, rw Egypt ftnd Plioniiem uvre for 
F toner llie two grL'wloKl bonkT-UiEdtf fM.'(H*(^ii tUv real 
and tlic imngmcd worlfK therefore Ul}'fe'C» makes bis 
iinft 3lcp into tlic Outer world tfarougU a qu&si-Eg^ptiaii 
lU'^jilt't 311(0 liiit Iiui Hc|* (>ut of it nitiong a f|iia«i-PJice- 
iiioinu |rco|>Ie. 

UL Tlie vopge fmm tlio land of the liotoptia^ to 
the \>exi NUige, tlie country of the Cjrolopefl, ia iviilmut 
the pmalleat iri<iicfitioii eitlior of diKtnntre or direction 
(I03-5)' But as wiihiii the Outer fiphcro, northern 
winds &re alwa}^ boniew&rcl, and southern oncfl earrf 
Ulyio^-H iiittwnrrlt wfi iiiny axHiiin^- tlmt HimHir \\eTQ 
intended 801110 «onthcni wind ; though, o-s ho hwak^ at 
tliis junetnre the Insft litik with the kno^n ^Ko^ld, he 
eouhl ni>t. vt^iitimT to state any thing like Iht; |trvri«Q 
|ioEiit of the compAB9. 

fihftll we place tho Cyclopofl of Ilomcr on any point 
of terra Jhrttm^ or miist wo ima^ne a country for llK^-m ? 

TiadJtinn ha« niiswereil this i^uebtion hy connoonly 
plac>ni|r theni in Sicilyp But a Mxgne tra'lition, aa we 
have seen, is of liUle authority in regard to Homeric 
tpieMioiis; uikI in tliiv in^tanco, I think, it may he shown 
to hi* in error, for tlio fnllowing n^iWdUW: 

I . The country of the Cyclopoft ia not an idimd : it is 
maiidnnd {y<u:f Ki>»,\^tex\ io6), with an t»knnd nrnr to 
it, 105. By Ell*? e-\pi*e**ion ^aji), llofner sLiinetiniefi meana 
a ^reat inland t^uch &b Crete: but we have no authority 
for 6U|>potijng ho would apply it to Sicily. 

a. It can hardly be doubted that tlie little which 
Homer prr>l«ibly did know of Sicily isTepres^-nU^I to 
iifl by his Thrina<^i«\ Aiul all this con^iMa in two I'olnta: 
tho Rrst, tlhat it was an i»l(iiid (Od. xii. 117): tho 
vecomh thiit it was tn;»>^Lilai-, and derived it« nsinie 
fnkttL \\* form. Bi>t htH Thrinurii^ lie hiuii j?^^^*^* ^^ ^^^ 



HI. Thaitma: tl^ OHt^OfC'jr^y. 

oxen of the Sun: and tliorefore be certainly does nof 
mi^an it to be the land of the Cyclopes, or ho woulil 
ba^e given it tlio same name on both uccaflionat Indeed, 
on tViv oiitrarj. Ii<> biis nctualtv ^iveu another name to 
the land of tliu CyHo|»os; it is the fv/«'xo/>of 'Vir^^a of 
Od. vj. 4, I nmy add, Ibal tbo cpitbct ^i'pvx'^f*^*^ in not 
^iicrallj >t]r|ilirabl<* to Sioilj', wliirit ih HiHEuit-CltHl nil 
Ibroufrh with I1III and dnle, and wbicb nowbcre. unlo«!> 
(KTbn|>» brtttcen Syracuse and Catatiia. soenie to prcM^nt 
any great bivadth of plain. 

3, Besides this, Uly-ises trarerieB very long dis- 
lanc^% ill order to react ^.aea from llrpereia : but 
Thrlnacie. on tlje otiier Imnd, is yotj jurar jEji^*, so that 
be Ims not rolmceil bis (liiitanct\ ami iberefore eannot 
be in Sicily, 

Wbcrc then were eitiiatcd these Cyclopes, to whose 
coiimry tMjwes canit- nfl<^r f| the LotopbHgi? It 
IS plain that rhvy won; not witTiin the Greek mantime 
world, or Homer would, wc may be sure, Imrc indicated 
their position by the time of tite voyage, or by the 
<|uni'liT from \«bu'li th«- wind bli-w to tmkv hhn tbcro* 

t eubmit that Homer meant to place the Cyelopos in 
lapygia, the heel of Italy; a region nearly correwpoud- 
ing, on the west of the Ionian sea, with the position of 
Scheria on the east. This hyfKHheHU is consistent with 
the whole evidence in the cafle, and mi^ht well stand 
on tbnt ground only. But it is, 1 think, al&o suMaincd 
by a »opanUe argttintrnt from tbo migration of the 

Tlic Plittaclhns. descended like tlio Cyclope« from 
Nepttinet were recent inhabiUntit of Schcria; Ihry for- 
merly dwelt near the Cyclopes in H)pt>rota, and *n>i 
disMfted from tb^ice by the violence of tht'ir bnital 

fSmemtnt rvutr uf Ufytmrv. 


wElivcl In SclK'nii- 

Thoy wcri^ flvicg f^oni a moo wlio Imfi nf) ships vitJi 
which to fnllou- thetn. U Hyper^ia in ^vhi£t) they lived 
waa Inpygla. any )*lac(* in the kituaiton of Sclieria. or 
nenr it, wdtnlil be n nntnral plftce of refu)^ for tl^m. 
But if tlicy liar! t)f^en in STcily, Homer in all Jikcliliooit 
would not have rarried litem bcycnd the ndglihourinj; 
Gfiost nf Ititly, which would hav<t iLfliinkxl (lioin tin; w- 
«»rity choy d^^wirwj, 

IV. From lapygift or Hypereiaw tite country of thf 
Cjclo[ieN, IJIywwH |irnc4^edft to )iny his itoiilile vmt in 
^lia. We are net ABBisted In ilie ftrst iiistniicc (Od. 
]X4 565>x. r) by niiy indicjition of wind or distance. 
U is not unr;iir to presume th&t Ktromboli, vnih its 
Rctivff volennr^ wan fbtt pr(>(nty|ii.- nf thin ^iivty iwhrnd, 
Bui, liko otbcr ploecp^ it is not on the site of iu proto- 
ty|H\ For .'1'V^lus gives UlyewB a Zephyr or north-west 
wind, which would h;ive cnrrieil him houH\ h^d it n<H 
been for the folly of his comrades (Od. x. 15, 46). The 
JEo\%^ of Ilotncr then must conform to these two 
conditionK ; 

i. It luunt lie; north*-wt^t of Ithac»i. 

ft. Tbero must be ti continuouK opon son betn-ei^u 
tbom ; and ono unintcrni|itcd by iamU H) Uiat one 
and thr> Aamc wtiid may nirry a ^hipall the way. 

To meet these ct^iiditioiii, we Imve only to UK-ve 
JEoVt^ northward. For tho nortbern part of Italy baa 
no esntcnce in tJie Outor Geography. It is ft^-opt 
HWfty, alonjf with tlic gn-nt mass of the Etira|»eBii conti- 
Diitiit, and tho f^c\<sair<i covon all 

Aftt^r the oj>oning of tho bog (x. 48, 54k tho ahip is 
driYefi back by a ^i^AXo ujton j1*^[ia. But bore we 
have Iwd another vabuble Iiulicaiion, They tiad imi- 

Y 1 


IIL Jlaiaan ; flu Oni€r O^o^raptiy. 

)oy&\ tlic Zephyr nine full dnn, and tfiey were in mght 
of borne on tb^ U-ntb (v. 33,9), vkh(*ii tbe Toliy was 
cnmmittefl. Theroforo jrx>llit U between nioe am? ten 
days' sail tothD uortli-wcst of lthac»! or, villi an ullow- 
flnct" of *iftj luilva for tbe diftUnce to the horizon, there 
will be about oi»e thousand inik'» bctvi'ini ibcin. 

V. The fifth staf-e ia Lieilry^nia : and It ii readied 
cftcr seven days' rowiujr (x, 80). There ift no indieft- 
tioti of direction in tbe vojAg^: i>ut vre have a sure 
])ror>r ibat tbe |»ratoty|'e of this plaoe was far north; 
n&molyi that there is bere perf>olual day; 

It cannot, 1 thinTc, be doubted tha: Homer obtained 
inroroiatiou of a regioit displaying tbn natural peculi- 
arity from Pbarniciaii nmrinera, ^bo had |Tenetr«tfnl 
into the German Ocean to the noithward of the Brilidi 
Islee. llici retentive mind has, then, madc^ an early 
cord of this, along wjili so many olhcn- siHRular reports/ 
i«iL nf which a Ini;ge proportion havt? Ik-*-!! vcrifit'd. 

There j« another proof tlwt vro arc berc neerly, or m- 
tLior(|uite« at the fnrtbcst bonnd of diManco cvcrrtRched 
by IJIypHes, Kiir lh<? luiiti^d di^t^nici?* (1) fiom within 
c*ight of Ithaca to .^i^lla. and (2) fVoni jf^lia to L^e* 
fitry^onia, make i^eventeen dayt^. the same number occu- 
pied in a much slower craft on tbe voyage from OgxgiA 
to Sdieria. 

It will be found, under tbe rules of ealcubtion wbioh 
hftve been adopted, that wc may place Licfitrygonia at 
n«irM!vn»tmi bunilnvl milci* from lapvgia. If we are to 
snppofie Ibal hy the n»nw ArtHcle, jfiven totlio tbuiitain 
in Lffcittrygonia, he means an ulkiuion to a place of tliAt 
name in the Kuxine, I take f bis a^aocw si^ of his dim 
and confused extension uf that «ea lo tho wc»twar<l. 

JTetAtwttrd rcuU ofUtj^Mrw^ 


' Hie iiAtiio Ln^strygoiiin nppoars to betoti; to a city, 
not to a country* It is t^jXiVoAoj. and it ia also Aa^ioi/ 
vii-ri/ JFToSltOptiv. Homer avoids calling: <t cither a land 
{yal^y or mi island t^nirt^r). By t1io fbmurr term bo 
«omc-ti(nf% di^ignntofi larjj^ islafidit as ivell ft^ portions 
of a continent. The epithet «*Vi jwirit^ to a »tc<*|i mi'i 
rorky itMi* ; Ijut tiih forfieiini]^ Ui fix it nn miilltii'nt or 
i«hn<t «(>cni« to «how, t))Ht Iw was liiiiiMf In doubt 
upon tlio pciiLt. The trait of [icrjictuDl dnv, liowcTer* 
N|»c*ftlift mojil i'X|tli<'itly fur tin? Sima Ji//r'\ of tin? tradi- 
tion Oil wliich the Poet proceeds, and for tUe latiiiide 
from whcrtco it came: and it eeemB far from inipm- 
bable that [celninl may have Itcen the dimly pcrrcvived 
onginni of Lrc^trygoni:!: uf nliicli the &ile in tltcOdyMcy 
i% near the aclwal site of Denmark. 

VI. llio sixth ei^gc ia jf>a. This could only bo 
reached by a long ]mssa;re from Lantrrgotim. Tha 
P«<^t ha* not v(*ntnred to define its* i^xtciit or ilin^tiifrti. 
But he leaves 1ni»m.^lf an ample margin hy the declara- 
tion from the mouth of IHr^^e?*, that he knevr nothing 
on his arrival of the latfcudv or fongjtu<lit(Od.x, 190-2): 
and he is content nith planting it immoMkbly near the 
point of snnrisc, thotigh with a great vag^ene^S of coti«- 
ception (tld. x. i35'-9; xii. 1-4). 

There \b indeed something near a verbal contradic- 
tion between tho declaration of UlyMcs in Od.x^ that 
he, being tht^n at »%i. did not know nherc to look for 
KunrJfiH or for HtiiiHi't, and his mtrnitivtr iti xii, 3^ 4, 
where he so direelly associates tho Inland ni:h tho 
land of 6Qnri90< But be had remained there a full year 
in friendly company with Oirce (x. 466-9^ and he waa 
invlmetiHl by her a» to his moven]euts> so that wo 
may, I presanie, &irly consider tliat during that time ho 
toftracd what on hii* Hr^t arrival was strange to him. 

The courM from Lai^trygonia to jIml-m wprimti/hcie 


in. ThahMu: tk4^ Ont^iOwtgraphy. 

conjcctuml: but \t h not rviiWy m>, for La:!ftrvpHiia li 
iiK^rd by flic limrM aiuI uiiidii frmii lh|M*ri*i4; ninl /T'jvft 
uf pnwtkuDy clo«^^lnl1l(^() by lu loeu] rt'blbik* u> Ocoau- 
mouth, 'riirin&cio, nn*\ thv Bo^pliorufi. 

Tlin Kuxiiie Jooft not abouiul in Ulands, sui7h as wo 
inigbc ap{>mi>rlAte to i'lvve aiid tlie Sireiis : f'>r it m 
little likely tlint Q rork like the leJe of Serpents, whicli 
on a recent occasion acqiiireil a momctitary nitorictji 
tibcniM liave bei^ii iH>ticcil jiRTlicularly in tlii? iiuvi^tioii 
of the beixiic n^. It is miicli nioru likely, tlmt Homor 
bPHiglit biH iiflRiuU lor tho Enxioo from aiTK>ii^ tlio 
itiaLerialfl provided by lii« vi'e^tem truditionii. We may 
liouever lensonnbfy presiuiie that Iloincr uwant to jikce 
/Ewn at the east etid of the Euxine, not far |>erbapi 
from the Colchis of A'xrlcs : niid in that iieightjoorliood 
i shall vciitiiro to deposit three islands, va^ieljr cKHy 
re- spoil ill npf u-ith tho Balearic, whioli may have bewi 
irau>4p1aiit«d into thiti Tictivity tojirf^tlicr wltti the other 
tniditioiis of tlio ^cvt<:m Occmi-]ni>iith' 

{}) From hence, iiiuli^r the direetioiif< of Oiren, tL«y 
i^aii for one day uith a tow^anl hreesie, to (he Oc«iut- 
mouthi hard by that abode of the CimnieriAnE*, which 14 
wrapt in |>crpetual mist aod night {Od, xi.1-19)- Circe 
promisi^il thvm thi.^ aid of Boreas, whfi^ti UlyiiHeH, alairineJ 
at (he nniif^uul journey Ue was to mfiko.aHkcl who xvould 
guide him> I therefore infer that Boreas was to blow 
nnt bi^fon?, but nftfr, they liad riitrrix) tln^ Orenii-tnimlh, 
and was to carry tlieni up tl)c ftlream. Before reaclilog 
ittWe iDAY&BBunie that, aA tiBtial on hU^vay outwards, ho. 
was sailing with a wind from son&(> Houthern i^narter. 

(3) III the Ocean-river, they haul their veft^l Li|fh 
and dry, and proeeed by land tip the stream to the 
motith of the Shndes i»r under-world (Od. xi. so-i). 

(31 From the inoulh of liie Shaih-^ lEn-y rx^tuni U) 
llieir Nhip. and in it douu (Knra\ the Oreuh <«lnwni. 

Kmiward rotiif. o/Ufyti^u- 


aii«l to tb« .'Kecaii island. They go first by rowing, and 
Liieii liy tt ravfinrablu I)i-t*z4\ of nliidi tlio ilin.'Ciion IH 
iiot Dwntioiiod (Od. sii. 638-40; xii. J-'^: aUo xxiiK 

VII. ^f^^foti' I'^crov. TIlia iKland it a^acbt^il witli nii 
fr;uj'r>f o^fo? ; tlie f|uurtcr U not iittiii&d, nor h llio di»- 
tanee. but from cbo ternifi of tbo |*a«saj(eB it trould ap- 
|kear to tmve been vcry^bort. (Oii.xii. 149-^4,16^-7; 
aIm) 39, and ixiii. 3^6,) 

VIIL AvoidiDy the IU«ywT«3, the hi'ro pas^s be- 
tween S«yl[ft and Charybdis to ThriDacic, the isUiid 
of the 8iin. Tbe ttniit is rcacherl forthwith. atWUtt 
(CM. xii.ior). al^er kavinj^ tlie island, und Tbriiinr^e 
in r^QChcMl forthwith in lihc manner {fnVi'^ra v. 361) 
nftor Ic^avitijE^ the ^tniit (Od. xi> 106, 7; xii. 36a; 
xxiii. 3-27-1^, Tin' ht4, |r:i>»agi' ajjjm^rH lo \)\Avti llio 
mufKTiif and the Scylla |>ASs.ij^e close Co^elberr as it 
eaj's that he cumG to tliom both, though ho pfiiisecl only 
diron^h Scylla), 

III Tbrinsicie ho b d<>ta[ned by Notu«, blowing for a 
month, &nd by the loail nb^once »f a[iy wind hut Notu« 
and Eunis. The common point of tlicsc tvind^ ih. tbat 
lh»»y nn* rhrrfly in ll»? Houtlu-n) hirmiMphen*. AImi il 
wotJhl Mti-oni from this pan of the Fourth l(oolc that 
Horeas was evidently the wind that Ulyaee^ ro4|uirod 
to help him forward on hifi way hotnv, rather than 
Zephyni* : fur it was the Latter wini.l ibwt. riuiglit r.lK-m 
wh^^ii ihisy wiTo already on their pai»ca>*(s iiinl brua;;bt 
the hurricane in which the «bip wciit to pieces (Od. 
xii. 408]. 

Acconlingly, wi the Bosphonis is geo^mjkhicidly fixed, 
I place Thriiiaci© boEide it, and Scylla beeide Thrinacie. 

It will bu observed that, after allowance it- made for 
ti»i tnucli niifthing in the norlh coaM uf tlii< Fropoiitiv, 

L Th<thtJffia : the Outtr Ot&fftapky. 

tlie niouth of Sc-ylla will be at the }Joriit. from illicit n 
N,N,E, wind would liavc brnu^lil Ulywrt to the 
I)ardiLntfMi», uiid would thus hnvt^ jiliuW \\\m, Uy the 
shortest cut, nt the verv ^te of the .£g3Gan, and of 
the known mute to his liome, 

Thft Crinifft has »n iimrh the rharai*t<^r nf an »lan#J, 
and it** iouth-eaittTD face appears to be both in sconory 
and climate so delightful, while again its proximicj to 
the (*ccnii-tnoutb of the Odyssey is so stiitabic, that 
Wf iniglit Ik* tL'iTipled to consider it n* n^jinwrnring 
the abodft cf the Sirens, But il h con brg** for ono 
of HomtT'jt f^^oi. Pmbnldy, ttvi. the isle of Swrtna should 
lie fit) the direct route from JFjfvn to the Stmitst. 

IX. When oMt ofHt^ht oftho islnnd |4Cjt, tJte sh)| 
encounters a violent y^f^vpo^, and foundt-n*. UlyssW 
niountfl on a coiiplu of ^pars (4^4)- Iti one ni^ht Notos 
driAn him upon tbo |»ns8iige of Seylla and Charjbdii^ 
which lie traverses in safety (417-30,442-6), Jind then 
drifting on, appai-eutly witli the same wind, be rcachei^ 
on iho tenth dfiy, t!iG i^Jaiid of f'alypso, *Qyvyln vn^a^ 
(xii.447, S; xx!ii.333), which ih the 'V'l^^^of orcoiitml 
point of the 6aX(itr<ra fOd. l. 50] : that U to #ay wliich^ 
m ncnrly due north fiv>m Cre^c^, not only is conoeived 
to bo alike n>nnived fnjrii tht? sMi>|»o»ed eastern and 
w^Bteni Ocean, but also if not eqnidhitant, yet very 
HiHtfint. at alt pointfi from main laud* 

X. The next stage tfi Og-vgia is Kcberia. ^x*p*i (Od, 
VL 8), or till" yaitt 't'«ij)Ah»i' (Od. v. 345)- Leavhig Ogy^ 
g)k on his raft (v. 263 and »ori«].), he k(>ep« Aretos sol 
on hia right. And looking towanis bi« Kft band, till on 
iho eig:htcenth day (v. 278). br^ ^irrive*! in sight nf 
8cL<»ria. Neptiuie. coming op from unionET the Etbi- 
o^ijaiie, dia*ei'lie him nfhr, from the Solymsn mountJUDH 
(2IJ3]. Tbc »torm rii5CN and the raft U tossed in a 


I>irriction* ttml (tigtance$Jrvm ji^ra^ 



hurricane of all the w'tmh (293 and $31*0.), At length 
it fniinilent (^70) : iMUierva seiulA ;i hn*k Duivas. mid 
llie hpro <lrifts in Scheria, arriving 011 the thiitl day 
(381^8). UonuT jfircs to Schcria the immo otirttpot 
(Od, V. 34^,50): aiitl it docs not n|>!>ear clear that lie 
roTistiihTf-il it a« an iKlanil, At the wmo timp, tlio trrm 
^tj^of may mean tlio shore*: Hiul lU- wort] yniij inny 
bo iii^oil. hko Kprri ns y^i' ra-na^ for an island, if it bo 
Itreaanied ti) l>e ofextntonlinary ^i^. 

XI. 'I?-J*?. llic living fi[ii|i of the Pha-aclans leaves 
«o]iieuhat early in the day, after tho proiier riles; the 
goods Irnvtoj; \>txn Mosred at dayhivak (Od< xiii. t8, 
aiitl »c*c]f|.) Nu wind 'n natnerl ; but. ^ith a sfjeed 
moru rapid ihnn that of a havk, iho vt-wil, |in)|K-nLtd 
by *>oni, n-nt'hoH Ithnra before the luxt dnwii. Oih xiii< 
78. 86. 93-5. 

We haw Imvri'vcr siiU to cnii*idi.»r the diroclions aiid 
difllAnces of tho teiir, from Af^n onnai^?, on the way 

ilomcr jilainly inli>iidft to deM-nlte very nhoit paa»- 
Kfrufi, fin>: to the island of the Siren<3. next frem that 
idaiid to Scylla. and then from Scylla to tho landing 
en tl)o cciiist of Thriii.icit\ Tlev arc not dc'finc<l : bnt 
thoy h\ iin ini'aiiN<-cin-ev]u>nd uith lUr vrry ruiiMdvmhlo 
ca^mitrd t^rotch i>f the Eaxine from the llusphoms. 

It ban already been ol>^rrei| thnt Homer shcrlons 
tho casti-ni n-ct«s of tint Medilorrancan, and brirgs 
Kgyjit m^arly to the ^uthw^ni of Crete : and ihut tliiv 
1» port of a ^yfiteni of compn^on vrliich abbreviates 
aU the distances of hts Outer gi^'ography ctut^v&rd from 
Ijyc^iA, W'r \iti\r iiiiw rtiimi In aiTnthc-r ox.-iniph* of ihn 
ivcrking of tli)« idea hi hh mind: placing M^a ard 
the Sireiis w> near tht* Uo^jdiorus^ be plainly curtailt the 
eaftl«»rd Kii\tiie, lik« thi* eastvartl McdittTrainjiin. 


JJI. TAalds^: ffit Oui^r Ut^raj^hj/, 

Teu tlajrs floata;^ northwards frcrni Scylla woulii ^iYc 
us M 'Ji^tftnt't' <if noiirly five fmndmrl iiiil**?! in thai diR?*-- 
liori, up to thij point whvre vro should fix the Maiid of 

But froni O^jgia to within «g)it of Solierio, Ul 
oocuphtf dghteea inyn in vitilhig b\ raft: which will 
gm QB for tho wholo Oii<tant;c at sixty un\ee per diem, 
with an allowaii<:e of fiftv mil^^ aa ilie distance ftoTn 
whirh 1thar^& had hccorne viMble^about eleven hundred 
still thirt>' milos. We have nldo to cmi^kier the fitrthor, 
<)aestion, tiow fer Scheria is to be placed from Ithnca. 
We must reckon the time occupiwl bjr tliv luiwk<like 
tJu|i at nut k-fl« than «ute9n hour*; and wt* mrmot 
reckon tho distance below one hundred and eJ^if or 
iiiiiely inilc*«. llmH O^yy-jift ought to lie reckoned at 
fully lliirtf^Ti litiiidrcd friili-^i rniiri IthniM. La'Str/gunjft 
is, a» we have fuuiid, nearly sovi^nteen hundred from 
Itiiaca. And the site of Ugy^ia vil) Ijc n|ioa the point 
which in both at the dislaiice of five hundn^d miles 
fruni tlie HomE^ric or trau*i|)osed Scylla. aiirl of eleven 
hundred and thirty miles from the lloineric Scberia* 
This |»oiut wilh 1 think, lie A little to the we&t of the 
real sitfl of Kieir. 

Tbe actual diataiice from Itliaca to the middle |>oiut 
or Corfu may l>e about eighty miles. Corfu is »id to 
re&euble in ita natural features the Sebcria of llomcr. 
But if this be adiuittL^d, ue mu>4t reninvL' ihe «ili^ of 
the island in the direction of Dahnalia lo moro than 
dotibic ita real distaacc from ithziciu ho afl to vatiftfy 
the courlitions of the Phnracian voyagi.% It vrlll then 
Im> tie*r the |>oint where wv tiiAV, coiiHiiitently niib all 
the reprc6cntatioii-s of Ilonier cut olT Uie Orcek poniti- 
»ula, and subdtitiitL; for the nitrthward land the jffeal 
ti|iaeeii of his seoi. 

TtNtrg qfJIfit4iatu ami UfyMtit compartd. 

Tlie iblaiid of Ctt!yp*o, thus tleWrinined, will sftUsty 
ID n grc*at dcyrec llic contlttions of the »»<pa\oi doXacr- 
ct^. It may be nearly ^^uictbtaiit from J'V^a and tli« 
CimuKrjHii country in tbo Boutli-east, from i5cjUa In 
tbo eoutb^ and from tlio postiblo oxti>usiou of tbo Ctm- 
meriiin country to tic nartb. Townnls .Eolia and 
Lu^atrygtiiitH un Ebi? wfni tb«: ilUltihfrcN will iudi-ed be 
greater: but as among vory great dbtanceft Homer 
may naturally fail to maintain the c1o»o meaaurGincnts 
of ffmall OBoa. 

Tbin, 1b<*ii, we havQ brougbt Ulysses licme ; ajid 
now let uf* ]>rocoed to examine tbe undeveloped, but 
still ratiitr ciiriouf, rclatioi^ between tlic toura of the 
two €bieflainN tly>»c» And Metiolnus 

The reader* of Dante will recollect with wbat coni- 
j>1ex )kroei»Jon, nw a |Kietical Architect, bo ba^ aotiinlly, 
for the pnrpo0e«< of bi^ work, built an l'niT«T«o of Hell. 
Purgntorj, sad Par^ttli?^*. Iwery line of bis |K>eni bas 
a determinate roUtioii to a certain |koint in space, lixetl 
in his own mind ; Uit wbetber every such point be fixfiil 
or not in »ati:r« H no more luatenaL tbaii if it were 
«imply one to be determined by axes of ecordmates. 
Intricate a* the labric is, thin groat brother of Homer 
in bid art never for a moment let£ drop tbo thread 
of bb bdiyrintb^ bat boldu it htoadily from the liegii^ 
niog of tl^e £r«t canto to ibe end of the hundredth. 
Ilonieri compositg for a younger world, bod to deal 
with all ideas wbatAoever in hinipleL- fonnit; but, 1 
Uiiok, it i)» diseeraible tbat lu bis way lie» too, nia«l^ 
a syBtematjc dii^ributioa of tTic Out^tr Earth, as he bad 
rather Tamely conceived it in hi:* teoniifig imagumtion. 

W'v are apt txf forgi'l, fnini ]\w t onijjaraLivtdy ruiq* 
mary maimer iu which ibe i^ubjeet i^ dismissed by the 
Poet, that the voyages aiid travcU of Menelaue occupy 


J 1 1. 'I'haioMa : rU Otttrr Vtograj^, 

a tii»e almost m lori^ n« clioi*c of Ulywcs. He hat but 
riirontiv ri>lum*'<l, aijs Nestnr to Telemacluis. in ihe 
last year of bis fathers waudorJng»': and Menelaus 
liimBi<lf Htatos tlmt he camo homo onljr in Ihe eighth 
year after tlio capture of 'rmj-'*. And &3 m point 
of time. «vo likewisL' tliey are gpogra|»hicalljr in cor- 
re=:[K}DcIeiice. To MeneUiii^ Il^iiier line <;ir^[i, in out- 
line, the southern worid from (^a^t to west* and to 
UljswTB, in detail, Uii* nortfifni worhl fnini vrc*t to 
viiv^t. tt Ih inio that Ik^ niiulo UIjmca lM*^fn liia 
Wandering, properly t*o culled, with ibo Lotopha^i hi 
Africa: but thia ih because it was neoe^tarj to thntiv 
liim at Mnli^t, liy Honit^ wiili? nml im?coverable devistJoil, 
off hiM ronte to Ithaca. So Meuelaus loees his course at 
tliG very aainc entical pniiit, ibc Malcan Promontory*. 
Then tho tvro strike off to the opposite ends of the dift- 
ni^tcrr: Mi-ntdans to CrL*te, for Cyprint, PliuL^niciB, ani] 
Ej»_vp!, in tlienoiith-oast; VlysftoK to Africa, for tboCycIo- 
|K.'9>.lxrlia, aru] La-str}p>iiin, in tin? nortb-'A-c»L Again, 
Menelaiis visits Liliya to the we<4tMan), viliere, U will 
be remembered, he is to find Uis homo nfler death la 
tjjo Ely^iaii til-Ids. Tho countcrp&H of this Is in the 
eastward movcmeut of Ulysses along a northern xoiie 
U* thu U\tfi of Circv, and in hist v\%\t lu tim Sliados. 
Again, It i« Phoenicia, nhieh in the soutli-eagc forms 
a fciml of botntdnry line iK-tween tho knuvh^n and the 
unknown wnrhi, Ac4*onlingIy Homer has given «h ait 
IdealiKed Phoenicia on the north-western line. Perhap* 
only (lartittl, hut Btiti p^feetly real, re8emblanc4*s of 
character ca^tablisb a poetical relation between the 
<Poinxtv aiid tiic <^<J/l^l^*t, Olhcr |wrt9 of the Pbaraciau 
cEiameler ml^lil seem to havo been borrowed from the 
Egyptians. No one, I think, can doubt that Homer 
C CM< ill 3t9. h oa iv. |f», t w. iii. aU-^o. 

T0ur9 ^Mentiav4 and Ut^*M4 coMpartd, 63S 

li&il tlio Phor^nidftnx to sonw extent in )ii# inlml, u'hon 
he invented the I'hicaciAns. Hat lie Im^ givtn n^ 
ni]'>ilii*r MvdioKigiral higii of tliH roMDei'liiiii. Thn 
<I>ojVurtft stand in evident connection with 2^1-^/17^. Who 
but they coulii give tliat nnmo to tlie island where 
Euninriis was born ? an island with wlucU \vc see tlicm 
to have been in rclationji Ijj a double token ; the firBt, 
& Phoenician slnve carried thitlier by die Tapbianv ; and 
the second, liiimtciis as a boy earned oft' tlieitcc by the 
Pliceiiii-ians ^bo lind piiid it a viiiit \«ith a car^ro f>f 
fine gofjde^ Tli(3 island of '^c/>fV ly^n^ iiorih'^ost 
from Chto^ probably owed il» tttio to tbc same 
Bonrce : jT not alAii 2^;j^^fjr, coirnjitcd fmtn ^po'r. 
Surely llion, like 4>aiV'r from ^Wciwf, sci Homer made 
ZxV'7 fr*^"' -*'p<V It bein^r alwaiys remembered that 
Schcrin tfl for Homer, like J'hortiiciitt a niarittnie Innd. 
It \h nowliei'ti cralled an inland ; frnin uhirh we know, 
that Homer eiclw?r Ixjlievcd it to W. utrai-hed to thft 
continent, or to form, like Crete', contiiunt of itself. 
Tiie Krcmbi of Menelaus are i^enerall^ understood 
to bu the Arabbns, The il^thlopes uhont he nl»o 
TiflitSt extend from the extreme ea^t to the furthest 

*■ Oil, IT. 4C7- Much diffV> is taeAn about LTitr jilirMt^ i0i 

CnJty h«t boMi reifto^l iiJ>o«t iKm rpmru* v'^iwn^ wLii'l* U iBl(T|i!rcit^it 

Su^iT : v^ WimhI till T{viiJtr, jH". hh i^rinTTlmiM; Jhr juMiIh^il rdii- 

y-i6i but wrtlj witbc/iit iiC<d. tivrlj- to lioJ<* I know utttwh/ 

W<^ Inv? no vc«aflli>a to tnuifllate 
bM tlt^fluacbcohnxia rv«pcctto 

Eaovi £(» ifnnJtOEin^ uiJ ttifl 
voulil comifwnd v!ih lh« ifW 
of 2v^pfi< b!i the prcvtuliuj* viiid 
ctltlic <K^nn- AiiotW <llfflvulty 

tJiIn hIiuuM cimfililiitc o ilrHciJt/ 
ne nil, if ^jT-om U t<> iIk* VYat 
iin<t norlli of IhtloiL But thnm 
vftulil W no difficuity. <rv«a if 
D<*]oK Wcm* wr<t of S^H : for 
tht' wordft tf» Tj>[iirnS fiA/*io may 
npply f{r&Tniiibti«tly to ^tlipr of 
the tiTu bimnth M viewed Urton 
tl»e ot>ii*r, 

■ Oti. lis. 173. 


ML TfHttttfMt : tht Outrr Ott^rttp^tf. 

VTf^i of the Mirfftp*? of the earth ; nnd ih^v possUJy m«j 
hfiTG a eomiterpftrt in the Cimnionanfi of tlie north. In 
the aamc sone vnth the .'Kthiopee, on the horder<i of 
Ooeou to the south, a |iA*KAge of the Iliad places the 
'it'Sfy4^ Ih-y/mim"*, H^rodotii^ »tip|>orts Homer in this, 
ns in moBt ntht^r particulars. And the rcscarchee of the 
most recent travellers ntifltaiii the arocrtlcm of tht«c 
twn olrl i>thiiulugi«ti« of Grt^v, that lliwre an; ilvkfiuft-il 
ruces in the Intonor of Africa, ac^essdhlo from Egypt- 

TbtIe^ then, it would appear in ^^neral that the 
voyage and travels of Menelaus, toother with those of 
Ulymes, including in the former hi» final paseagv^ to 
Elyviiitm, cover the entire snHticc of tlie earth, »<uch i^ 
Homer IiaiI conceived it. This, however can onl;r he 
taken generally, and Telh^ ua little of ii%hat llotner 
thought cnncerning the actual fonn of 1)k* earth's 
suririce. while it loaves untonohed various (|uei4tioiiB 
rcganling its dbtributioii in detail. AVith some of 
thffso let u» now endrnvonr to AeaV 

And fir^t, what wo^ Homor's h*dief concerning tho 
ftmn of tho earth ? 

The imsHtge t)f ihr. [>ooTn!( whiirh hears most directly 
ii|M>n the solution of this <juestion is that which <!e- 
Bcribee tho Shield of Achillee. We here learn that, in 
finisbiiTg his work. Vulcan gave it the ^reot Ri\cr 
Ocean for a horder'^. From (Ins It follows conrhmindr, 
that the form of the Shield was that which Komer 
also conceived to be nearest to the form of the siirfncc 
of the Earth. 

Th;; i|Ut*lJon thiTi ariHes^ what was tlw form of the 
Shields treated of hy Homer ? And it is one not eos; 
to answer. Homer compares the light of this very 
Shleli) of Arrhilles in a subsequent passage to that of 

" t!, iu-3-6, *^ ri xTiii.«oy. 

Eisrili i>/ HtMit*rt^ jn^ubalflff ovui* 


the nionii^: bnC he? 6oe^ not sa/ tlip Tiill rmoiu nmi 
tbe tnoini t!i 0L>rtuiii sLagi^v miffht su^'j^cM thu oval, 
allliough wlicii Tull it woald require tlii; cirtmJnr tiljnjic. 
The e|nthet6 vrlitcli he u»eA do not solve the question: 
forfroini? of them npjfear to agree better wiili the ow 
«a|i|kosit]oii, RMd tome with the other. The a^nriv 
i^^ffporij. for instance, tn Ih xi. 33, Sug^t^ & sha|K9 
adapted iu a great degree to that of the bumaii fotni. 
The iroSrtifK'^r cf II, XV, 64^ appear** ntMohitt'ly to ru- 
(]uire it. Xo eir^utar &hir)d, vhhrh rt^nehcd down 10 
tlie feet, ct>uld have been carried on the ann. BtiU on 
the othitr hnikd. HoTiier i-aIN Lhi; Hhii-hl eS^KvieXnt^ niid 
Tovroerc Jfrij, which eeriajiily at first sipht fiivotir lh<» 
idea of a circular form. Z^hall wc theti supfio^e that 
both fonns ^trevailed? And if ao, wbxeh of the two 
fthall we auign to the Shield of Achilles t 

It appenns that in Iho njihtarv «j»tcm of historic 
Ureeee the rournl shield chicfl/ prevailed; but for tbe 
time of Ilotiti=?r I cannot hrip h'tttilrig to the MippoiK 
tion tliat tlio Sliiehl nna oTid. For I do not inow any 
eKpMeit tertinioiiy, with respect to its primitive fotDi, 
that can wei^b a^inst the lines of T/rtu:uai ; 

dinrAov fVP«^r}v )^<rT^l voAii^i^t^f. 
Another Mmng testimonj to the mme cffiwt in home 
by ihe ancient eiiftloiii uf beaHng the dejul wiLrrior 
nj^n his shield, utence came the old formula of tbe 
>Sp&rtan tnothem, i r^r, i ivi t4v ; Bring it, or be 
brought upon it*. 

With rvf|wet to tbe ilomeric epithets, it t» iin])06- 
sible to rcooDcile thowi which Inrour tt^e obloi^ form 

"llxb. 374. pTLv. 43J. * FTot. tAom. fiutit. (0pp. 
fl T>Tl ii. 24. Alto XtitUoS. vi. «98.) nl. K^jak* ; Foltcr'a 
GrvM. Qntk. Antb). B ill vikir. 


III, ThaioMa: lA# Ouf«i- Qtofftuplrw^ 

with iho rivfti wTwe : but ihe -royrw tiri nii^liC J^pply 
to fLiiy ro^nlnr ttgurc, and the «vfl:i«rXof is iioj'ill^ stminctt 
If vrv iiikclcrnitjini) il of lui ovxl |irrtly n^gnliiHv fonued* 

To a cvilaiii extent, the nnttiral fonw of tlic liidea 
of animalrd a^ords m\ indication; tlief ^'ctq wora «a 
cloaks coming dowo to the lioels, and they would |>ro- 
perlj" cut iTito tlii^ (iMoiig fornix Again, in the oxpn^** 
eiou ira«cc tmKti' 7efii>$f\v^vai\ I nntU'i^UttcI tho opitliet 
Co mcAD tbat the ntiicldit wero rested on the gn>tii)<l in 
frfoit of tilt? h(*aror* of tlirm. Tin' nievning com* 
mon to It, In cUo three p1ae4>a ^vhere Horner wieft it, 
eeenifi to \ic * fri>ni the ground,' or * fro&i tbe Un$e.' 

It VQuld not be MatisTactorr to assume that the tn^o 
fomifi pruvaiW. but ihnt they hniT, though dilferent, 
b^9u confoniidc^l by Ilomor; and oii tlie vrholQ we 
shall pcrliaps do ho^t to conBidcr tbc t^ko^ as an oval. 

It follovrs that »iich ^TW, hi Homer's estimation, the 
fbrm of tho \^<irh1. Ai;il ihh iiiUT[iretatioii iij;re«s with 
tbo otbor UoiTuric hidk-atioitn on tho Hubjcct. 

We mnat, 1 think, take Homer to liavc Kipposed 
fiom^thing likf an itjuul exU^iMtm irf the earth noHh- 
ward aad soiuhward from Crvece. Bui, whether w« 
judj^o from the Touts of the Odyssey or from the ^ne- 
ml indicntiona of tfae poeIn^ we have, I think, no ^tgn 
of an exteitsinn correspondingly j^real either enstn^rd 
or westward. The flij^bte of mi^mlory hirxl^, and the 
prcvaijini; winds, arc both evidently from tlw polca or 
fR>ni (hv ijinLrlerH ticar thi*iTi. The only grt*ul jin^idvi* 
dovelupmontH of dlutanec in tho OdyitM^y are tho«0 
towards Lieetry^nia and O^y^a, bipth of vrhieh lie in 
the north ; the latter, a^ an otitJMiXQt, with a aea htretoh- 
ing far beyond il. All appearances, too, go to whnw 
that the Eastern Ocean waa in Hoiiier'e rlow at no 

• 11 X. 34, ijs. 

" {]. liiL MO. ix. ^•j. X. i.v 

PviitU t^naUiif't Ai'iVA Oceattu*. 


tbe Wo^(4-ni ikiii* UK U'iiig on liij* mnp nlHitU t^^joally 
remote from Gnieee. Now the oval H^ure vill f^YQ 
us wbnt ae tliuri appear to want* namely a th'>rtcr 
ilirUTwkT f>f t\w earth fmm rtwt. l<i w^tjils tlian Uie 
dbuiert^r fi^tihi iiorih to nrmili. .Some otiier pariiailars 
of ovidcneo will np|jear as we proceed. 

la confonnity with lii* (Icclarntinn, ttial tlic Ocean- 
Krcv surroumls tite t^rtli* hv iu» it wen; n-nlix4*:i hi% 
belitif ill it, hy givrii^ uft lii»laii(*e^ of aclual conlai-t 
irith it at very many poiitte of the ooTijpass. Thua tho 
l*iymiea in tbe South are visited by the cranes, on their 
way to the Ocenn hi thu Souths The guilfi fi'<t«t with 
tba Etljiopiantt hy the Oct^aii, and t1ii»i iniit^t b^- In thu 
S. E., 4sXo|:itiinc taki-s the Solyman niountairiit (which 
are in immcdmiv nMociation with Lyci.1, a |t<jiiit of the 
hmer worldl on hi^ vay back lo the TfiGitit^sa^. UKb- 
Ke iiisit^ Occ^u, as we have seett, in tbt^ East. The 
Gruac Boar OBCGpos dipping into its waters in the 
North\ Mcnclaus is destined to the l^lysinn plain 
b^«uln iJLe OcN-jLii, Ht t1i4> point from whW'h Ztjjihyr 
hlows, ihcrofon? UcjIwvcii Wtst aiid Norths 

Tliib x\€)h\e ciinccplion ofa grcnt clrctimflaent Ktver 
woA doubtleits founJed tipon reports of two claaaee 
which had reiichiil ricnier. On4» cIhfm woaht 1k< n.*- 
porti of #troam« flowing from Mjnio grcnt otif^r water 
iJito tljo 7%4/m^E7, lujd ^eeniiiig to feed it. Tlic otliicr 
dutt uiigbt 1m4 fiiniied hy repitrts of waters ouididc tbo 
Thataxsa^ »nd not known tn citninninicnti* wirli it, 
which ilomiT would al onev very niitiiraJly rvckon ae 
portjoiu of his gn.*ftt world-embracing ^Stream, Witli 
tlie former claw we have already dtidt hirgely in db< 

• n fii. $, « II vxiri lofi. i 4J3. Od. v. iti, 3. 

■ Qd. V. »J5. 11. iviii. 484. T Od IT, 561-9. 



UJ. TlaftMM: Ihf Onitr ^K^rmpAp. 

CU89ing tlio OceAii*inoiitli. To the latter od€. Pho-yi* 
fiiati Hailora iiiigliL iTOtitrthuLe ru|>ort« of llie AUaiitic 
and Germaii Oceans, And pankularlr in the ea&t^ I 
think, wc ooiniot itoubt tbat» alonfr ^itli tlio nimoun 
un<l tmditiiriis of Arabians Ethiopian?, PciBiaiiS. Mid 
Oimnti-rtuiiA, lltMiLi^r rjiiiiiut liiit liavv n"('triveil oilier 
vague nifuonra of watem am wt>II ns lands ; of waters 
oxlcrior to Ilia Thatnina (which indudod Iho Mcditorra- 
Deau and lUc Euxinc), watciB of wlijch two would clearly 
bcf i\w Cystgiifiij Si-'X, anil t)io Pemaii Gnlf. Oii lliesa 
tvro [ wish to Sac nttoijtioD ; and irulcKKi the onljr other 
wator be wa^ likely to Imvc heard of woidd probably 
be the Red 8ea. Now it will be observed upon any 
nni]>, t. thtit tbe Caii|iiau lit*^ tiortb and Heoib ; 2- ^.Imt 
a liiio jirolonged from N. to S. down cbe Caspian will 
strike the EVrsnan (iulf. In conjiinclion with thia, let 
the reader tthsei-ve tht? eoursrt uf rivw«?fi. Qnilxing 
the Euscine at the Ocean-moutb» or Stmits of Yeuikal^, 
be turnfi round to tLo v\»hx by iho 5>on of Azof^ en- 
largos] »o ^ to join the CLspian. In the interi&l be- 
tween tboin tberti in ^Jll a low srdr valley* which may 
In Ifomers time have been n wiiter<wiiy^. llo i« thus 
in a condition to proceed southward towards the dwell- 
in)f of rcrwi>Iionc, which I have already shown some 
c«ii»<.' fi>r|iWiiig in the eaist and to the M>otli. Xow tlie 
poTiHton of wind, which Homer lia^ nindo for liia boro, 
is precisely that wUicb this ]i>{K>thcsifl nK|uircs': 

In other wnnK from HonierV u^ of Boreas in thU 
place it appears tltat he nieeint to describe the eouiM 
of his Occmu-etream at thia quarter as from sontb to 
north, or thi^rrv^nbonts ; and this is thu line actually 
formed by the junction of the Persian gulf and the 

r Voj»gf»d« hillufl, vaLi jj.3ao, I^ri* 1805. » 0e1,x,5O7^ 

n« t%upian tSM and }*^nian Onif. 330 

CstfpiaD, wlilcb f ftubmit that vr« may ne«ord1ng1y wUb 
propriety coneidcr as genuine fra^uiCDt^^ of geography, 
ifieorpomtvil iulo Ins fabulous conception of thcOccau* 

li H fn^€«d tnio that the \'ftg:[]ft aecoiinta. wliicb !ia<! 
probably rt^acbed Homer of those two watere, must be 
supposed not to bave iiicluJed thp indispensable element 
of N current' Tliy same rpinark^ liowpvi>r. will apply 
to wliatovcr lie n^ay ba^o board of the Oermati or At- 
lantic Oceana. Hut in dealing with those ebadowr 
distancen, lits inference! would be aiuply warranted. 
uiiLliout lUe iiirans of tijinphso IdrnlificatioTi, rf b<» litui 
beard of any u-acer» in poftitions agrc^ein^ with that of 
bia ideal Ocoaii, ca|mhle of ooniniunicatin^ easily witli 
ita nsmith, and, above all* indef>endent of the TfuJas^, 

One word before wo finally qojt the? subject »r \\w 
eneliantifd Rivor; in oM*'r lo complete tlic chain of 
cODucctioH iH'twccn the Pcwcplionc ef Homer aod the 
waters of il»e Persian gidf, in tbo id>aracier of a part 
of Ocean, at thac point upon the beach, u-liicit so well 
balaiwov the Ely^ian plain in the west> 

I IWTL- already endeavoured to make n»e of tins 
nameft Fcr»cii8, IVrsc, and IVrw*phoTK% aft evidencea 
which attach the Perfilaiu to ihe eastern extremity of 
Homer's ideal world, and which comtect the Greek 
race with a Persian origin. But here wc haic a g«>* 
grapliicRl trait, which di-KL-rvefi further con^idtiratioD. 
The j^vo8 of Prrgephono aro on the shore of Ocean, 
\u the eftst, and to the soulh of the b-|]nns9. What is 
the meaning of these grove*? We arc compelled, by 
unvarying nnalogkn of signiliration, to undrrvtnnd Lhein 
as both the syoiht^la and the fti<e< of a certain organised 
worship, which was paid to Pen^ephone, IJiit if paid, 
t1;on paid by whom I Certainly not by the i^atiuus of 


111. ThahiMn: tht Outer C^^rnr/^y 

the tlvad : for llie yhvb, wliore tliew groves wx^w, wiW 
luit vitliiii the kingdom of tlic ^odclee?, but it vtaa ^ii 
tile sliore of Oi^eait, iriy>dHes ton, was to haul u]i his 
*lii|> tlivre, mill oiifv tlicii to ontvr into lli*» nlwitlw of 
king Aidoncu^ II tlicrt'foru st*c»J» to folio*, that th(j 
Poet meatit ii» t<i itoilei><tniir1 tliin as a plivce wlierc 
PerspplioTie w»fl habititallv u'or^lii|>|ied hj n |tor(ioi) of 
the hiiQinn raoe, whiHi couhl nnly be liit; Pcmiai^M or 
bia Glhto|>ians, I do not tay that the two were h^har;>lr 
ftov€n-d in Iiim miitd ; tmt hcrv (be ni^c to nbicb lie 
cliiefiy |Kiinif* appenri to l*e the P^-rniau nice*. 

TLero ar« even etymological sigiia, in<IepeiidGnt of 
Homer, which deepen tUe dssaeiation between the East 
imd the Uiider-M'oih.l, Somi> writers Imve com|iared 
ihe itftmo Cinimeiia niib tbi? Arabic woni i-ahm, 
blaek, mid ra, the mark of tbo obiij|iie ra^ in Persian : 
MjfotiH n'ith the I lelinw Mnwetli, iDeniitJig death ; ani 
have trt-itti«l lb*? anrinit TarLirus aa r?(|i]ivaleot to ibe 
modem TarUry, and as formed by the reduplication of 
Tnr, hi Tarik. the Pcr«i<; ^vord for darkness^'. 

Next let me wiiul tip whnt relates to the conlractioo 
ami compression of tlif? )ii)iiii-.rirT KauL 

Hortn^r* experie»ee did not supply him wilh any ex- 
ample of u grcLi vxpao»o of land : but the detail aud 
con figt] rat ion of the eountricw. nith which he v*»t ac- 
ipjiuiiti>d, vf:irt irihiiiti'. Tills |iio1jrd>ly ufiK ihn musoii 
why he ^o readily spumed th*.* existetiee of ihat seA 
to the iiorthwtiTd of Tlimce, in %^'bich he Ims placed 
the advtMiture^ of llyssca. To that soa, as wp pereeire 
front rhct li-rm^ of ilny:* vrhti-li hi? Im« KWJj^ned to th(» 
paoaagcs of Ulyaaofi, he attached hh Ideaii ari^I hi* epl- 
thetft for vflftncds ; epithcte. which he never bdfitowed 

ft OiL K. 508-1*. T'^7.'i'7*» ^* BJpok* PcniMti 

> WfbfuriLfMi Engl, tAiiKiiagr. Voortliiilarv, (GmmmiiT, ^170) 

itraHt^>n t^fth* flomtrie ^iwfi 

on regioiiE of lan<l: and ideas, wliich wcro snre, indeed, 
to form a prominent fi.-abiro ia the rhwniciaa re[iort«. 
t[i»l iniiKt li^ivir Hi]|i]ilirJ htm whh iiinlfTiul. Artlng 
on ttic mmo principle, It wouVd njijienr that lie gmally 
&hort«iis the ran^ of Aeia Minor ciifit^rards. Through 
the nnxliuni of tlic Solymi {l\. n. 184. 104) bo apitcnn 
to hrUig the Noljrrmn muiuiUiiiis vhrn; u\um livria, A 
ebaiD now bearinj^ thiit nnmu ulciru dio Hglic bafik cf 
tbelndtiii: but it is probable that Homer identified, 
nr rwtlier confi>und*'d, tbtmi wirli tlio great rbaiii of tbe 
Caucasus betneeii the nnxrnt> nrirl tlie Ca«ipiaii. &tid 
wJtU the Taurus joining it. and bon!9nnj* upon Lycia : 
for^ OD the one hand, ve cannot but connect them 
witb tho Siilymi, Uip wariiki^ neigbbfjun* of the T.voi* 
aii«: and nn the other, «ineo Nt*ptun4^, IVoni these 
mountair», seen Ulvi^es making bia homeward voj'a^ 
fVom O^gia, it follawa that they mu^t have be<?ii roti* 
eeiwd by IToTner tn eonnnand a cltsir tiew nf Mte 
Enxine. nrd of its vref^tward oxlension. ThuH he at onee 
l>ririg« Bg>pt nearer to Crete (hvlping ud to explain 
tlie IJoreaj* of CW. xiv, ^53), mkI Pliwiiim nvairor to 
Ljrcia; ami it w in all likelibood immediaU'ly l>thind 
Phcv^nicia that be itnapfined to lie the eoimtry of ilio 
Pcr»ian» and tho a\7r>u Ilr/^rci^ofriV (Od. x> 507), on 
the sliore of that c«*tcni poTtion i>f Oci^mu^s for whirli 
the reixift* both of the Cas^pian and of the I*<?H Sen, 
probal>ly, as we have teen, have fonued partn of hist 
materials. Ttius we fiuJ much and varied evidence con- 
verging tn support t)>e Itypotherif, ttml Ilumer groatJy 
eonipresMrd his Ka^t* and i>n>nght Per&ia nitbhi moiU^ 
rate dlitanee of tiie Mediterranean. 

iln the obvcurc pcr*|>cctivefl* of Grecian legendr wc 
•eeni to find various points of contact between l^gv|>t* 

S4!£ III. Thatavnt : fie Outer Gto^aphy. 

inr.i favonn tin; ulea UiaC PeniA Anil Plicrairia were 
closely nsiiocmted in Homer's uiiud. 

Proteua, a Phoenician sea-jjod. is placed ddIv at ft 
fbort dif>tQncc from the E^'rptiau coci«t, Hclh 
vlmiiglir fi-isociAtrd ^«illi I'>g>'|>t tliruiigli bt8 oxeii» lo 
lUModatoil with Plio'tilrlu mid with tlit- r«' east 
by his rclationahiji to Circe, and hy hie residence, ll»e 
ayroAa! 'UMott?. AiicJ ft^ain* from tlic fiimily of Da- 
iiuiiv, u n'|iutf?d Kgjptiim, (l<?*cciidH IVr*en*. in wh< 
name w*? find h imto uf relationship between llie 
Pereiaii8 aiid tlie Oreeks. Lyein^ loo, is near the So- 
lymi, ard the Solynian hiJIa arc really Persian. Here 
11 u ijcw my nf li^ht cup^t on HotnerV [ni^^ioii fur tbe 
Lyeiaiw of th<? Wnr^. 

A fijw wordf* more will siiflleo to complete n probable 
vietv of th» terrefitrtal aystcm of Homer. 

The Ocean snmmnds the eartli. On its Houtti-easteni 
lieach are the ^rove** of Persephone, and tho descent 
to tlic 81iodc»: an it^ mirth -western, %hc Elyslan plain. 
The wholo ftontheni range between i« occupied by tho 
A*0ioiFcf, ^l)o HtreLid) fn>in the rising b.> thi? Hetliiig 
•un*^. The natural counterpart in tho cold north U^ 
their eun-btirijt swarthy faces is to le found in t1 
('imnierinti^ Homer's Children of the Misl^ Accord- 
ingly, they are jihitT'd by Ltie Ocean mouth, hard by tW 
i&land of Circ4* ami tlio Dawn ; nearly In contact, thi 
foro» wiMi the Ktbiopiaus of the extreme east. Tvti 
liypiitheHe« necm to be suggested by Homer's Ireot- 
meiit of iht^ north. Perhaps Homer jmaginod that 
the Cirnmeriaiiii ocenpiecl the uorthcnt portion of the 
earth from cmt in wcft, m the Kthiof^ans occupied 
i1m> «nuLlvem : a very appropriAtt; ronjeiHtjre f(»r ibi- Ahh 
posal of the century froin the Crimea to the CvnorK 
^ Bee Aclutin. «c?l. iii * Otl t. 24. ^ Od- XL ■& 

In the other tiaiKl, it Rc^em^ plain tbat Ilonier tuitst 
bavo TDceivefl from bis PhtrTiician infonuatits two re- 
ports, both ascribed to tlic Nortb, yot a|)parciitljr con- 
tmdictorj : the one of rouiitiie* ^vithoul <Uy. the otlier 
of ocutitri^ witliout night. Tlio true solution, eouM 
h« have kuour it. wiis by time; each being trtie of 
the ttme place, but at diUcrcut eeaaone of thv year 
Nflt aware of the facts. Homer liaa adopter) another 
mettiod. While prei(i*rving the northern locality for 
both trfulitiotm, ho ha:* plimtod tlie oiio in tho north- 
west, at the craggy city of Jiamuei: aiul (he olhor in 
tW north*east, together wilh his Cuiimeiians. 

On th<? foundation of the conclu«ioni» aiid inferences 
at \Tbich vi} havo thus arrivotl, I liavo endeavoured to 
construct a map of the; Homeric World. The materials 
of thia map Arc? of iir*eoKNity very diflerenL F^nU there 
h the inner or Greek world of geography proper, of 
which tho surface h coloured in red. 

Ncjki, there arc certaic forms of sea and land, ge- 
nuiae» hut wholly or [mrtiaUy mtKplacod, which mav be 
reoognised by tboir genornl likenosa to their originalJ> 
in Nature^ 

Thirdly, there is the great maaa of fabuloua and ima- 
ginative ikiagraphy, which, for tho sake of distinclioo, 
b drawn in emooth instced of indented ontlino. 

The Map represents, without any Tory important 
varintion, tho Homeric World dmwii arnfmling to the 
foregoing argimont. To facilitate Toriflcatlon, or tho 
detection of gitot, I have made it carry, aa ^ as poa- 
sible» its own erideneea. iu the inscriptions and refer* 
enccB upon it. 



Is former iturtiunii of thin vork. I bavc* ai^gu^d from tlie 
nunc iinil die Pliti^ii^iiLu c^itHTLuil^ion nf Mtnw, bulh to illu*- 
trato tlio dependent jXHiilloii of the Pelaagijau taco jii the Groek 
countritt^ ftiid aW) to il^rnionstratc the I^banician c>rigin of the. 
Outer Geography of tho Odjuoy'*. Uiit f have too »uinmariljr 
JiBpoBod of tho ii[i|>vrtant question, vrhvtiier Mijioe jras of ?bas 
moifta uriginf and of tho ponamiction <:if tho verso U. xit. %zt, 
Thii Torio u capAbl^ gniiiiiiutloally of heifts; so construed m 
to contain an assenlon of it: but up(>n further oonsideratii^n 
I am uot jircpiired to muintain that it ought to be «o iiw 

Thti Aleximdrijtn cribic-s suiTiiiinrily c^nrnlrnirml thi? wtuili; 
p&vwge (IL jLiv.317-27), in vhi<:h JiipLtcr lIcLijU to Jttno Ijlh 
vftrioiui nff^rs irilh goddosAce and vomcni 'This oauncrn- 
tion,' sayB tJie SchoUa^t (A) on vor^e 517, ■ is inopp<frtuno, for 
it rathor ropclw Juno ibnn ntuncla hor: and Jupjtt*i\ yihen 
gre<fdy, llu-ough tb« intlnence of the CoRlua, for tho wuldaic- 
doD of his passion, mak^ii a Icng harauj^iie.' Heyne follom 
up the teiifturo with n jet more «woepiiig <ioad9[ii[ialii>ii. &rn^ 
aivaixliorat ^witn has deonn ifirntSt vtx nm^ttant nlliut cvf*>- 
ntentug e^t r/mjuodiu". And yti h« adda a f^iuuUratioii, 

* Acbaw or Kthmjlogy, nect. iii. 

t aw, «ct I*. 

fhvitiJnemMir tiflL wr. $ij^'. 



twuin^i For hr^ «>>< that Uic commc-iiUion upoai tkcm 
otLifht (0 J)4iY« i«keu notice thai iht do«criptioA bolonga Lo « 
period, wbvu tbc roUtioua tif man nnri wii« voto not micli, u to 
provCRt Cliv u[M'ii iiilratfuiiiod And pArfldiiij; of ironcul>in>C4 ; und 
Ihat Jiino iRij^ht bo tljitterej jinj alhrt^U br n dc^slnrfttioii, pr<^ 
cDodiag frum Jupaivr, uf tliv ftU|i0norlcy of her charma lo ihow 
of K<i mniiT httAiitifiil {ber>^n>i 

his luidtorjtj' : but llitTrv ar*^ t>tJicn- grniiitilK mIao, [>n nfiiclj I ile- 
cline to bovr Co cho propoted cJici«ion. The Dt>jiM:tion*i Uken 
sctiiii to mc iiiTAlid on the foUoiriDg grounds; 
J. For tho r«(uon »tiktcd bv lIcjDc, 

2. £«vaijAd, id tliu nlrok' rhar^icKr of tho Uomeric Juno, and 
ia the tvholtr of' tliu prooooding, it i« iho political »]^r]t, and not 
tho Amranl t«iidea<7, ch^t predoiiuiiftl«ii. Of tiii» Uomer hut 
f^vcxi iu djMinf^ nAriiiiig. wh«re ko toZU o« tlial Juno jwt 
before liAj) T'inh<«l on inpic^r iVom ftTarn 3uid that bo «ru 
dltg;u§lili)[ Id lier ; (v. 158) irrvy^p^ ti ol /t:A«ti> ifc/iijj. It U 
tlwrribrt; fuUlo to nrguo aIkwI her, aA if hIji* h^d Won under 
tho pArmmouDt snaj oitlior uf A&imai dcaire. or ei'Cia of Uie 
femiiune low of ftdounition, vhcn Ait wna really and f^idu- 
«iToJ^ gorcroeJ \>y mioihur toutor-piuftion. 

3. As abc hu oilfully p«r«wid«d Jupiter, Uiat li« ba« on 
obttoelo to otiiroamo in diinerttn^^ hor fronj kcr intonlion of 
tnTolfiai^ to a dntanco, it i* not At aII cianatanil tJuc Jvpitcr 
«bould nso ^vhut ho thinks, uid wliai, ha Ho/ne hu ittomi, bo 
mftyjiuillf lldnk, l<i bi< proper mid ijiooulI niu4ii> ot pomu^ 

4. The p«mgo ii «arduUy and hkilfuUy couipoood; and it 
ecidft vfUk 4 clim&:c. w lU to giic thr groiitcnt foroo to th» oom* 
pLTmcnt of wliich it n ^scqvtibto. 

j. All tho reproMtitaUona in it liju-uioiiiuc with Iho ruurtnor of 
luudlinf^ tho iiirnr pr^rM>iup» oltcivliciro in Ilomo*. 

6. 1'ho pascigfi hu tliat Mronf* votn of nsiionality. whkh u 
iM> cmtneiatly elumutoriAlio of llomor. No tntrigun aro nton- 
tioniNJ, iTKoppi ftiirli a* iwii«d in ibe hirtH nf children of rooig- 
niud Hvttvnii- fjuiio. The pi>tt AniiaaliMii of Jtipit«r,dHpUyoJ 

346 Sense of IL :l\\.^21. 

in the Speech, is in the strictest keeping with the entire con- 
text ; for it IB the baaie of the transactioii, and gives Jnno th9 
opportuDLty she bo adroitly turns to account. 

7. Those, who reject the passage as spurious, because the 
ftctioQ ought not at this point to be loaded with a speech, do 
not, I think, bear in mind that a deviatiDn of this kind from 
the strict poetical order is really in keeping with Homer's prac^ 
tice on other occasions, particularly in the disquisitions of Nes- 
tor and of Phoenix. Such a deviation appears to be accounted 
for by his historic ^tds. To comprehend him in a case of this 
kind, we must set out fi-om his point of departure, according to 
which, verse was not a mere exercise fur pleasure, but was to 
be the one great vehicle of all knowledge: and a potent in- 
strument in constructing a nationality. Thus, tben^ what the 
first aim rejected, the second might in given cases accept and 
even require. Now in this short passage there is a great deal 
of important historical information conveyed to us. 

We may therefore with considerable confidence employ sooh 
evidence as the speech may be found to afford* 

Let us, then, observe the forma of expression as they mn in 

oiB* &j^6t ij/iacrci^tjp 4fcoi'^rjs dAdjjoio**. 

Taken grammatically, 1 presume the last verse may mean, 
(1} The daughter of the distinguished Phiemi : or (2) The 
daughter of a distinguished Phoenician : or (3) A distjnguished 
Phcenician damsel- 

a. Against the first it may be urged, that wo have no other 
account from Honier> or from any early tradition, of this Phod- 
nixj here described as famous. 

h. Against the second and third^ that Homer nowhere 
directly declares the foreign origin of any great Greek per- 

c. Also, that in each of the previous cases. Homer has used 
the proper name of a person nearly connected in order to 

^ Ver 317- - ' Ver. 319. ^ Ver- 3^1. 

Oftiateral ePwW«noA 


ie ard idcnltf^ clio vromaii, whotn therefore U n not 
Ek«l7 itial ho woaUi in Hits »JDglo caM doaote iml/ bv Itcrr 

li A|;ainM tlio tliinl, UiAl, m tho only i>th«r pcua»^ wli^i^ 
ho bus Ui vpouk of tf Pliii'meiAn tvonknn, lie uhis a femtnino 

(Oci.XV,4l7). BqI <Uoir^f in grammntinillj' i?»|intile ff thd 
f«imiim<i, X* knliiHTti liy HitimiI. i, i<jjf- 

tf, Al*i tTial Hunter, in iho ffiw intuniv^* *hi*ic hr nws dio 
WDTil rifXciAur^f, [^Jiifini^a II to tn&n. He, boK^ver, gitca vlio 

Tbc arjfiiiiiotitFt iVom i\ic ^ir-itot<ircf of thf^ pftw«i>e, and from 
the unir^rm riTtJo^iict* of iloracr rG«»pectiii^ tlic fbrot^ crtgin 
of (!rcck f^ri^nnc:;?', ^ntiriTioc me that It i* n<it on llic whob 
wurmtiUiblo l'> Mi(*>rp)'^l ^t'ofj'i^ in lhi« pW? iu anv ctlier in^n- 
ncr, tbaxi wt tHc? ntmit* of llie ^ttier of lllnciH. 

Tlui n:Lnif- *\irttuif, }idv<TVi*r. taki^n m fsanmcttnn wiili tho 
pvvind to ivUicli It a|i|iUea — iityirlv iJiree genemtJcuM licfbre 
tliii Frouvf — hcUI onnlimin tu »app1y erf* ibdf no tridin^ pro- 
fluuptloc of Uie Pliwaic'uui origin of Min^w. 

It ciuiQoL I «upp09Ct bt* doubloi.l ihjit thf^ origiiul mmning tf 
^frii^«vhonfint n«cdjua pi-apcr naiaoiu^rotive, probablv vnis 
■ of Plvi?r»i«iar tiriti, or onjjin-' Rnl. if ^o arc to jtidfl:^ by tbc 
U'slifDOiiy uf Hfiuur, tho tiiiiL% vt\n*ii Mino4 UvchU xrs» but v^y 
Khordy siiifr the fir*! J^ho^nct^mn jimvaU in (irc«cc; atid bi« 
l^'Lin^lfnlhtT rbri-nli^ living fimr iiml » Itnlf grn4tt!iliofift bt^foi^ 
tl»« 7Vmc(j, naa In iiil liVtIiliiW t;<^iitrMi|^onLry with, nr &nte- 
rior tci, Onlnnin. At a period srUtsu tbe interccinnir of Uie two 
counliivj^ vrA^iitiHififincy, wcmny^ 1 tliiitlt. with «otim di'^rooof 
oocilid^iKO coiiBirur! thiit proper natiio ha indicating the couotr}- 
fif ori^ifl. 

'Ll)f< other mnrkii <yinn<!Cteil vritli 3iltaoA iknd h» bisterv iriTC 
«uah ftnppon to Uii«^ presumption 3» lo brin^^ tho Mppoaition 
up to r^ftyjiialle c-erUiiniy. Siieh are, 

I TIjo n>iiniicti[fcn with Dimfaliui. 

1, Tlie iraiJilK'n *p( llri' muiUnjil |>o«i;r of Min«o. 

C Smi Jrir* (if, flnanm, 103, 

34fl Collateral evidence. 

3. The characteriatic epiihet AXooiPfwi' ; as abo its relation to 
the other Homeric personages with whose name it ia Joined. 

4. The fact tliat Minos brought a more advanced form of 
laws and politj among a people of lower social organization; 
the proof thus given that he belonged to a superior race : the 
probability that, if this race had been Hellenic, Homer would 
have distinctly marked the connection of so distinguished a 
person with the Hellenic stem : and the apparent certainty 
that, if not Hellenic, it could only be Phoenician. 

The poaitjve Homeric grounds for believing Minos to be 
Phoenician are much stronger, than any that sust^n the same 
belief in tlie case of Cadmus : Eutd the negative objection, that 
Homer does not call him by the name of the country from 
which he sprang, is in fact an indication of the Poet^s uniform 
practice of drawing the curtain over history or legend, at the 
point where a longer perspectjve would have the efiect of 
exhibiting any Greek hero as derived from a foreign source, 
and thus of confuting that claim to autochthonism which, 
though it is not much his way to proclium such matters in the 
abstract, yet appears to have operated with Homer as a prac- 
tical principle of considerable weight 



I bavb the low* BiTupI* in iimking (In> T<»rBfi Od, t- 177 llic 
■uhJH't at Ji [inrti<-u]-ar incjnirjr, Wcaiivc lhk:< chief elem^nis r>r 
ihf» <liflrTi«non upp importJinT wich wferenco lo the la«^ of Uc- 
mrric (irerk. lui uri?]! ^u* tiiUi B-L^uiird I11 tli:il 3i]jti!4[U4Tni nf thn 
OitUrr Out^t-raptjv, whWi I liavis ini]i|MiTloii l'_v « iliitfliW appli- 
C4iUoD t»> «vcry part of iLc namiUvo uf tlie Odjrv^y, ^iid whlcki 
[ at o:>ov wliiijt ia in iiTuHviuciljiblc couH^t^l wifJi lli« pu])uLkr 
coniitructicfn of tho nccount ^f Mic vovngc fpom ^-'grgia to 
SclifriA, tw far as It do[>CD<]« upon tliig partJcul&r \«r6c. 

TTio piw>^ i»* (tli« rf)!' rvftrrring to 'Ap^rw m r, a;^) 

Tbo poJnW Lipiin which tltc bigniflcMiork of tlie ImI Ike muM 
iJopcntI, 9ie«m to be iifi folfown : 

i> Tli« iDCiuiing of the itiiporf:int Homme word 6pvrrtp^- 

a. Tho form of tho phrww ^urT<f>a x'*'*^' which U ilb l»rof 
Aryiffifi'M' ill Hoiitcr' 

J. TJiQ forco of tlio ppopotttJOQ iirt, portieiilATlj with tbo 

T>iL* MJountI of ihi'Wf pdiiitH iTiav ^N« nprTtylTlT di*miH*cil. For 
(1) die otilj (]nn«li(in ttuil ntii ai'imt ii|tiri) it noiild Ik?, wl^intlifr 
(aMuminff for Lie mutuent t1i« »criwcif ^tor«pot)'the Icfl of liw 
Imnd * m^nn* iht Ii^t\ of the Hue dracnhcd by the onnani mott- 
nicnD of hJA body, or the left of ibc direction in which liim hand, 
that ■«» hn rijfht or stooring hnnd, pnint* while tipon th« H^lm ; 
nliich would bo tbo exact rcn^na of tho formcr^ Bat, th<toj;h 
(lid UlUfr nit«rpn<iitioii would be gniDiaatic&Ujr ROcorat^, it 

350 Senses qf&t^wt and apurrtpos- 

is too minute aod Bubtle^ as respects the ^ense, to ngrce with 
Homcr^B raethoda of oppression. And (2) aome of the Scholiasts 
report another readings vi}os, instead of x<V»^*i which would 
present no point of dotiht or suspicion under this head. 

We have then two questions to consider ; of which the first 
is the general use and treatment by Homer of the word &pi~ 

It appears to me well worth consideration whether the ^t(iot 
and i^pn^T(pb9 of Homer ought not, besides the senses of light 
and left, to be acknowledged capable of the senses of east and 
west respectively. 

The word ipurrtphs takes the sense of fe/t by way of deriva- 
tion and second intention only. 

The word tTKoi&s is that, which ctymologically and primarily 
expresses the function of the left hand. The use of tliis as the 
principal hand is abnormalj and places the body as it were 
askew (compare cnrtf^w, scostntgy schief)^. In HoTffer the only 
word used singly, i. e. without a substantive, to express the lef^ 
hand is rrnawv. At the same time, we cannot draw positive 
conclusions from this fact» because ipurrfpbs could not stand in 
the hexameter to i^eprescnt a feminine noun singuhir, on acv 
count of the laws of metre, which in tliis point are inflexible. 

l,K<u^ means the left hand in 11. i. 501. xvi. 734. xxi. 490. 
This adjective is but once used in Homer except for the hand : 
viz,, in Od. iiL 295 we have a-Katbv fiiov for ^the foreland on 
the lefl/ But ^Kaval inJAat may have meant originally the left 
hand gates of Troy. 

The application of 6<fwij to the right hand (from which wo 
may consider dfftre^^v as an adaptation for metrical purposes), 
is to be sufficiently accounted for, because it was the hRud by 
which greetings were exchanged, and engagements contracted". 
But it is not so with ^ptartpik : and while we conteui])late die 
subject in regard only to the uses of the member, the word 
ujtmAs remains perfectly unexceptionable, and even highly ex- 
preaaivo and convenient, in its function of expressing the lofl 

It appears that the Greek angurs, in estimating the signifi- 

•> Liddell aud Scott. = IL ii, ^^41, x. ^^42. 

Sn^Mw t^ltt*^^ tuui AftJTtp^. 



Cfttion of om«Da, were nccuatoinucl lo ^laul vrtb ili<^r fkcM 
Doribwar^Li ; err rather, i [trccumo, wiili ihnir ffl^os tti loniirda 
a point mii^1iT.iy1}«twM)n annsdtftnjifluiiriN}, Tlio nic^t Cfiiiimoa 
ioAcrtptioilit oT omcii In the linit* of Homer ajiijkEiu- tu Imvo Ixicn 
(i) tlifT flight iif i.>iH>i, 1L114I (J) th4» flpparicuin of ibijnd^r mid 
lightning. Tli^ U«i1 cifa j^utnl moving omrii wili, ilmt U iJmuld 
irrucutsl hfjin tlie n'l^sU and luovc lo iho out; nntl of a hiul 
moving omen, that it shoalJ prgcccJ from the ^mu dJid luovu to 
tlie wcfit. I'oH&ibly we mur iracclii Ihla conccpt'tou tliocosmogo- 
meal nmmjifomcnt, whidi jihintcil in the Wcrst llko Klj^ian fUin, 
unO in Iho 1uL<t the (|i«mal nnd Fcnii-ponal dootfiiii of AlJoncus 
and Porsepbon-x roH«b)^ Uid br^htDe«9 of iho aud, whidi 
GftUiied the Hiut to be rcgnMed 04 th« fonntAin of light, mny h^ 
the foiiriiJatbn o( it: togrlher, ttu rhp nthor hnnd. wiili ibnt 
u]o«e Tiiiible uuoclAlicin ljctvri>i-n tlie Wrat juiij jlorkiiMa, wliiah 
ihu KiiEinct of eiictj ibj bruiigUt lif^Toro this oy<9 of mm ; to thai 
to ho rr^uy fu^*' mcADt to li<- tonarda th« West, uiid nua Uie 
ro^uhir ij|Jiiwit© of lying towflrda Uic miu*^. 

Whalcror niA^ hnTc boon the ba*U of tbo dortiino of the 
au^iLrtt tfacro grow up an wtAt^liithcd UM»c'int»oa 11 \ betwoen 
tlio wort ukI wlut w;ift iHom<Tued or evil. And tlimogb thb {2J 
b«tvoon whni vrmt ill^onioiiAd or of i1 niul tfuf Iclt Ridu of n o>un. 
The w(*>t vAft tuil(if4iy» bocAU^ Uie ftd«m*o of nugnry ir&de ll 
«o. The left bimd hak UEilutrky, Luntiau in iho Lni>|iDctuitt of 
omeiift it wd» vcM'^m. Oiitf h^lf nf tho ulijcclv in tbo norld. 
utd of the acLiooi of tlii2 Imuiuii hodj', thuft Inj. from tbuif 
pontion robtivdy to omeai. mylvv att incubus of iSUrorlan«. 
b W4ft retricTcd from Ihi^ thr<at<ming oonditiou. bv «i «u- 
phetnbfp ; ^>y Uuo nppU'^tion of n irord Dot moral/ lnaDOont^r 
but proemlnODlly good. Eviu-ytbin^ toTorod by the blJRhl of 
oviL oELieci wu to 1^ not only not liunufui, bjc apt^ntpi^, hotter 
tliflii ih^ bc*t, Cocw^qn^otU' it would ajipi'jir litAi the word 
4^ji«rr«pdf pTolxdjly uiniuil t*cbtffrl}', hvfiiri? ii could iiiluu tio tbe 
left lijuid : bp(ai.iw not tbc leR barnl 011I7. hnt rvcrylhing vosl- 
crly, v«9 within tlio range of the erU to vfbicb it wm intcailed 
lo a^ply 4 rctoedy. 

In & jioAeagc like LL vik 33$, tbc meftiung of &fi^ nnd Apt- 

1 Ci»L II, »5, 6, • COTDittro the vte of tJie wi>nl rt«>n|>iY 


lUn^ti'ftt'.ri fr&ut it- KiJi. 

«T4^t u, plaioly, right ^ni\ ioH. Ititt uliat U ic xm l1i« spo^vli 
of HMtor, where ho tdk Polytlamiw that lip cakm iioi Cw 

itrim h^ii' U<r. irp^ 'H« r 'WKUv r<, 
<Tr Jiff* a^ifTTtpa TcCyt nori f^^v ;7«jM>«'r<i- 

Iiitl]4] first pIjLce, it U A inoru appropriate, boc6u»« moro dir^t. 
Dictlioti of dcionptitjn witit rcap<vrt lo t>irdk or om«li to Wft 
th07 tly oAMffflTd or woacwmxI, tban tli^t they tly to Uio right 
^r tbe loft hiuid ; uaL<i» iLe soii^e of n[;hl imd lofl h3« rto filler* 
minnto ildmliLrd of rvfiTcn-o^, hiTi r«4|iur(!t the ftid of ui luu 
ftumptmn that the person n nctiinllv loolcing U> Uiii itmrili, wi 
tliAi lUfi wordn uiiiy thiiH htxwntfi L<i|L>1valent to eaA anil imi. 
But in llfin i;]iAi<, uliLch ■!« <jilc of it^rrlor* on lb|^ 1x>lU6*1wUt 
would there not be AomfM/mg raUi«T incongraous id inlcrpolAt* 
lug iht MijcyeatioD of their turning northwajii *a iboj flpoke, 
Bi ortlcr to give tU<^ pr<^[Kr meaning to thcw t*o trunbvf Wd 
mcbt surely oonceivo of H«eior Btundinj^ on tUo batltO'6old 
with hia £aco tuwurdi tlio ouemj, if w uro to uko his posture 
into vi«w At iilh If ho Mood thni, hv vroiild look, u» far »» ve 
can jndge, tn the wwi of north. Xow i)io {3C^ ma* the? rmnJi- 
wmL with Ilouicr. juiO nut r.h« w»t; lu^d, con>trat4>". the 'lit* 
inctinrd Lo the »>uth of eitsi. In t^i^ nny Un ni/uld nearly 
b&vn bis face to the fonnoTT und his hack to the latter; Hnd if 
»o the meaning of right anJ kfl would ho not only farfclehod, 
but wholly impropL-n tThJc the meaning of cvi.»t cleuI n-cat trotiM 
bo no ]oe« (wrroct thnn natur-'ih 

I inuai add, that thoro su'g otli^r placw in Homer wh^ro 
difflcnilty arinv, if wif iiri? otily jutrmitttMl to ranMruo 1€(<!k arJ 
^y)ifTT4/^Af hy right nnd Iftft, I nill i»ven r^ntiirp tj> i^y, thai 
then? uru |KUKij|^et> la Iht; Thirtrcjilh HiMih wliu'li render the 
topogrnphy of the Imttlc ihftt it tlcacnlHTiis not only ohscuro, 
bnt OTon contradictory, if cl^borrpSf in tliona nitans i^fi: and 
whic^i hoccmo porfoctly harmofiioiu if ne allowod to under- 
ttAiid it aa signifying tivvB^ 

Tht*w arc rcs[i*>ciivnly 11. liii- 675 and 7'S5- 

In orditr to apprehend the naw, ic will bo noL>«Aary lo folkrv 
cluHaly llko moTcnieut iif tlio hatilii through iiuwt of llio Hook. 

• IL sdi. *3B"40, 

UittMtiHiiM fntm /A liii. 


t. II. xtiu \i^~% : The Apie» are oppcncd to HpctOT, vijunl^ 

i. Th« otuitre bdniE tbua froviJeU for, ldotuen«ua proccedi 
to th4> ieht arparoii im* Apiartpk (.1^6), w\mh i% the ntfttion of 
Doipbobtifl ; find mnkcw fiavock in th» quarter. 

3. Dciphobud, m»t«ad of %bting IdomcnouB, tlunka U pru- 
dent ItJ fclol] ^Eni-a*, wjio i« tftu.TKliiig uloof. ^r,& %iid seqq. 

4. Siiminoneii hv Um^ihnhtxf^ .^Inrju jmxiim tritli him, Mt- 

5. ni'J oonjoinllv <!arry c>n tlic figKt nt tbat iwjint, wtlli iti- 
diffcrciit *mic»» (95-6731. bat no liccinrc i«uG. 

6. ncclor^ in the ocotr«, reniAiu» ignorant lliAt tlie TroJAiu 
vero bfiiTig iror«tod PT^i^f iw* apttrttph by ibo Greek*. 675- 

7. By tbc udvko «f I'olyduma^ ho gooe in eoorcb of otbor 
ohiofs to ooiwltior wlmt Ik to bo dcMi^ ; of I*[int araotig tli« ml, 
vrliom bo fiadji, ^x*i' ^'^^ aptm«/*d (7^5)' ^'^^ ^^«"' *"• «• 
turiw to tb«cfrn1rc, 753, 803, 809. 

Nov cbe fcilloiviiie i^ofioiitionH nrit, I tlirnk, notiml : 

1, WTien Hainor ihua 4pc<Ak[» i>f ^' dfii^rtph hi II, liiii 316. 
6y^. ^T\*l 763, nr9p(i4^tivo1y, ht? criilcDtljr lui^uti* tu il^oribo in 
all vi Lli«Tn the aame udo of ibf; battlc-tiold. Where JdomoiicuA 
is, Lii j£t^ ihitbcr be brings Xtiotui in 469. whu la Attcr(ul«4 at 
tbo tiiDO by TArui, 49^; cuid thero I'jirm oridcntjj roEnaiDa 
vctil flumoMDod to ibo cooiro in 71^5. 

a. If llont^r a|xwlu tvitb rofvrcute to auj pftrtlcuUr :»m- 
batmit, of bi« boini,' (^n lh« i«ft or i\ut nght of tho batti'), lio 
ought to mevi the GT«^h left or right if (h« pOTsoQ be Grock, 
HJUd tbe TrojiiH loft or rigbt If ll"* p-rvm U? Trojaji. 

3. ThtM III actually ibc niltr by tvbicli he jjrocved* pboirhivro. 
For io the I-inii Jk>ub, nU«ii M^rs m in tb« field od tbo Trojaii 
Gud«, be n^ys, Moicna found bito ftdx'^f ^ir' V^'<f^< I^- v. 3^^- 
Wbftt i» tho point lhu« do^crlbcd, «nd bow came ho tborcf 
Tbo oDsmer b mpplied by a^i curli«r pfvrt of iW tiuito Huok. 
Iti t^. 3j, lrltn«rva led bicn out i>f tb« buttle. In v. 36, tlio 
pbuNHl bin by tb« ttioro of the Scfttoandvr ; that it to my, on 
tlio TrnJATi leflj aod i» n position fo vhicb. ho beinf; a TmJAit 
LHiiubarA^il. llie Povt givis ibii nn^iic »f ^x^* ^' d^ncrrcpd. 

Now Jr' dpuirfpi in cuninioiily tiil*rpruti>d ' on lb*> Igfk/ But 
]f it DioinA oij tbe left iu I], xiii„ tliai lb« pa^Mgoa &ro coolrt- 

A ft 

554 Tlie force of hi in Hotner. 

dictorj- : because this would place Paris on both wings, whereas 
he obviouBly ia described aa on the aame wing of the battle 

But if w« construe dptarcpor as meaning the west in ail the 
three passages, tlien we have the same meaning at once made 
available for all the three places, so that the acconnt becomoa 
self-consistent agtun; and if the meaning bo 'on the west,^ 
then we may understand that Tdomeneus moat naturally be- 
takes himself to the west, because that was the quarter of the 
Mjrmidonat where the Greek line was deprived of support. 
If, however, it be said, that the Greek left is meant Ibrough- 
outj then the expres^on in t, 765 is both contrary to what 
would seem reasonable, and at variance with Homer^s own 
precedent in the Fifth Book. 

Thus there is considerable reason to suppose that, in Homer, 
d^uTTtpos may sometimes mean * west' So that if hi in Oi v. 
277 really means * upon,* the phrase will signify, that XJlyssea 
was to have Arctus on the west side of him, which would place 
Ogygia in the required position to the east of north. 

The point remaining for discussion is at once the most diffi- 
cult and the most important. What is the true force of the 
Homeric liri} 

1 find the senses of this prepofution clesriy and comprehen- 
uvely treated in Jelf*s Greek Grammar, where the leading 
points of its varions wgnifications are laid down as follows' : 

1. Its original force is upon^ or on. 

2. It is applied to place, time, or causation. Of these three^ 
when treating of a geographical question, we need only coD- 
uder Uio first with any minuteness- 

3. *Eiri, when used locally, means with the genitive (a) on 
or at, and (6) motion towards a place or thing. With the 
dative (a) on or at, and (b) by or near. With the accusative 
(a) towards, and {b) ' extension in space over an object, as well 
with verbs of rest as of motion/ Of this sense examples are 
quoted in TrAdr iirX olvoua ii6vTQif for verbs of motion, and i-rt' 
ivvia KttTo TiiXe0pa for verbs of rest. Both are from Homer, in 
J\. vii, 83, and Od. si. 577. 

f JeirsGr, Gr. Nos. 633-5. 

The force o/M in Hwaer^ 



exainpW rkflhii toKC-nninerl r-&\t*i>. Hut in C><J. r^ lyy* if iIl« 
niR«iiini( be (at tUe^ Icftp It it pl^nlj' quite boi;cmd tliMP fJiviiii- 
tiuUb: for wi fur from itnnii hu nIijj*<'L ovU'in!i?il uxt-r ajj:u'43, tko 
9liir ii^ n« il a^tpt^jii^ i>[i tlifr i«ft, n luinriioub |'i>iitl, run) rifth'ing 
laore* It«ua&ii cxLviiaioii utcr npAcu, aucL Od iliei'j'C Jia&fW>(D 
a wimlow over rt pro4poci ; but iJjon ihnt *pnc« iji tfic ^paoo 
tvhicli liea ovor^kj^ALiut t}ic auir ; so tiut Jf ihc »pa?o Ik on <li« 
loft, Ui^ tttur imiKt bo lookinif toniLrds i\\<i icft induin), but for 
diat very rooAOH »Eft on tlii> ri^hl- 1'ho ifilfr^oncr Itcrc b inoMt 
im|XirtAnt in I'ODneoLioii wiib l)i(> a«]i*u of tb4> pn^poutio^^ If 
Jir' ipt-trrtpa nieaiii orj tlio loft, il im only on ft ainglo poLnt of 
iJiH If'fi, : if tt rnoaiis towards or oTOT-^aiTi'4 the rigbi, it 
mcan^ UiAHiitih op uvur-iigiuiiHt thr whf>l« ngbl. Now, tin* 
turuicr of tli<!E!« ficiMUft ift> I conl^nJ, utttarly out of k<fo|iing 
iritb tlie wIkiIo Homeric ixvc of jnl am a prr|iwllion gururnrng 
tlie ii.oc:Qi«tU'c J wbilo the l&ttcr Is quit*} in kee^riii); wkti it 

llicr itjca of rnotian. ]>hytfic«l or tnctnphjmi^aL Ift aome ono 
or otlivr of ilB nioiJi1iciitiati!«, nj>ponr4 to inhere <»ncnliftlly in 
tbo Hotncrit^ u«fi< of i-nl «itb iho a^euMitUif. Jn tbo ^ront ma- 
jority of tiwtftficoM, it i« tiBcd nitb urorb of inoticn, which placoa 
tlie natter bcvond nil doubi. Jn Alitio«it ftIL otb«a^ lut&noca, 
eidiflT tbo moiion of a body, or »omo cov4*riiig of ifuir^ wlietio 
tbcro m no cnotii>ii, urc obviously mvf^vrd. Tlitm tlw Zephyr 
(■«JL^hO uliutlt*^ itil aXi'tfua iru'i'Tor, A bcro» or a Wty of 
ifiAsdais, inuy ^liuitt cn-l nvitpAv^, Tfio ritu nf a Ixiakcl JA 
Oor«fred with ft plating of goM, xpvir^ i' ivl x*^**^ >nKp4a*Yo : 
tlinl is. tilt KolO i« dravn otcr MK ArbilW loulcn^ ^vl oTiP^na 
Terror. The Hun Appoftrs to nac^rUii* jiri C«'^p«^ 4»vp4i>l. 
Horo wc tbould ni^inrently und«r«titnd 'iprotd,' or kOi»o oqiu- 
vutt^nl irord, ^Vo b«i« ' aniiPftlr «• irnkty ns iit'o lorn' M 
yixiavu». Or, a|pin, wo liave 'may liifc (^lory bt' (spread) ^«l 
Ctitapop Aficpp^v"*. Agiitii: iin fliipdi' hf /un aiit^ /rr^fTOd in, ' 1 
»liftll liifo long*/ Aoi} AcbiJIi:^ M^tctl kiniHolf EKj-' J0* 6Ah 

c Od. ii. ^ai. 

^ Od vi, 117. IL V. Id. 

* Od. iv, IJ3. 

< Od. in. 3. 
" Od. iv,4i7 
• Od vii. jja 

<■ IL is. 415 


/Wcfl o/inl uM ^pio-rtpA' 

Tjo\iitf^ A (hra);:t>ii with % purpio Wk 'n*i Jni i<fira U^ou-^ib 
The sLiouldci'a of Ther.iiti?a> comprvascd a^uuitft \m cboitt u*<s 
^iri^^oi irvircxoi<ir<*. The hor«ic« of Adcaotm Btaiid evQD wiUi 
Oi^ rod aoroie Iholr IftoluS *n-oijSvA»j *Ti wir^i* Air^r. I bave 
not continad Uioae oxftuif Ic to iD«rol\ tocul (;iu«»> because a nior* 
vfiri«d iUu^tmtion, T Uiink, h<»r4> «nLarg«« our tu«u» of jodg* 
moiit. Ill cvi*rv citio, i( iijipunn, n« ruAy a»#rt tli^ exleiMvin, 
^^hirttiitT in timo cr )ipju% l« iniplind ; fltid fbi; p^ofH^^ word to cuu- 
•Irue W (»*oopt vfitli cerUUi itrbs of mr>tioii, &», ' ho fvU wii,' 
and tbo likf?) nill be uvcr, along, ncvte». or 0Y«r<4gaiJUi. 
I'WtlieTp vre h^ve in IL ri. 400, aocordJng to one rcAdvn^, ttis 
propMitidD ^n! combined vrith thd Terb/x<i^. ar<1 ^orfrruing the 

The recent rdilicins read sokvtp: I Huppotto because Uie accu- 
utir<i cannot properly give tlic moaninf^ c/Min her treaatv But 
wo do not rcquiro ihat mcnnin^- Tho »cn»o Mcms to be, tlint 
Andromacho «wi bolUing hor infant ti;/ar"ii»f hor brcneti Uial 
ifi, tho infnnt wha liold to it by hvr hiutds frum iho oppcwt^ 
AJdc. The idoa of nn infant f>TL her breoit u quite uu^ttJtcd to 
a tlgi^rv dvtknMl Co bi? In motion. Bnt tlio &Gn«(» may tUo l>^, 
str«fc1i«id nvfti- or acrnw ber breast, Tbu* we alvays haT« tx- 
tenitit^fi iijvtjlved in ijt} vUh rhn jwiMiiijitivc, nWlkifr ill nirgr i>f 
view or Pmurd, j^U^ps of a griidoa] propets. ai^LiiaI nkotioti, preo- 
Bure towardB a point wltich l^ initial tnn^on, or citcnHon otcr 
itpoco But the Homeric uk- of M with the iicoiuatiT« w31 
ncwhere, I tliink, ha found Applic^h to the tnoctdTe, nii>tioii< 
]f«a portion of u tuminout jy^int nmply ak |>orceiTed in spac^ 
And if *o, it cnnnot bo nlb^rriblo to iy)naLnio hi" ^ptrrepft X'V^ 
/xw^« havinjj; (Aroluii) on Uh \e{t hmd. 

Th« reannt parnllol tliat I havi> found to the phr.vo in Od. 
». ^j7, IB thpi dirwtion jfiven by lilomontua (o Merionov, who 
badaHk«'d btm(Tl-Ktii-507)&Lu:)mt point hr woEildliki>to center 
tho Unn of Emtnttn. filomeneiiA, af\^r ^vrii^ lii* reoHrinits i^on* 
dodoA with thia if^nnction; 

voXf h' «*' fn hpiorip' t\t tnpuToi, 

FiMw f^fM *tith ApwTti 


(n the Ody**»y, the ordvr fn to keL*|i An-tti« Sir Apuir^ph X"P^^' 
Ifarc it u to krrp IiloinrnniiK (jiit<l ^fffnonrti himMtlf^ who |]ro- 
ceded litiii), iv &piffTti>!t trrparov. Tlit* jKii'alie! in iii.>l. u^tn^letA* 
Woiiiao in tho Utli^r c<v<- tlic object of the verb moron ; in Uic 
fbrmcr it do^a oct movc^. Let tUt 1io*rCT«r, consider the tnoAn- 
in|( of iho lalUr paoHA^, Tvliich u iiidisputabliN It ia ' hold or 
koop u»/ not on tlic Ic^^ tml * townrds, looking cind moving 
townrdi:, thf- l»ft of tlic SLrmv.' TrobnUy then thoy irore 
coming from \u riglit- Tliureffiro, if for thu inomwit we wnivo 
iH^ Hin'ntiim of miilioii, lUn ordcrr of Cmljpno wju to fceop 
Anrtii^ looking toward* tho loft ccf tlic ih'tp: And accciriSn^y 
Arctium waa to ]i.K*k frutri it» rigltl. 

Wtt mint. I apprehend, m^ck the k^v to ctio g«aan] oicaning 
of this phraa^ from cjubid^rlu^ tbAL idm of motiOEi inToLved in 
tliu iirdiiijiry niAntfoitatiooi cf oioonvy wliiofi uppoor* to I>o t^io 
bfiAifl of the pknuo ilMlf. Nov, it «ocni» to bo tbo MMiitial ftnd 
Topy poouliir char^ietoiifttio of Ihia p}iruati in HonKv-.a^d of tlio 
nninr plir^MA ^iriA^^ui fviolWr vnlton in ono ivord or in two) 
And «i4^fia, ihft^ tliey v^ry conimonly iiDply ft potttion dHEciront 
from r}iiU whii?h L>iey im.m-i» iit tlrnt nglit to niggoiil. For thai 
nbicii gcrtv toviJLnU The Icfi \% iiAtiimlly uniWiilond to go from 
lUo ri|;ht. And ru^e ivrjd. 

' To' and not * on' in tlie co»«tttul otionKUnBtic of llio Ho* 
iDorie iw\ with tb« AocuMtivr. Aocopdin^ly. whoiN! iitl ift ao naod 
with tJio words &ffio or d^irrrtpa, vro tiiay ofion utidertlond AD 
orif;i«ftl portion of Ow pi^rwxi or ibiujE tDtondud, i-endratlj oppo- 
■ito to tl)o point or iiimrtnr oxpr^Mod. [n ftucb li eiMo ai «£f3«ii 
.... A^x*)* ^^' V**^*!^ "'^ »bou1d Join ^n ifti^rtph nitb (bo 
Mbj«^ of *iy)t». And not wttli ita objotiU Not A found D on 
ibo left, but A (eoit^lng) towvdi« tlio left ffiund B (tkerv). 
AgAiEii tJi lb uli. ^7j. vjjm- tjs* ipiojtfii tboaldr I ■ubniLtr bo 
<onitriiod tmmrtl^ ibo lc(), or in tJio direction of tbo 

Zffoir, wlalo Ui'trt u not A intiglt r^i^B^AK^ )^ ll4:'nicr that 
raltLBM to bfMir A oonatrnction foondod on tbotv prinuple*, 
AQ oumiaftlion of & rari«ty of pouof^ wiD, ] bdi«f<^^ ^PV^f 
m with infttAiM«« to «bow, tliat tboro in no otiior mniuit^^l 
mode of t^tdorin^ llx* phrsjmt i^f/^ii'rrtiF irthtfia ; ii/iytti' 

3.58 Illustrated fny^n 11. 11.353. ^- ^^^- '4'- 

Afftojr ipti^ioif, and others. 

And althoui^h irj some of these phnwoa the idea of motion is 
actunllv included, while the motioD of oraens waa the original 
groiindH'ork of them all, jet. as frequently h»ppcna» the effect 
remains when the cause has disappeared. A bird called dcft^s 
is one moving ivi bt£td ; and this, according to the ]a.w of 
omens, is ttsually a bird from iho left moving towards the right. 
Ami thita, by analogy, a star i-n^ ^purrtph is a star on the right 
not moving but looking towards the left. Once more^ when 
wo recollect tliat iV aptfrrtpa habitually or Tery frequently 
meftna on the right as well aa moving towarda the left, it is not 
difficult to conceive so easy and simple a modification of thifi 
Bonse ,13 brings it to being on the rights while also looking^ in- 
stead of morinj;^ towarda the left, lightning, which ha^ ap- 
peared on the right, would I apprehend be dcrrpmr^ hr' dpttrTcpdi 
''ApicTOiiTri^pifTTtpavfOMld be *ArctuB on the rights and the intro- 
duction of the word ^x*^ cannot surely reverse the significa^on. 

In later Greek, the expressions ivbf£ta and iirtb4£ta, with 
i-napiuttpa, which aeems to be the counterpart of both, the 
preposition M sometimes being divided from and sometimes 
united with its case, appear to Ite equivalent to our English 
phrases * on the right,' and ' on the left." But not so in Homer, 

Lot us nov examine various places of the poems, where ^v- 
S/fta and liti bi£th (single or combined) cannot mean on the 
rights but may be rendered either (1) from the left, or (2) to- 
wards the light. Thus we have, 11. ii$5S, 

AoTpAi^Tai' iiTtb^^ij ipa{<rma "rj^ara ^aipav. 
This means lightning on and from the left, so that the 
lightning passes, or seems to pasa^ towarda the right. The 
Analogy of tltis caso to that of the star is very close ; because 
it is rarely that lightning gives the semblance of motion : 
and this expression precisely exemplifies the observation, that 
those phrases often really imply a position of the subject exactly 
opposite to that which at first sight would be supposed, 

Agai^i, when Antinous bids the Smtors liso in liirn for the 
trial of iho Ihjw, be ^ays, Od. ^xi, 14], 

FrotH JL L 397- vii. ^38. xii, 139, 249, 


And lie frcM to utplain hiTTiself boymid dbputo, hj ror«rring 
Ui tlio orikr obftorvcil l>y tho ctipteiiirr at tho f«t*l ; 

His ujeunin^ cviiJundy in, Itiso up, [>cglnning mi ov from tbc Icft^ 
TEic pruticc of ihc cupbearer in vUikH witfi jvspoct to 
Vulcan, 11.1.39;; 

Re tbi; «{f>i'f (II- VII. 183) gom round ^<rft/fia wStli tUn toU 
fftr 1h<* chipriatrw to dr^w, Tlra birpgar* in iTinltin^' Iii* niand 
foUona tb«- niprrnie Iaw of luck, atid ^oea ^ff^a. Anil 
V th» mcAuin^ AOfni!! Lu 1>c csUblirihcd, wc muett giro tbo 
mthc Mrik«c, in 11. ix> ^^tt. to iMiia irritjaTa ^aiyt^v iicrrp6imt, 
BLb u> Iho it^t^a III [1. U. ')5j, iiaJii«l>t tbai JupitfTdiBpUj-cd 

Ai^ain. ITcctrtr boaj^tn nf hiii prf>fii;i<^n<^y in monng big »]u«M 
!to as to caver lit* p«ir&on, 11 vii. 13^, 

Wi; fJioTild InuiiiLUo ih!» prulml^ly witbout niucb ihtnigbt'lo 
tliu ri^bi And to i]i« 1^* But ^beii we coiWdiT nliai a^iia^ 
11 rci^ttircd i>y tbc i<lca to bo oontcjrod, it in evident tliAt in\ 
Afft^ racArut froDi tlio l«ft ftldo of bU perKin towards tbo n^lit, 
Olid ««* o^urr^pA from tho tight n^Lo of bu pervoii touraidA 
tho l«ft. TliAt U to tay, tbo fint po«i()Oii toforo und during 
tbd luodon, \n each oajo, la At tlie ttde oppctutd to that Jndi- 
ciXod by Ibo ai1jc>cti«M rciipoGtiv<^Ij*. 

Agoiii). in ft wflll known pnvNigo (fl- xil ^39,) fTmrt^jr tpll* 
PuKdamiv Unit ho e[in»4 not for onieris, be tliejr good or bod ; 
«|r ini i^/r twiTi iT^^c "Hw r' *H«Aioi' rt, 

Apitt from tlio quc«tioQ, whottic^r Lbo nemo of ri^bt Aid l«ft ■ 
lulftblo to tlm pofiaago at aII, atid attitniiuF; k to be fo, tho 
anooiiinf^ [% Jrcnt tft< t^ for «irt ^fid nnd yr4);fk the rutkf for 

Jy' d^7T4;kci, nn lb<iir vay ro «TAcb rimr in thf' ap^icnilit qiurtirr^ 

Again, Iho ^rtont nbich IiaiI dravmi forth tbo itletrrtTXioii of 
Rudor ivaa, (II. tii. iiy^) 

( Od. xv&L 3(1$ 

flW From IL sxiii. 335-7. 

namely, an eagle appearing on the right and then rooviug 
towards the left. Now itpyw \s not properly a Terb of 
motion; and yet we see that Upy^iv hr ^pvrrtpiL meana to 
close the army in from the nght; that is to aay, the eagle, 
which does tho act in* ^IpuTTtpi, is itself on the rights 

There were in fact tliree things, which originaJly might, 
and commonly would, he inclnded in each of these phraaee. 
For example, in itr^ dpttn-cpa, 

1, Appearance at a particular point on the right ; 

2, Motion from that point towards the left ; 

3, Rest at another point on tfie left. 

Of tliese the second named indicates the firat and principal 
intention of the word ; but when it passes to a second intention 
or derivatiTo senae, it may include either the firat point, or the 
third, or both. In the later Greek it appears rather to 
indicate the point of rest; but in the Homeric phrases of the 
corresponding word 6«f*is, ohoxotlv ivbiiiaj SfiKin/itu iM(ta, 
alrtlv ivJ^ifia, Atrrpairreiir ivl dfftdi iipytiv hr Apwrrfph^ the 
Btarting-point> and not the resting-point, is the one brought into 
view. It is the commencement of the motion, in every one of 
these cases, which is indicated by the phrase, and not its close. 

Being engaged upon this subject, I sliall not scruple to 
examine one or two remaining passages, which may assist in its 
more thorongh elucidation, 

I therefore ask particukr attention t^ the pass^e in the 
Twenty-third Book of the Iliad, where Nestor instructs his son 
concerning his management in the chariot-race. On ^ther 
side of a dry trunk upon the pl^n, there lay two white stonei 
(xxiii.519). They formed the goal, round which the chariots 
were to bo driven, the charioteer keeping thora on his left 
hand. The pith of the advice of Nestor is, that his son is to 
make a short and close turn round them, so as to have a chance 
of winning, in spite of the slowness of his team. The directions 
^ro (335-7): 

»}■' in iipvn-tpa ToTiv- Arap top ht(^v Xttttop 

/VtMH fl. x>iiii335— 7h 



It Is ^*Mt frOB II16 lut tilW M^d a l^iilf lilflt ihc gDOl irjuf lo be 

on hits lolt bond. Bfil ivhai it tbc niiiuiitiic i^t' iiXii-^iNK Jt' ^i- 
tfr^^ Totivt Plothmg can he more ncJcntiHc than tho proctiipt. 
THo 1iort«6 ftri^ to mnttt^ a tJiiu-p turn: th« imp«tiw in tli* 
dmcr'n l»ody migUt fbrow forwani tf lio «oro not pr^ 
pATed ; ho in to do wli^t ev«r^ ridctr in a citfu* notf ilocs, to 
kwi iiin!Lr<lA : a.nd (hut ii oiL|>n!!tfwd Ivy ledLQing tt^ ^urT«/iA, of 
tlii» goiil — for TEicIi' miud, I Mppn^lipn<), 1w iinilcmtliruU tu ugree 
with tht^ du&l \(it (319)1 aqJ not iho pltiral tnow (J34}i 
forticjUrly Iwiftuw tJi^ wurd tiKJov is R-|)eot<^l immediftUlj 
nftcf it. 'I'hc TiK^niag tfit^n is. th^t he in desired to Icon to th« 
Icifl of tk« £OiiK wbilc All tlic bijic ho kocp« on il« Hghl. We 
iJjouJid under II10 BmTiotwniiHB!<ioot?ftBay, •I^eon RvalW townrds 
Uic rl^hl f^i<]c of Urn ^cuil. itn yoo nro Aliout tu turn round \XS 
He, UL^anJiig tlio aamo tblD;^. sa^, 't>«n toiFards thd loft; tkat 
U, InftTi ^"flm thr riffht^ or wliilt* kwfung on tli« n^rht, of llj« 
objeot lum^d, Xr>w tliiis J t:ik^ 1.0 Iht ouu^Ij/ th<? HtiiiM^ crf Od. 
r. 177. ITI^HBRi wiu 1)id lu KLJl, hnring die tir«At Iktar platf>d 
(Ml liin right, but looking fnmi IiIk right, uu! towanls hU left, 
u «TCTy ftt^r look» towArdt the cjuArtcr opponir to thnt in 
vliidi it » ittfcLf Buon. He ia to bavo tho fttor e d^r^, bocauAO 
frocn tbal point it look^ art frini^ram. U looka ocro^ him 
towAnb his leftp ju«t Obs Autiloolitiii waa to lo&n iu tho dlroction 
acroM tbo ^ool toimrdii ilji loft. 

Tho wbdo of tbit iutorpr«tation without doabt dopondu upon 
tbo word roSlir; and 1 do not prvnumo lo tay that it Jfl iiooeMu- 
rily, iindrvr gramnijitiiwl riiltv, to \m umlrrvUKMl nf thti g^ul* 
aiid not of l]if> ]Kir»M. Dut it Ih tlie more nAluml cmwtrucHioii : 
luid llomcr ol\cn rcvorb iiiorvly bj tliiv dctnoiisLrative pi'onouii, 
without further indication, to » subject vhich bo bwi ooljr 
namtd H)Die liow btfk**. 

But if ^niEOkr Icato thai qtiortion in ad}" doffroo open, I 
appobond ibAl phvncAl eon!»idorAlion« tniint <kcido it U is 
iinpcMdblo for the drir^ to loon to tbo l«ft of bis horWA as 
thej aro rounding tho goal. To ib<^ 1«ri of liu rlmrioL lie 
may laaHj aa \w BtandH upon it: Imt to tfioir \r(i br iwitmi, 

* 8u r^f /^i II f 137. ami particularly r«p in IL L 389, nMauiii]C 
Oiryvtis. who W not Wn named iincc v. 37a. 


/'rvm //, iL 526. 

W \hvy an9 coiwdvraUj m ftdvaDce of liim; ftiid in off^dcr to 
nmkc the ttim ftl all, llicy mwt. lit ouU \t^ml of the 
wl)i«4i i» a <rurv« to tlio h^ bo niucli further along tlto cai 
Aod <ronai>quontly much further t'> the loft, ihiu) he OiO poniUr 
Lc. It would bcf X punUlL') ciuo, if thcro w«rv two ndcn rMioi 
a arena, ono folhwing tfio cithrr. And tho rul<^ of die aA«r 
honn wrn* lofd Vf Wn tn llu' rigltl of llio fnpo hr^rfto. Tboi 
foro the woix! TotLp ijui, I iiuljiiijtt iial/ rvftr 1q tlio Ivo slone^' 
wliich fi'Tin tlwgod). 

A Imc; in iTio Ortwh <^UaIofi[ue will enftbb m to canv ttio 
qu«aiti';>n Milt further. Iti JLii. 517. ni^er tbo Ivro !k»oti&a 
(X>iTli:i;;4jrls, oon>o the IMifictaiu : &ud tlii» Poet sayv, v<a-. 516, 

I M}u ttiat thu U iroEiiJAtod oi'on by ^'u*i '00 tlie left^* IfloVi 
i)t not tfaU ccninry to all lib^liliood .' Wds not all |>ro]4tioi 
mov(<innU whh !!oTn«r from loft to riglil f Hn* net iHi* 
prf.Tvd Hy lU^ rasp* of (ti«» Immm-t^h, the Oinprw, the C«p*' 
Ii4<nrcr, tlir? Bng^r, iinO (lie lleiuld ? U it lilcdjr, ar is it win 
c<>ri(XTii^1ile^ thftc llnnK^i- kIiohM dcjnrt from tliw |inii<'i|>lc in 
hu oixlcr uf the arun ? Surely tlio muaiiing h tUie; Uuiitijc 
tixi^d for Limsclf j;QU)cra]fl]kMlly thv onior of liit» ounUu-gtmbia 
bo hfiii likowifko to state tlit^tr onjor of army u|>on t!io Isold ; 
And aooorJluj^ijr l>y tliis \\i\q lio informs ua, tbat lUo Pboctui*. 
who woro cIjo Mcond of the rocc^ he inontioru^ ttood H' ^i- 
(mpiiu^iUc RLi'iHiiiiu: JiL* <if rtn]r*r» mcuxiut iu to umlrrttnnd 
llrnf thp Alkinti-a, t)i** third ra^e, wore iir' AptfrrtfA of the lrf> 
<<rjiijiXp auid no on througli tho wholu: or Jii utWr wunls, tbat 
he infornifh nii ht^ doch nnl forgH to follow, nnDidM th« mnltidl- 
dinciis duUti] uf tht.* CftLalo^uc. tlit.' tutikblliihed, tU« r«li|gi^Hii^ 
nud tho |>ro|fitio]iii mder of cnuiiiomtiont tiiunitljr, tho order 
wlikli b<*^iii(i froui lJio lofti A&d nto«oa ^>wardi iho Hght. 

ThuA wo uiEiAt in thia pUoo lruiLHkti> «w S^t^nfia 'tcwiirt 
tli4it i^, looking lowiinU tha left of the ltin<>tiaiiii / or ' lookii 
lo Iho Bipolians on tht»ir loft,'i.o, of the Phof'ian*; tliP Pliorii 
being, tihicl[<'Vtr eontfrnftifiii wi* adopt, on thfl right, w.'ttnll^ 
ei\ the rigbt. nnt tbo \r(t. of thr HjwiiiAii>^ Thi? mnl far<s* nf 
iIm* i?\pn<A3kKin iMxihrLhlv j» tMs: that ihi! It'ti^liainb, liaving 
Lakc^ thcii' grimiid, the I'lmrjarih r^mt* u|> and tiA>k timrt next 
to Uicru cnihoir Hfihi- 

fhtm it. li. ^06. 


o« tliit eiwe iH |>roiii-'«1y itr puint fur OJ. t. i;; : becjimo 
0fe>pfFifimcir<hii tt Qot propeHj n Tcrti of motion : Mt^ in nil 1ik«- 
iittnoti t\ rafky Ito rtlunl on mdfrpcndentlir of furthm- fletaib Trom 
l\ow<r, tioc4Usc it tirinspi thi> matter to an rnfiv trut, through 
tbo c»rtftinlv wliicli wo may wt-ll unturtun, ttiAt Humor wouJd 
have tdo i>t'i]ot of his Atmy b^G^n from Uf^ to right, lik^ ovorj 
otlicf <iuU' aud atitt^diouH)^ LVJuttiluUil urdur. 

Tlior*( it, liniTKfVinr, Anothrr itildrprcrLLuioa propnffxl ju ToU 
ltjw«: iUujv tlj«» tlicKiiditBi* lt>[ik grui»ul next (/fiirXij>) ta tim 
]\ti-oii.\n^ an th^ \f^, i. r- i]f ific! army ; tfif' Ivro l4i|^rlh«T, SA it 
ifcro, fonuiaj; it* U'fl wing. To tliU con>tructii]Ei iIjctc mcci 
to 1« conolnMve ol^cctioii:» : 

t. Why «lhould llovnor tcU U6 thnt tho Bi^lUna luid Pho- 
ciona together oooMitntcd a diYisicrL ol ibi? ftriuy, vlicv L« t^U 
u natbing «imibn^ rocpocting uiy of tho twoniy-nx ooctingocts 
tbaC rooinin f NviilE<*r of tfa««e races w«r» [MurttouUrly UiftttD- 
^tdvli<sl ^tljor poliiinvlly «■ In firnii. 

3. It ap|imrK t-Tcwr lliHl tlur lln*rktinn« .-ind l^nc^rnna did tmC 
Ifignh^TT fnrni a diviHoii i»f tito arihj : fwr, in lli-^ TliirC.'-t^nUi 
[took, tlie BilH>l^llfI^ fislit iri nmifKiiTr with tJic AtWiiiftns iir 
Lotikaofv the l«(icriuTJ9i, I'hlliiam. and Kpviiiiti, biA not vritii ilia 
l%«H;iflni. IL xiii, 685,6. 

5. Noilhctr did tlio ttaH>tuuu bolonjf to ^u UA wing of tliu 
arniy ai all; for llivy arc found dvftrndin^ tho ocvntro of Uio 
•liip iif^iuuit Ih^ctor arid iho TrnjiUKi with tlio two Ajaicv in 
th<^ir front II. xiii. 314-16, 674- 84, 6fi5» 700; 701. 21 719,10. 

4, TlKrrra in ncmhi-ni ihn fttnntlmi sign, ih^tt iho (Irurk imiiy 
wiiH (riTid«rd ifitti triirj^ mid ci>nlro al all. 

j- T]ij> order iif tJ>n CatjJogiiiT b a g«<ographiosiron1ei', and 
not iliai of 4 itiililary arranf[tfim<Tnt. Thcrcforo it was rcquiaito 
far l^iTtUT !■> ttrll ifs how the troD[i« were arranK^jJ 111 tho Ht- 
nciv. 'Hiii ho ha* effected \ty tdha^ ii^ thnt tt:« riioriaan, Ihc 
aMond of liu triho^i drew up on iho right of live [(itoltAnfl : 
nhk-L wo luvooniy toconBidv-rCariily ropcutod all ihroufili.ani 
the <)rd<*r h ihu* Ivich ojmplotc nnd pnipitionj^ Itat, a<rf onling to 
iho oibor roikHinirtioi), Om' TopI b*?;£inM wiih an an-an|;cmv«il h_v 
ntnVH. fjf vkhidi «i5 hi^sir iiowUitit i-Im*; and tbufi lie f^jrlhwitii 
fnrgota aod abaniknn iu 


AftptwoHon to Od. v.'STJ. 

^. I <)o not!nk /V ApuTTfpa etui htt amttntod to ihe Mti 

hi Itft^ nu J fn' ipi'trtpii rt>qutre ua tu haii.' a mibj^^l cidarljr iu 
TJow, It 19 frcqut'EiUj' n^uucd, a^ ia ^s d^iarrcp^ f^XMi- When 
it in connected irith omcos, it dqcaiu to tLo we»U mid jmAifta 
tho TOT^rao. Ajcaidi ou^ocrb' hnhifta is tr> bejpn pouHnf- wine 
rr6iit tlio ioftf jhnd to^rurds tlto rij^jht «nd of iho rank ivhoiu the 
cupb<jnr«?r rriAy b^ MFvirg. I'ho ' army* bu not becc tncotioood 

I'hocd obJvctioiiM Jippt'ur ia mo ffttal to iho conuructbn now 
iindcr our vi«w. They t{t> not tndeeil touch Iho t^ui^htion 
wlii'tlitM- ^31' Api*rT9ph F»buulJ im hiivr\^r^i*i^ ou llie l*flv or {cm 
tliv right a&J) tonnrdjt tdc kfi. Thnt mxviU I tbmk> be dccidod 
by the ^iier&l prmciplM of &u|;ury diil) applied lo ordor and 

Un th<T wlioltT^ Chon, J contend thit it w wroftg to ooiutnte 
Od. V. 3/7, * to enil tt'itb Aco tiiA 01 liis l«>ft hnnd-' It would bo 
much more nearly right, Jind vouy, m taai^ &>nvoj iho 
menninf;, tlioug^t ikot in a prAmniaticnl manner, if wo conttnitfd 
it * to nail nitli ArctuH on Inn right hanJ/ Rut ibc nmrnor of 
coiutruiitg itf grnrimatii^lv nii^ accnrar^lii^ » I nuljmil, in thwt : 
' to Mul uith Arclus lofrking tovrards Lho iefl (uf liii bund, or 
hie left hand] ;* thut a to say, looking Jrvin JiU ri^fhL And 
gfrncraliv. that the proper mode of conttming iir' (Vitrripa aod 
Vri dvfm in llomor Is to^vartU the letl, ({^i/yirL^t tho ri(*ht; oTj 
conversely,/rowi tlio ri(rlit,//win tho luft. 

Thi« inEianiQg U in oxaiI «^iv)rdAnc(? vriih tho Nortb- 
find is oiitiroly oppo^L^Li to the North-ifro«i4»rn, hyp'>tli&iSa. Aod 
I rcmtiiro to l>^liovo that, iiK^lf OBMblUhr>t! by Mifli^ii^ni ovl- 
dem^ (ntm ctli^r paAsagei^ in the jKieins, k enables u^ lo give & 
miuuiing vLilntiUitiAlly, tlioii^h piirha|iK not miiiiitoly ■d&ooD- 
»istcnl. thoujzh of ci>iinie one not bmcd upon the trae c^^nfigim- 
tiou of tho car th'e burfucc aa it is nov* aocerUiiied. to wtry 
paaaagc in Uonior wtiiuh rt^latctt to the Outer ticcgmphy of tbe 

Both itr ifiiffTtpa and iv apurrtpa x<N^^f ^^ ^""^d wpttA- 
edly m tho Hymn to Mercury ^ One of tlic pjUBM^jOff rOMnihU^ 

* Ityniu. Merc. 153. Cf- 4i^.«'4t499- 

^tse a/r«tW »Jt tater Qrrtk^ 


in iU forai dial ortti« Mkj:Ie, lU xu< 119. \i iv lhi»: 

'((TD) ;i^^Airir i(iaj^\¥ SiC ^pitrrtfth ^«(pVv iipytav. 

And prohftbly tha bAU> of t\\^ iden ia tho sajuo. Tli^ rndl/ 
correct Greek i^iproulon for "on tho Jirfl hftnJ' ! tiiko u> b9 

BhI in th'^ hvXy^v Groctk the iiiwi uf i\\e jir^iint uf arrival pro- 
railed ovt>r Lhab of lUe point of dupitrtuni : utul, nriivuDiiniuiU^v 
ftt lcAKt> t1ic> i^Mfia, with itn (^-qoivnlcirl ^rA^fia, c«trLC Itr tiicaii 
nmpl^Y 'on tlit? riglii/ and *>' op«TTTpa, ' on the left/ U i* 
trortik notice, lluit vc? hnvo 11 like umbi^oui one in Kng]i>h of 
tii<^ vord t'>vm^'d^ $<ritietiinM tovar<h the Idl mmoA bolni: 
on tho left: fiomotifii^ it monnt oaot^tnjc from tlic right in tli^^ 
dtroetion of tho kfl : imd ft rocMu ' inwards tho K^ulh' moana 
oik4> vitb iu wind^wH iin th« north, looking rjm ovi<r ihQ v^iitli, 
likA 3U llitff Bta-r Arctijs luoJu out lowurihi iho Ii^l\ nf UJ/ohu*. 

■ 1 LuT* obMrvt<d that lr(>^ 

^DMf meaoA * bin) l1>>iij^' fnini 
^e Un towdt tho ri(-hi. &ikd 

JfH0T<pAc JV^iu. thp rvvirru-, \lvrt* 
however Ihfl forcfl of Ihc cpilhcl 
in dmvn) from immedintc can- 
Auction w^th the motion im pi Sect. 
Mud Wktlk diH-tnnp of iiinnit : 

rJifht «lioul(W. bod S<f<Vi <^ ^^ 
huvr WWII, luA^ Muni! bImio to 
Higtiil^' tho rt^ht huid' And ■• 
In^nvnil wltli thnit' wordK. when 
\wc.t\ Ail ffiitlictii, npui from « 

&oni 4ay rotation tu uEnfrn*. 


Sect. I. 
On the Plot of the Iliad. 

Ai-TBOUGH the hope has alread)' been expressed at 
tLe commencemeDt of this work, that for England at 
least, the main questions as to tlio Homeric poems have 
well nigh been settled in the affirmative een&e; yet I 
muBt not pass by without Dotice the recently pro- 
pounded theory of Grote. I refer to it, partly on ac- 
count of the general authority of hia work; for this 
authority may give a currency greater than is really 
due to a portion of it, which, as lying outside the domain 
of history proper, has perhaps been less maturely conr 
sidered than his conclusions in general. But it is partly 
also because I do not know that it has yet been treated 
of elsewhere; and most of all because the discussion 
takes a positive form ; for the answer to his argument, 
which perhaps may be found to render itself into a 
gratuitous hypothesi^^, depends entirely upon a compre- 
hensivG view of tho general structure of the poem, and 
the reciprocal relation and adaptation of its parts. 

Grote believes, that the poem called tlie Iliad is 
divisible into two great portions; one of them he con- 
ceives to be an Aehilleis, or a |)oem having for its subject 
the wrath of Achilles, which comprises the First Bonk, 
the Eighth, and alt from the Eleventh to the Twenty- 
second Books inclusive; that the Books from the Second 
to the Seventh inclusive, with tlie Nintli and Tenth, and 

Thrmy of Orxtie on thn Iliad. 


I© two Iflst Books, are |>ortioiii of wimt raajf 1h* mlUnl 
ftf] rifa«, orpojwral ilescription of tlie War of Troy, wliicb 
Imvc hi^cii ititroduced iiiU> tlio orijjiual Acliillels, mk«sI 
]>r()bAlily hy anotlier hArttl; or, if by tlio ori^iDal PoeU 
ijtit lo tlie <tt!fttrLt(Tlfofi, or grcitl rU'lrimetit, of xXi*^ fioultc 
miity of \m work. 

Ill t4U)»[i<>rt uf tLiiT docrtrint.' lie urges, 
I. TLiat tbif HtH/kv frntti tliu ^i^cond to the Hevciith 
inoliliilve ill no %v»y ooMtnlxilt; to tfu* niuiii iiellon, liiiil 
are 'broti;;lic out In a «)>int altogt-tbor liiililTereiit to 
AchiJtes wid hia anger"*/ 

1, Tliat tlic Ninth Book, contatoiuj^ a full ai^coni- 
liMhiiicjnt of the vrisliL'ci of Ac1jiII<?i> in tlie ¥mt, bj 
atonvxmeiit HTid rof^tilulion^,* \% roally tbc* tormiiiatton 
r tUe whole [Hjvni, .ind rtiiders tbc a»itiimun<:ti of bis 
WraPi abntird: llierc?fon.\ and also frotn tbo bingiijigi.^ 
f particular |m»iaf^eH. it U plaiu (bat 'tlie Books from 
the Elcvonth duwiiMurd* am coni|>ost'<l by a Poi^'ti wiio 
luL5 ui> kDovrlc<ljru of that Niiuli Buitk, [or,uf J giri'sunio 
he would a<ld, who takeN no i^tt^ni/untw of if/) 
^B 3. Tbe Jupiter of the Fourth Boole Is incons^iMeiil 
^^^rith the Jujiitcr of tbo Firel an<l Clghth. 
^^ 4. TliL* uhject prr^tmtJon of Agamemnon in tbo 
^^BKmtb Btjok iM iiiroiii^iiFrU'iiL wttli liU npiriL iw\a\ gallantry 
■ iu tho liievenih. 

5. Tbo junction of those Buolcs to the First B^k Is 
bad; aa tbo Dream of AgAmcmnou ' produces no eficct,* 
and tbo Qrc^ekM ant virtorioiiH, not defvatiM**. 

6. For the latter of tbeso reasons, tbo construction 
of tbo wall aiHt fo«so round tho camp landn^rds is out 
of |>hice. 

7. Tlie tenth Book, thougli U ix'A-rx sufficivmly to 

■ Grot*') Uisl. of (Irctcc, voL IL p. t50 n. 
^ IbiH. p. f 41 11 < IhU |k. >4| iL ^ Tliid F^14T- 

what |mrcocle». Iio* »o Ix^arin^f on wline follotfH itt t^l9 

Oroto has &rg:ued coDcluuvel'r agaiiiflt ilie fiiippcMi' 
tion that ^v owe tlie conttiniouft IliaJ* to tlie la1>oui 
of Pi^i^ratuf, luid slio^is cimt M must Iiavo bdoitj 
kno^ni in il» continuitj^ lon^ before. Mc i^loccs thd 
fiiii-itiH liiri-wucii S50 fliid 7;6 h. ('/; fidniiTji iht* H]^k*ii- 
dour of much of ih^ poclr; ^hicli \\e chits tears fmtn 
\X% contdxtf ; j'ot be apiiarcntly is not stnrtlc-d by the 
MippoMtioij. that the man. or the inei>. capnbli* of rom- 
Ikosing prnpfrj- of ttio sapuHativp kitiil iliut inakcpv up 
Ilie Achilleitt, »iliouM Ik> ifo bliud to the primary oxi- 
groncien of such n work for ib* clfcct ha a whole, tbat he 
<ir they eouM iilmi be i-f\pahle (ff thiifi ^>&ilhig: \i» unity by 
adding eight books which do not belong to the subject/ 
lo fifteen othor^ in which it w&g alrv'ody eompletety 
bandied and di9j>oecd of. And thoti);h our historian 
lo&ns trj the bdirf (*f a plurality of authom for tho 
Tlfad, ho t\o\.'^ not absolutely reject tho guppo^tion tliftt 
it may be tho work of onc^S 

As to the Ninth Book^ he refers it mora decuiiv^Vy 
to a ve|>:tr!ite hand ; and he makes no diHIeulty about 
pr«»nniTn^ that the llomend^ieould fiirnieh meoicapabh^ 
of compo!<in); (for oxampic) the wondorfnl speech of 
AcbilluM from XXxt^ 307th to the 439th line. Hapjvy 
Hoiiteniln! atul feliT fHnlr* rir^fa, happy land that eo ill d 
produce them ! 

It Appears to me that theee are ^n-ild suppositions* 
Against no snpiiofiition ntn there be nCrcitg«r prentlTip- 
tions tlian agnlimt thosu which, by dissevering the pntne 
part» of the poem, produce a multiplleation of Homers; 
vid however Grotu may him«clf think that eulargo- 

■ l)T«it«'a Hktory of Ore*oc, rnl, iL p. jio. ' IViid. p. 178- 

i lliiil p. t6o, ij6> 347. ^ TIhiI, p 169- * IKiL 

Ofiur ^ //* ix. ttui/ tr>i r^rrJKUi* 


meDis Htch » be clewribcs, do not imply of ncrcMily 
mt leatt & iloiiMe AUtborHhifK few tiirliW, I Aj'ftnlirndT 
bo founds vrbilc ftdmittiiig hi« critkisiiDA oti the 
m, to contcniit tlint it can Mtill l« the production nf a 
single tniiid. Still less oau [ tliuik tlial any une woidJ 
now beK&tistlcd wjtli the Eequeiiee of Books [trx>|K>6«d» or 
with tho mutilntcd projKirtiotir^ any mor4> tban with tlic 
rcduct^l dltiivn^oiEKt of tbe work a» ix \\'bolo. 

I will ftiiy rut ilml th<* j>ro|ioiind<rr i>f *ncb a ibunry, 
but tbat friioh n ]>ropoumier of auy ihef»ry, iei w^ll o«- 
titled to have ibc question diacuASed, wUethor tliode 
pfD|>trtionE arc indeed mntitatcd by ibe rlmiigc. or 
wIicib<T ibry nri.*, on the coHtrary, rofttored. Let itm» 
olMvrv^s liou'ovor, nt the otit»M:-t, tbnt it is the funeral 
aiguiQent ntth which onlj I »hall be CATefiil to dealk 
I do not admit llie diHcre|m.nrit<s'' alleged ; but ueilber 
in it rvcjuiflite to examine e^icb case in d(*lai]. miico 
Croto concede*, tbat hi8 own theory decs not relievo 
liim from tronflict witb pArticuIar pftSMgct of tbc |Kken>, 

Aj* n*i^H>i*tj( tbe Niiith Biiok, tbi" lb<<orj si*ei»it t4i 
l^roeeod on a inf«conception of lUe nfttore of tbo otfVnee 
takon by Aibillcfl: as res|>ect3 Ibe others; upon a 
»iniitar mihcoTKeption of tlie meaAuro which the Poet 
ititrnd$ ns to take of bis liero'v gr^-ntness* And of the 
ui<xIlm» by which tie meAii« un to arrfve at our i^tininte. 

It tukca thiie to sound the dc^itbs of IjoimT. Vtmi^ 
blj-, or even proliably, nioiiy may *bjim the idea timt what 
Acbilltw resents is the mere lo»a of a captive wDinan. 
and tluLl restittitiou wonid at once undo the wrong. 
Out tlay njisconmtc the act. and the man also, to whom 
the uning wu» diHW. The- aouI of AchiUcs iw Htirmd 
fhmi lt8 dept1j« by an outrage, whEoli w«uu to bini to 
ooirproliend all vice6 within itaeir He ia woundc<l hi 

B b 


IV. Aoido4: I'i^nnf </Hwfr. 

an attaclinient tij&t Uad become a U'lider odq ; for 
be givc« to Bri^is Uki itamo of vifu {n\ox**v ^a'^ca), 
and &T01I-S Lis care and protection of her m tb&t 
clmmrU^r A |)roii<T unil wcti»itiv(.t mirrior. In* i«1 in- 
sulted Id the b«e of Uic army ; and to t!M> Greeki^ 
whoec governing: »eiii)ment u^a^ aTdsf, or houourt luault 
wax tile denillieflt of all inflictiima. Furtlien be M 
defrauded by the withdrawal of that uliieb, by the 
public autbority, prci^tding ovor Uio dJGtributioti uf 
0poiK be hud bcuii taught to cull bis owr; and he 
krciily fvLA% tilt* i-oinbiiialioii of deceit wrtb LimdtTfwi?". 
Justice is ommged m his per^op, v-heii be alone anwng 
the vrorHors Je to have no sbaro of the booty. In 
tills be rightly jwcs un ingratitude of threefold black- 
iieiw; it \% iloni- by (ht? iiuui, fur uliosr? Mtke" ho had 
come to Troy without an fmerest of bl^ own; ic b 
done to the iriun, whoiie band, almost unaidvd, had 
canied Uic fiipi>il uhicb the Greeks divided": lastly, it ii 
dono to him, on urho«> valour the fortunes of their host 
with the hopes of tLcir eiiterpritte pnudpallydefieiidod, 
and wlio«c mere prcirciico oti the field of itflelf dnvcs 
and IiohU aluof the pnt]ri{>al rhiniifmirts o^Tmy^ Audi 
lanLlyt ubile the nhufe liriiiy U rc-H[>oii>Ltble by ac<|ui- 
eseence and is ao declared by bitn* (rir^i' fi atf/iXta^ yn 
SovTt^. Jl. 1. 299,) the insult and wrong pror^^ed from 
one. ^hopiu avarice and irresohilion made him 111 thu 
tfyoM of Achilles at oiict^ b?%teful and contemptible*). 

Such iw the dcuullj wrong, tbut lights up tlic wrath 
of Achillea. And, a* he hrfwds uvcr Ids itijnncs, 
according to the law of an hononntble but tburirfore 

Ctf^, ri-ix. 36A, niio A^iUH. a n. L 15^ 

* IL ijL 370 6 : when In 

Ihid l<Si|-fi, 

roium* Jif^ii uiul A][«iu to tbf p II. v. 7A9. 
vrofii : tginvHtffv, 371 ; dmffijn, 'i Ii. L Jin^^ 

Rfstiiwtion Htii M« i>hjfri t^/At^Ut*, 


iplible. and likewi^* a fierce Km) hnugtit; finture, 
flniiic \«nxi.>s faiithT itinl hi»tt(% And reqiiirefi mom 
arnl mnn* to (jueitoh IL 'nm* ihore is a terrible pm- 
;nt^«eiQn am! ox|WDfl3on in lue reven^ : and l>y <Icffrpc* 
lie mrivvi* Bt n height of fierce vindirtivcn<"HS. tliat 
intiiiUHT mUniUli* Hn.f nincli*i* in wfjidi the MiffiTiiig 
of iis ol^opl cnu be carried in a majimtwi, yel "to as to 
leave his ^wn reiiovm untouched, and open the wi<Ie«t 
field for the exercise of hi? valour- It is not rice, nor 
is it virtue, ubioh Homer w deveriblng in hih Ai-liilUv; 
it i» thsLl *!rang<f and tvaywunl mixture of roj^anl for 
rigt»t nud jii^tic;; Mitli m;tf-lrivc on the one ride, ami 
wrath on tlie oilier, whu-li jtrt^mifonimon amoTrj; ua m^n 
of meaner scalf. The diflen:Hi(*i> 1%, that in AHiille^ all 
the parte of the compoun<l are at once deepened to a 
rapcrhtiman intensity, and raised to a tcflle of ma;niifi- 
ecnfu Mbich abno^l transcend* our pc^wx-n* cf vixton- 
Wc" mTt!H, iudeefl, no mon^ Inuk for & diductic and 
pedancie eonM^tency in the niovemt lit of bi^ mind, lUnii 
in ftbockfi from an eart!iquake, or hnntta of ffnine from a 
volrimrh, Rut n real con?kTHteitei tliere l^ ; and dtmhtlev 
it could l>e meafairvKl by the rutee of every Akj, if only 
every dry prfidticod an Achillea, 

Let m nour f<dlow his connM> uith clone attention. 

It eaii Ivanlly fail U» draw renmrk, lliat tlio K[>irit 
of vVehillet nevOT frnm llie first moment fastens oii 
mere restitntifkn, or on rcMituti^n at all, aa it* 
ol^ect* With bift knowledge of liis own might, wliicb 
vraa t'lmugh to |>rom|it him, hnd hr nut b("en n^trntrirrl 
from heaven, to tua^i] and stay A;jamemnon on iho 
fipol, ho ncTerthek"99 doo^not m much a-* entertain the 
thotjight of fighting to Ic«h*|i BriM'i^. lliii Ibouj^ht ii 
fiir other fHan t\mz 'I vill not U(t a fingf^r ag«rti«t 
ono of you for the girl, einco you rboo€e to cake from 

B b2 


IV, AoiAt: P^etryf^iimtr, 

me wliAt you gnte (198* 9). 1 will not hoM ivhat j'ou 
tluDk fit to gnidge.' While he ail<l», tliat the; frUall 
not touch an article of what is properly his own^ 
Not that he cares for mere poascssioa of <ii?po*»o«ioa. 
Won* tliiit his tlioii^lit, \k y^ouM liuvr hiidi up the 
iuvitieiblo nnii for lUa rx'trntfon of llri^U. But hU 
thought i» this, 'Ono outra^ you have done lojuwiico 
und to me* and. encouraged ^ well as coinmandi^d 
by gn^at doilies f Ijcar it; but rurt vvwi under their 
protniwi'ii and fr\jtitiction« will I inidiire ihat you ^liall 
BJr an:ai]L,' llje lot^i ho had HuHered now became quite 
& fiubordinatc image in his mind; punishment of the 
oflVndcrv, ami not reNtitntiLm, vna erer before li» \jew. 
Kix Jint chrcfat i#^ that of withdrawal (II. i, 169) : which, 
bo conceive^ will put a 5top to A^meninon's rajuiciou^ 
ftccunnilationik Next (^33) bo ftwcar^ the niigliLy 
oalh thftt every Grwk shall nie die *iay of Ills unmg, 
and look in vain to Agnmomnon for protection axoiust 
til 6 word of Hector. Again, in his praycT to Thetitit 
he intrcAts that sbc will induce Jupttcr to driro tbo 
Gr<-*t*kfi ill TuuL and ftlniiglitcr bjick U[h>ii thif M\m mid 
the ««!- He never droam# of the mere reparation of 
hiu ^Tong: when he refers to Bnseis in the greAt 
oraUon of the Ninth Book, it is for the purpose of 
a sibying Harca^n against the AtreidK ; his soul utterly 
refuses to trcut tho aHair in the manner of an action iit 
law for fiamagcs; bo looks for nothing Ic-s5 than the 
pn>Htratioti of tli<^ rirermn hft»t and \U hi'iiig bn>ught 
to the rery door of nUer dimI final ruin, with iho 
eomponrd view nf avenging wrong, glorifying jueitioc 
culiftucing the suHl-rings of h\a toe, and ma^ilying the 

' 7^0 AXo, V. jooicmiit toma 33.?^ m wdl osb i. 167. 356, he 
whM. 1i« hjbl nAt flOf|iiir«<l by Ap|)rir^iit]j- «pMlu of Bru*?^ am 
ffH cf tie Army i Btace la H 9' the culy ptuc h? ]w4 tcvdyv*i 

ne 0/#r r<iiii<ffttfy d^ifiKtM, 


oefMior ftiid ncliievemeiite of hie own might, to be put 
fnrtU ulien the proper time sliall come- 

The honj vritllJ^l^^'^ and reniaiun aloof Tlic Greeks, 
Hfter a jtaiiie un<l ti rucovrry, tleivntiiuo to earrv on ttie 
vtBT wjcbout him. Uut the hostile dijIticR, lessi uiuler 
rntr&iiit than llie frion<lly ones, give ftclive <*iiroun\go* 
Dicnt to t!io Trojan chiefs and army in tlie tig.Ui, They 
an.* iliw^'niifil liy Hu- <in.»ekfl, wlio aewmliu^ly rv»ct»d«*. 
Finding that^ infttcafl of driving;: tho Trojiii>« to tbo city, 
on the cootrary, oven before tho *iiiglc fight of Hector 
ajid Aj«x, they themselves bail tiuffen^l lohs, tliey 
Hti|i)i1y their camp with the defencei^ which it bnd 
novor needed whilo tbc' datdo of Achilles and bis 
prftWL'ss kept tho cDOtuy citlier \^itbin their ^idlsi^ or in 
the imiiiedhite vieinity of the tnty. This happert^ in 
tbu So^^ntb Book, and it n the first noie of iho coa- 
MTfpionc^fi of tbo Wruth. In the Ei<;hth, tboy arc more 
deci<iedly worsted under a divine influence, and are 
dnvenbaek lEpiin their uurkiit wlilh- thi*Trr>jaiH bivunac 
on the pinee of battle. Tbi^ army had auifered uo heary 
loss: yet the infirm will of Agamomuon pvOT way; 
and, poTtcndia^ greater vvils, be a second time couii^]9 
dight'. Tha a*lvit'u h warmly Tnt|rtidiuU"d by DttJUied 
and ttio otiior ehiefiL. SUII the coiin»o of tboir aiHiira 
19 nov by undeniable frign» altered for tlio wot«g. 
Hereupon. Ncetor advices an altcmpt to eoncJIiato 
Arhille«i by nfli.^r^ rif rt't^tilulioti and nf gUii^ witli cloeia 
union and incorporation into tho family of Agnmem- 
noil. Now it is moet important that we shoufd obeorve, 
tliBt gifts and kind words were the be^innia^ arid tbo 
^d of lliin mis»(ion. There vims no cunfi-'T^on of wrcin^ 

Etborix«d by Agamemnon, or nmde by the Envoj^fi, co 
Lchilles. Tlie woea of the Gn*eks are doeoribed : 
> n. V, 605, 7o>. t 11. ix. >6. 


IV, Aoidin: PiKtrjf tif MmtKr^ 

Arljilliv i^ rxliortiil U> itny fi'siilo lii^ Wralli : hv i« rolil 
uF ult ihi^ fiiiu ihin^ hm Mill ri^L'vK'o upon \xl% com* 
|ili;jtikco: liut ntU ono uront in the Hjieedi of UI)^«m*» 
convc-ys clic mlniib&loii at Icu^^li j^iined from Ajcamcni- 
iion in Hic Njiioti*f.'fitti Driok, that ho h%« oETi-ntWt. 
Tliprcfor^ AchilK-H ia not s|i)H';i)>ec] : )iut» f inuHt mid* 
ueilhcL' i» ji^^tkv sfitis^cil. Hue nglit ro-e\Ub1it»1i(Nl. 

Pn-0cnt!> aiiij pnitim*^ were i>ol wliat Ai-liilles watitc<l. 
Oil tile cciiUrary* tn )il^ intlimicd aiii3 inexorable spirit, 
buiiijT \<-'^ t)*^'i ni''^ diHVrc'iit from Ihe tWwfc lie Bought, 
tlic vcrj- oiUr ol' thciii wgs nmttvr oFncw cxiu^pc'mtioit. 
Tlic verv ofli-r of tltciii tijtis made Hcetiiccl. find in Kmje 
dogr^ riglitly «iwm<nl, to iiiijily ihcit itu'y wlio toTidirrtfd 
ii must takt} bttn for ii timn, vhofdo roinil wa^ ooiflt in 
tLie ."lanic «oi^iit nioiiltl nu llat of the kin^, ivbo Uad 
given tlie otitueo. (jiAb indci^l Acliilk^s niuat liaTe. 
nnd abuTidfiiici; of tUvm, vIkmi ho iff nt lust to bo ap- 
peiuod : but it i« not in oidcT to mwl-11 an i]iv<>nCory of 
|ioRMr»ions : it h Hint tiic memory of thcin inny dndt 
111 hm rriiiid, and vlaird ti|H>n tin* i-et^iml of hift Itf^-, like 
tJiG golden oruaments tliat bo nore upon lib nuiiily 
perM>i), ijamio!y> to exhibit and to rmke felt \m j^lor)-. 

1 do n<Jt iiidcod pn-sume lo say we liaTe ctidejice lo 
»bow tliat .\cbill(.Ht ituuld bflve rolenU'd at tlie period 
of the mii^bioti. if a frank confefi«ioii of wron^* aod 
apology Ttir in«uU, bad bct^ii made tog^cHlicr uitb tbv 
|>mtir<Tr of tilt* giftK On Hn? rontrary, nitU hii* bigtu*T 
»CDtiinents there minified a toweHnj; fnuwion of n vln- 
dictiro order. It was ob it urero the eorrupttou or 
abuse, not tlic bosi?, of the mood of the €»*trangod 
Aehilk-A : \mL it Vkm then*, und there, like evendiiiig 
AchilluMi. in co1oft-al proportion*. Still I think it Im* 
not bcMi ftuffirienlly observed that, as matlor of flael, 
tbe prmx^^diag of the Ninth flook waft tiidirally d«- 



J^tcptf nff<f*(t €r/«o. 


ri^beCftu»o fl trrate<1 tlio iiirHiriu(«M> to call il)^ne 
xfrnorQ morchiLiulJzci to be <liepo90<1 i>f Kko tbe balance 
of an Account 

When Actiillea 6mU lliat tlie deHire to aveng© tho 
deatli of Pacroclus has become paramount witliin liim, 
&Dd in coreeqiionec rononncoe tho \Vmtll^ it h tru« 
that lie does not stipulate for au apology. But nct- 
thvr t\i»m lie Htiptilate for the gift^v. BolTi however 
]$M given, nnd ttie apologr comes Nn^t in the fiiltoririg 
the speech of Agamemnon*, vpho difrtin^jishea botweon 
tiro kinds of atonement ; 

d^ J^Am itp^iTtiu f*£^vai T antptiai' SiTTCtPO. 

Wore thero any cloubl about tho PcaHly of thi* dintinc- 
tiori, it' iniglit he romnvcd by CTi<Jcncc which tl»e (Wy»- 
aej au[i]i]leA. Kiiniahiy, who iijifH-arft Ui hiive lieen one 
of the seconilary kings in Seheria, had tiot fot atoned 
for his insult to Ulysses, when AlciDons rccommcTnlod 
that all the twelve, who belonged to that onlcr, should 
make a i^r^HMiL Ut tUv t\t.^\iiirtwg ximugvr. But from 
Kurualu^, he obBerve», Komethmg more Is requisite ; be 
must otTer an afiolo^y m well a^ a g\(ty ; 

jcaL £<*fjy Inti <>£rt /ir^v itar^ ^t/tuptuf ifiicrv. 
And this i^ done aeconliii^lvt In tbe amplest and 
frankeet manner. 

All this altculd he Imrne in mind« when w^ estimate 
the ci>UMi«teuGy of tbe Poet tlirough tbe mediuia of tbe 
conduct of Adijllu«. 

It WW! not A moment's light apprehension, suffered 
by Agamemnon and the army, that conid avail to 
ohliUf-ratQ his respDtioent. Tlu.^y h:id scarcely tasted of 
the cup of bitterness; he required that they sbouM 
drain it to the dregs. He will not hear of the return 

■ IL Jtis. 67: ■ Ibid 134-b- f OiL »iii- 39>^4t^ 


IV. Attldtm : Pwtry t^ Htmiier* 

of Jimeln : rp trafnat'if^ T*p-rltr^\ With a niKlure' 
<?li>so ur^iiiRtnt, U*mM(i duiiuiicliition, miJ witherii*g 
wn^as'ii). ho oTor|iowc»* and silences the EiiwrB. Only 
iMiirnix oin adf1rc4A him, and that after a long paueo 
nnii ill tonrs. 

Yet the mighty Bi>int of \cbl)li?f) bway« to ntxl frv 
m the tctiipest of it« t>^^1l cniotion$> AgAtti ho has 
ihrwitcDttI lo dfpurt: bkhling tbera, with a bittctneaa 
tlinl mounts fur auay hito the rFgion of the sublini^ 
come tttt upxl day and sec, if tliey tliiiik sur^i n »^ht 
can he ^orth their ncein|r< lii^ tict^t sjHxdiiig homo- 
\ian] GcruSM the broafl IIHIespoiit; or north ."ICi^EU- 
litit thlH cmir>H.x of nctiim irould him- Imlkr'f) his Appe- 
tite for glory; which, m lio knew", he eould otily buy, 
and that witJi hl^ lif(\ ut Troy, P«^lla]K^ too, he waa 
nof\c]icd by ibe respeirt of llift Gnvoy^ «Uo were pcr- 
soimlly agrcL>it1>lp to him ; p«>rlmps jifrimly ph^ii«(*d with 
the nwc tlia: his Titanic ]vi>^«ioii Imd iii^pir^fd ; pf>HiA|i« 
afR-ctcd ivitli a synijmlhutic fcHiiig of re^pcl by the 
»lraj^hlfr)nvai'<l bluiitiiesH of Ajjtx. At any rale it k 
plain th»t tht^re followed U|>oii tlie Bpeech of ttie Tela- 
moiiiad cliicf'a gi-cutcref^ ofyicldiDg, than any vhicb 
tlic patoniAl oxliortationa of IMicrnix, or those mo^t art^ 
fully dmwi) fih'Lim** by iriTjwi?n^ of lliv nip' and fury nf 
Hector, bfid fttifliced to produce. In aiuwcr to Ulymm 
to Iho bottom ofwho.4c a»tutones& his clear eye bad 
jiienx'd. be ms, * I fthall go*/ In aoswcr to I'hirnix*, 
' IVmoiTow WQ will decide, whether to go oo* stay.' In 
anbwtrr to AJ&x. lie mako^ a more 6^utibk> advance. 
He now rto hr relent? a» to tell them, be will bctliink 
tuiAadf of ttattle ; yet it Hhatl only be when the iHUid 
of If ector, dealing death to Greeks, and flume to their 

» llml. a,i7-43, had 304-6. ** Ilnd, 357. * [JiitLii?, 

i^t^nvff mttiniaimd in mmo) 


veescK shall ha^'C rcachoJ iho lenis and tliips of the 
MyrniiHons. Then it wiH l)c lime enow^li : for Xhvn, at 
A/A «.<ti(rAiTi]>ntriit HiLiI IijA/A (lurk hImj^, be Irnvrn tliaL lie 
wiil «tAy tlie courw of He<?tor, however keen for %ht'. 

Thii» far, then, we surely have no pretext for saving 
t!ial l)ofii(<r liJis <!epnrlecl from t)je purpose of ItiH 
poem, of which the man Achilles is the i^-ntre nnd 
tniimatiDg priuciple, and \m Wratb with its terrible 
cHects tho theme. Tbe»c cftlvt?! arc now developed 
np U* a rcrtnin pDinl : not aucIi n poiiit jvt n-nUy to en* 
ilanger ihQ twiny, or excite strong sympathy or Appre- 
hension on it» l>elmlf. but yet eueh n point ns entirely 
CO time the irresatnte egotism of Agamemnon, ami 
drive Iii8 hilt linlf-mHscnliile cbarncter into ('ITort^ ngnin 
M hy boll npon the prop, whirh ho had *o nu^hly nnd 
li^titly, as well ab ^'lfi«hly and iinju:it]y, pnt away* 

If we were to conwdcr Achilles as engaged in a inere 
pei'9(ii}nl 4|uarr4.d, we niUNt coiidentn bim. wilhcmt any 
qualttication ^ihaleren for not aeeepiin^ the reparation 
now tendered by Agamemnon. But if wo bear in 
mind l-luit the wrong done wns n public wttiiig, that no 
confi-ftdon of thi« wronj^ w&» made, thut the otlicr 
king* nnd leailorv, and the whole nrmy, became in some 
degn-e iKtrties to tl by tlieir ftcciuie!*cenee, atid that ho 
wva thus »« much or more the vindiealor of gmt 
public rightd than the mero avenjfcr of a p^^psonat 
oflcnce, it \s not so clear that The conduct of Achillea 
after tlu: miuion of tho Ninth Hook is jncfi|>ablo to 
principle uf juvltfication, oecordin/; lo ttie moful codv 
of Greece. It muKt, lM>weicr, undoubtecily remain 
atnennble to severe censure on tho i^core of exccea: a 
cnlp^djjlity, for t1>e |>enat nolice itf which Homer liaa 
made nhuiidant provi«iun In the wi|iiel of the jioem^ 
* IL ix, fi4«-BS. 


IV. AMii^: PfftfTjl of flomiT. 

But Oif< ^laL'srtTon i» Ur the mv: ihr' innin Ksue 
rewod i* 119 to tlic jMJOticiil crtiifiiHU'iicv nnd cRcot of ttio 
*!nictirn% whicii llmnrr Iiat^ djrisetj for hit* work. Ujmii 
t1ii« ihem m HunOr little roimi for ilotibt. 

From the Ninth Book wo comnieiM'e Afresh ; Achilli^s 
ill hie Tnti'ifly ^(ThiKion, the Greeks in a mAnful dcHMiiii- 
tiutioii to do Their Inr^t ; cren A^mcmiion in r.ow ma^^ed 
Iti fivl what ht> hn»i hroiight M|Mm ihr nniiv, ihmwii back 
fVom bU tnoral irresnhition as a chief open hie |H>iwinal 
cotira;(i' us n Holdior. lUiJ re«aTvo<l to arvpoai* in the ficM. 
thrt hi* too may <.\mt his Inureln there, 
• Ami l1n"*ft hiteLiliniift nna galkiiitlj ftilfillH. Tlw 
Digbt foray of Diomed and V\y»fi>*m ttantW v^tM, aii odo 
of the mhior but safe tneasureF*^bv which a ftkilfiil ^nc- 
rahliip often makes its first eiTorts to rai*e the spirits 
uf II ihtwnrnicl htitij. Agiinu-mnon then s|i|wqir^ anil 
frho^is liim*Mr to be a warrior of a hi/jh, nay of the 
highi'-fit onlcr of strength and valour. The other kings 
cxtrL tht^riiselves wiih tlieir woiitwl rhivrtlry. But tlw 
decree of Jove, working through the accidenrs of war, 
drives throe of tbo four great cliani|k]om from tlic field, 
and leoti'H onir Ajnx; who, invincible tnherever he id 
f<nin<t, )Vt r-annot, hri evirrywhcn.', nor, single Iwinded, 
l^vem the* result of hattlo niong the whol^ extent of 
the line. And now como the groat exortions nnd suc- 
neftses of the Trojans, esperially Sarpcdon and hi* l#y- 
dan ci»ntingor»t» Jlpctor plnyiug rather a corivoTitioiutI 
than real pftrt. Now it ^es bard indeed with the 
OrrckFt; tbo firo to^ichcs the ships; I'ntroctns mast go 
foith and die; And the Wrath U nt nii end, for it is 
dmwiied in ihe biUernefts of the (oar* of Achtlloff, 

WUh rvference, then, to the tnaiu piirpoao of the 
(loetn. it proceeds reijit'arlj to its climax, and there la 
no limb of the lliajl ftejiamble from the hodr without 

Skilfid 4tt9Jn^ntfnt it/cQn/iirfWf mm§. 


deslroylTi^ tlio iymmctncAl, nift^ouline. auil brcai) ^l^- 
vclopitjciit of ita genrmi plnn. I spoak now of Iho 
linnripal fabric of tbc iiocm- Few wlio xtg not prc- 
\nT^ to |m1t tlisit in {tit^c-cw will, T aiiprx-lit'iid^ arft^o 
lo lUu pmposftl to rfiear it of tho two lii*t B<ioks wluoli 
Ui<*n'f"ri"tiartny rc<|uinj « sopiirtitc defence. 

1^1 nic ir aifpi-Mis well worlliy of remark, with viliat 
extniordriim skill llotner has contriTf^d to TU^u«t ht« 
poem tn tUo 80vcr&l aims which he lta<l to kccf) in 
view. The grnml one flouhllcH? wa,* the glorj' of \m 
oiMioLr)' ill lli<^ ]»4-rsiiii of ArhilU'^*. f^till he* nTiA hoiintl 
not to sacrifice poetically the martial fame of the rest of 
Greece oven to the first itirmng tlioni,whfltL?vor€fi]an]itieH 
be mi^ht make the nvrwy snHcr on his accminl. To avoid 
thi^ MtcTilicis lir wiLH oi»llgtnl Lo u)>lui1(l ihi? iiiililary 
clianicior anil jinwcr of the tlreeka in their struggle 
with tbe Tiofans ovtn when deprived of tho pr^weaa 
of their ^vfit champion Achilles, And yet he cniilJ 
not degrade llectnr und the Tntjuns. or he woulil have 
r^nclied ^e lame ennelusion of adorning his own coun- 
trj""» hcfoes with a poor antl uiiworth}' triumph- Tlmu 
hiw n>ur*u was to be Meci\»d nmong 9i vnrielj' of dtfli- 
ciiltigM, nil {jn-vsiiig ii[iori liini from fiftpoKite iiiinrtt>rv. 

We ecc at onoe how stradilj" he kepi in view bin i>olc- 
Mar ; how he bandied the erents and rlianurters of his 
puein Bu an U> give the most |iou'erful, or rather it may 
bo Maid \X\9 most overpowering. imjirecBion of the gruat- 

F On Hit (tb^trw^tTr of AcjiUW 
J recoiomiMiJ refcivitw to Colo- 
itfj Munv LfL 0]-«>r4*, L 273-vt. 

Mid 304-14- I" *^° r*^ 'f ^^^ 
trtAttni^il <if tli'^ [HJi'mn linn r.)iaT, 
exodllciiC HohuMnjit {if 1 fimy fire 

■URMT Ui BUV Ml) ilurtr llVlUT MT- 

vie*. flf< likwiw [WtMOr Wil' 

ftdu's &IKJIV Orilj(|Uc av ; aji J the 
Prwtftctkdii of ttio H<TV. J. Kclili?, 
L ^-104- This fvAncd wnrk, 
itlii^h criCiciAr* the pi>«tn» ui the 
ipHi of 4 BviIh Hn till faiij' ex- 
ani|ilCf At Icuat lo Ku^-lMid. of 
rirtvtJDg UiL- ti>nt' of HoiutTh: 


IV, Atd^a: Petrry t^ H^mH-. 

new af liin lienit wblch i* WTlt'd higber uid higher b; the 
nhole moveniGnC of the ^vork a« it proc^H. Let 04 
lion- eXftrninG whether, in pnng full f^^opc tg hi» main 
piiqioMT, he lisA Im^h obligcil to amfkr other^i which 
wc-rv al»o imjiortant, nay, tf the hrght!«t «>xoc[letK;e uiu 
hi^iiiiti, i;vcn in<|]»tpc'iiHib!o. 

The panmounlgbry of Achjikft it c^Ubliithed \iy Lbis: 
Gr%tt Llmt it) tbo \iiiih Iltxik t\m nhiilt! uniij', an it 
IfcK at hUfeet,and Ui^unied from thence: secondly.tbat 
wIiCD ho finally cornea forth, it is not in Jefcrcnco to 
thoac who liarc inAuked liini. but it is under the buttling 
iiu|)iiW-M iif his own heart. Let iw now pn.H'*"wi to iii- 
<|uiiv wh{?*hor the Pwct boti or Ua* not Kitivfioc] two other 
great dcuinnib. llm h*.', tu» a Cire<'k, done all that wad 
rtMjtiirfrd lo gliirify {Irt-iHTt-, ntid is Adiilles ita crown 
only, or is he tu substitute? ilaa be, as a n&an, tIdcK* 
catcd tl]C principles of tho moral order, and of that re- 
tributive justice which, evcu in this world, visibly main- 
laiiiH ut ItiiHt n partial Imlmici; hKwvL'ii hitman lulitm 
and ita co«]u-')ucncc<8 to the agent * 

Wo should look in raiiu I think, for a liner and 
nnbtfer exorcise of poetic art, thau in tho mode in 
which Tlonter has cuntnved to convey to 119, both the 
general, and In particular the military inferiority o 
the Trqjaii«. aa compared with the Greeks. Hnrdly 
any rL'adiT ciin ho so !*ii|>er(icial in hi* olwtTrvatioil of 
tbe p(H*rt>, nx not ti> tUg from It with this iDfenonly 
«ulfieioriUy ii))[>n.imM.-d u|>on liis mind. Tot there is not 
u pa^j^go or a wor^l tT^roii^hout. in which \l in asserted. 
And why? Jtecau^e i^w-ry dirot^ nsMrrtion tliat the 
Tn^aiia wt?m le&« valiant or less Ktnmg than tlieir anta^ 
gonbts, wvuli] have been so much detmctod from tiit 
glory of overcoming Ihcni, It was efisootial to the work 
of the Poet, that h<- should represent thf? contest as an 

Ot^fry ffiittt to GrAr^, 


luoiraoTu^. Hei«igbthivvoili>ne tliis in tlieooar«eiin>- 
thm], f«r wliirli bifl tlnnirgr ii-onM havo aflbnicd the nia- 
tertnls: tliat Kl>y ooiivurliii^liUTnijiin* iwu* iin-n.- |)ii|i- 
p©t*» wlw«o umi, At OTory Cum of (lie nurmtivt", nK^roly 
leprcjscnlcfl tlio imiH*l]iit|: force of fiomo <!i*ity or oilier, 
ami, indcpf^iMuiilIy i>f *iiHi cxtraiwonn mil. was ijowit- 
kc«. But ttjia would have destroyed the fulJ-flitslieil 
humanity of Homcr'a poem. 

Aa it is, he lias availed him*clfoftliC divine clcmciit 
to iniikv tip by its assi^tanoc for the coiiipnrative wt^fik- 
neas of x\\^ 'rrr>jaii chlofs : 1)ut it is only ;t t^ubdupd aud 
occasional afsrstanccso tbat tbcro ie no f'lartnj^itillcrcn^ij 
in point of frco agi'ticy Iwtweun lln? tw<» parlii*. Nor 
eau it Ihj uUhnut a j«irj>o*o, that the two deilii% who 
iLppcar in the (It-hl on 1>ohalf of the Trojans, namely, 
Venus and Mar»« are sent oft' it both wounded, tlio ono 
wbiniiif-, and tbo oiIilt bowb'iig, by tbt.' pro^xwt of 
DIonK'd. If th(? On*olc^ iirt- to *nP<Tr by tbo goiK be 
tftko^ coro tliat it nbal! not bo by thoeo ^od? who aro 
the mere national j^rtir^ns of Troy, but by a higher 
agency; by the decree of Ju|»itrr. now fempornnly in* 
deed, but HTpctlv^ty, net a;*ain«l them. 

It h by Bu indi^ltnitoly r^roat number of t;troko8 and 
toiich&s (?ttcb indefinitcdy »ma]b that Homer ha* gained 
hi* olijei^ The Trojati ■iic*i'vs*i-» nre nlwiiy« efR*c?twI with 
the coneutrenco of Mipemamral power: the Greeks not 
uufi'cqucntlj' Mitbout, and sometimes even against it^. 

He a* it were set« up the Trojans* «o to spenk. by 
gunc^'ralitieH; but be gives to ibo Grv<-kH, with nertaiu 
ooc&SJoiiaI ejcceptioiMs tbo whole detail of Mclid nchicvtv 
meciL ^TnetimeH bu idlows a |ianic of doubt and fear 
to seiica their host, hut he takes care to nrnke the Ai*n* 
timent only flit tike a moraiiitary shade over the rud. 

* a xvi. 78a 

Thus, when llie a«wmWctl chicfUins of tlie Greek army 
)i4?Mtale U^ accept tlie cballt'iigL? of llt'cEor*. 

But oftcr a rfiort intcTval, ami ft proper ftj>pf*K Dino 
cliiim|i!oiii« fi|>jH.7tr. vm^h ami ull huniiit^ to meet Hector 
ill vinglr c(^TiLlT£it. Siiiiietiirioft lie eontrives to direct 
Ilia praises to nmrtlAl tippeamnce and exterior, but 
carefully avoiija tbe real toucUea of bcroic chnnict^T ; na 
when lie tiestons on Wrw the noMc »imilv of lUg 
^rirov fx^cf. Generally ho |»ay» off, 11* it wore, iho 
Trtijnns with high'Smindtng ^orvlfl, niid ri?*<'rtcft nearly 
all the true- ijuaIiEjck of herot:^, ti^ well aft tlieir exploits, 
for the AHiJ^aii**, With them an* the ^igscily, ("oii- 
sistODi^y, firmnefif, prompliiude. enteqtrw, |K)wer of 
nrtaptiu^ mcitnjii to ends comprehcmiT<*nc>'^ of view, as 
well w mniti ntrcngtli of hand. But by tlic cxpedicntfl 
[ Imvi* uii-nliuiii-d. fht' Tri>j«MA are mii^eil to^ and kept 
at nnd no more tlian at, the level necessary to ntako 
them worthy and creditable antognnist^ One other 
engine for the purpose las been employed by bim, 
niiuudy, th(? rral vjilour and miinhniid nf lh« Lfrian 
kh^^ and forceii^, with uhom h<> liad ovidentlyn strong 
and peculiar pympathy ; wh'»se cbicf, Sarpcdon, » rvully 
A better riaii in war tliaii Hector, though innch le»« 
pretentious: and who. under this prince, achieve the 
only real, gieat, and iu'lcpcudent success that is to be 
found on that side throughout the whole course of the 
jHKMiis uanndy. tlie firnl forcing nf thi^ On.'Crk en- 

* II. rii 53, 
work w«cl CO pixw, I \thTi f^jund 
niflhwl work i>f Wtldier. Gric' 

pTiIlolojfifjJ cvidrAor appvAri lo 
htvp ^teeR ft'ivntlr I'tiUttQnl nf a 

f\o9c iel&tklTil^i}li Ifclvccti tile 

Otartf ^vrn to Gn^^. 


The Trojau ihrctiority iinl9G<l IW vorj nia^U mnre 
pal|>ably \n ihe cliicft* tlmn in tUo cotijiiion soldiers. 
Between the bulk of iLl- anny od tbc one side and on 
tlie «>tlK'r, Ilnrr)['r riT|in:!H*ii1^ no fj^rviit — tlI Ujt/Mt no 
glnring: diAVroncc* Sometimcai the %1ic ie* carrK^I on 
upon terms purely e()ual', us during the forencou of 
cbo (lay iu tie Eleventh Book; where there is sii\*e* 
rtorily, it w lustipits} Uy t\n> Grei^ks* r>r to tho Trojanft\ 
Qccord'm^ ^4 tlio oxij^ciiciotf of the poem may require. 
Sttll he Ci?i)trjvc4 sumc note of diJIercnce »o as to 
draw a Uuif |j4>Lweeri Hie merit of tim re^fmctive »ie* 
cewes; thus, when the Trojans turn the Greek* to flight, 
there is comntoaly an iutinution, in more or \ee9 ^oneml 
tcmts, of B. divine agency stimulating tliem. Hostile 
wett|H«n* aru indvLnl ofloti tiirnvd rwide on hrlmlf of 
Grofkji: but only in ouc Inatanee, I iMnk, ilo the 
Greeks derive decided advauta^ from a ]>anie divntely 
inspired: it in when^ in the Sixteenth Book. Jupiter 
iiivtiU into Hector tbe spirit orf4?Hr^ 

This absence of broad coiitmst betweon the wo mU 
dicricH is 10 entire accordance with what wo have seen 
TeaM>n to iiivAiune n» to their eotiipoHition; iiainelvr 
that the rank and Itit* 4>n linth fideii waa in all llkclibootl 
coni|)06ed from kindred and Pelapgian races. 

Yet a strong Jealou»y on behalf of bie< country ifl ever 
the pred 111 nil taut sentiment in llie Poetic mind; and 
acc<inliiigly Iiu Initinnate*, ultb ntncti art^ nnggestlonff 
vhieh keep even the Trojan soldiery somewhat below 
tlieGrccks: while to the chieftnine of the Gre**k army, 
though his laudatory ejiithetsare nearly ^» higli on tlic 
ouo side lu ou tlie other, he A>«igna tn luruou an enor- 
inou$ ftu|>eriority,both military and intelleetusl Aceofd-* 
ingly, when wc come to coat up tho results of the actual 

■ ILrliLjj*. xvl$6^. xrtl $^. 

* IL xii. 65/6, 


IV. Aoido^: P^iry of HomPt. 

encounterti, m-o aro asU>un(1od at the littlctwtf, Uie 
almost iiotliinpicssi, of tlif? Trnjnii achicvdiientA. and at 
i\w largo liHvork wrmijrht liy lb<'irojitmikei)Ut,4>veu dur- 
liii; tlio pcrbfl uhcn A^lilDofl vnu» in e»tmn^tn«DtV- 

Aa regards tlio artiiics at lariSe, oI^mtvo llic i4mi1oa 
used ID the Fourth Uook^. The Greek* move in ifilenco 
Uid iJi«ei|i1iiir, like tlio Jiwolling wavo** wht-ti Um^ t*»in* 
fMMt i0 Jufcl btigiiminfr tfl pulher; the Trojans, like in* 
nuDicniblo 8liec|), who Hinod bleattng in the fold while 
ihvy are iH-iiig ]ll[l)ced^ In the Fifth Uook. while it Is 
metttioneil, a<f if cn^nally, that Apollo, Mnrv, mid ErU 
wore attrrSn^ aud keepifi^ up the TroJkUf), it i« vub- 
joiiied, u'Hhout <^tcn!fibk reference lu tlifl intimfUioii, 
but plAifily in nitfiil <T>utni»t vrilb it, ihtti the <Jrcel(& 
found sufficient ioceiitivoa in the eKhortaUoiis of tlw 
two Ajaxee, of IMyaeos, and of Diomed', A^n, when 
Hector returns, aUcr bia battle with Ajax\ to his com- 
nidvH. wo nre told I.liiit tboy njoieerl in finding him 
rt-istoreil to them id mfvty, coiitmrylothelroxitocttLlioii, 
ocArrovTct <T6oy fhat, Qix tlic otltcr hfliid, it is added, 
the Gi'ecka led Ajax to A^memuoii, exulting in bis 
VJclory ovL<r Hector (tf^fifn^oTa vUii). The Greeks feel 
no Omtikfulnetiv, because they had, we at^ cTideiitly (*> 
tiDflcrvtimd, felt no fear. And the chief rcjoiccft tii bit 
victnry, which it rcivlly v*aj*. It 'vr\^ iudcctb cimIinI ii^ n 
druuii bntUo, tlmu^h AJ!ix hnd }md Uk* U^hE of ic at every 
Stage ; but not h^ niLcli for the honour of Hector, as fnr 
the intrpoMrA of the poem, siiice Hector bad to meet 
Acbillcs in the field, and he would have bwn dcgmdevl 
byoiieounternijf an unUG;oni«t that anybody elftuliad |ial- 
pably wor«te<l. To fttat^; the |iar&<lox aj» Itonierhad to 

p Thii* vfoutd ht bffit fd^DWn hy 1 Vcr. 4* 1-39^ 
4 I1M lif lUi* iwtaidvrMe pci-i^n- ' Vcr. 517-jcx 
Agea ftUiu uu tht two «idv re- ■ IL v. 517^21. 

/fifCWonVy y/arrivy m f^€ Vfii^jf. 


confront it, tlic problem waa to mako Aj&x coQfiueror« 
witliout letting Hector be coiiquero^L 

VV'lien vce look to the ca»o of the cliiefloins us a 
whol€», the contrast is j^Iarin^. No first ratD, or ctcii 
second rate, Greek cliit-fCain is ever killed in fiiir field: 
Tlc|tok'miin. ftlniii b}' HariHxIoti.cninefl t.ljo nenrpRt lo that 
rank, hut i« not fii It* Pfttroclus is only slain aftor 
bcin^ disarmed by Apollo: end hcTU it sccnis to mo 
9$ if for once tlie Poet had a littlo oirvrahot \m mark ; 
for tliB Briifico is grof^s, and covc-nt the pretended ex- 
ploit of Hectcr witli indeTlblo di^j;mce. In fact. Hector 
Dover oDcc iu?hiLn-c« q coimidcrahio ^eccaa In the field : 
tlioug^li only Arliilles the (ir*t Greok warrior, is allrnweJ 
coniplet4^ly to uverivtint? Mm", yet lie i« dceiileilly infu- 
rior in Qght CO boili Diomed ami AJox, wlio jr>intly 
occupy the two next (duccif. but m bt-twi-en nhom 
Homer lias not di-ciMvely ninrked thii eluitif to pre- 
cedeuc(>. In genera! term*, he gives it to Ajax moro 
onipti&tically\ but lio dct4iiE» more nnd greater acta of 
prowet« in favour of Diomed, 

Kvrn with A;*iinirTiinon Heetor i* admonUUGd, on 
tlio part of Jupiter, not to (rontt-rn! : nnd ho falbvrs the 
AdTice. Of the Trojan chief* who really fight* n large 
pro)>ortjo]i are vlain; OlAtu'tLM, .'l*'n<ui«, DL-ifthohun, nnd 
Polydamns are llie moat cou^idcmble who survive. No 
eminont Trojan in feet is ever allowe^l to dispiny real 
beroL»m, except under circunistanccs where the iwuo is 
qtiiti-* bo|Hdi^4i: itcciirdingly Hninvr Inn never kiji^ 
Toniid^d Hector with true bernic jfrnndenr, In deeil a* 
vieW OS \Tord, until his final battle n^in^t Achilk-s 
when he i? At last brought to bay, and when hifl doom 
id ct?TtJdn. All the considerable injurtes inAieted upon 


iV, AMm: fA« Ftoi f/tUr. Hind. 

groat flreofe chitiflaiiiH sne from caiui«y not implviii^ 
pergonal prowess in Ibeir rivaU: from tie arrows of 
Pjuidarus or of Parj«, or by the cliaiicc hit of CAine 
insignificant, or at the lejist Hecondarj. but dc^perftte 
Trojan, ench a)» Socus. or ^\i^\\ fts Coon, struck vxeiv tfl 
lio i« liimHolf receiving nr nbout lo receive liis own 
dcAth-bltiw^, But for tliew ignoble wooDcIt^ nfaich wero 
inf1trfi*i1 iin tiiuiij dueffl. inrluding three prime lieroe*, 
Aframemnon, l>:otin!(l» and UlvfiSrti, ibe Greeks accord* 
ing to tbo ngeiicy of tho poem oa it etands, never would 
have been driven back ui^on their shi|)s at all. 

Now HfumVn difliculty in this m:itt*;r wiw ntrt >ini|ily 
thill whioh lias bi^on Ijon-tofon' |»<>inl(sl out. or which 
lias been coniinotily M]f>{K)3<^d. Mm aim. saj** Hornc', 
ill nt]>ryM^ni1ii)g Lhi; <lisaMt<-r» of the Oreeka K ut jtrr rat 
Achiilis virtm in£igtthtm\ ^uij/jie qrt/! dcAfi/nti Ad^H 
mccumhunt, cddeni roddttd thicunt. But this \% euroly 
a misatatement of the caao. Ilomor has not repre- 
lieiiied the Oreeki^ 'pht-\ Achil)p» an sujkerior to the 
TrojanSf and tbo Greeks minuA Achillea a^ infii^rior to 
them. Thifi was what n vulgar nrti«l, w]m>f^o iniinl 
rould uiilj huhl nnc itft-a at a time woiihl have done; 
nuy, wliat it waa ilifTlcnIt ti> avoid doing, fur it win vita) 
to Homor'fi purpow that the vengoanoo of Acddlloi 
should be completely aatiated : it vrsk^ not lo be thought 
of that tiii^ traitFicendeiit characler, this Hleal hero^ 
should ho balked by man of woman born ; the whole web 
of the Poet's thought would have been rent acroce, bad 
i\w.vt\ been railtin< In siucih a jH>inL What was nredfiil 10 
this view eouhl only bo aceomplialiod by the extremeat 
ealamitiefl of the Greeks- Tiiese calaioilks ho bad to 
bring about, and yet to give to tho Greeks a real sn- 

' RjLc iLNd tL xxiv, !L iv, vol viii> p 601. 8««, hovcter, ako |x8m. 

Ctm^ieiittff noffntriwt oftht ^/tfrn. 


pcriorily of tnilftanr virtue. We li«Te weti atlrL-aU^ 
how he effWcU'J tho lattfr: liow Hi<l ho inan&]i;e tlis 
former? Partly by giving: Acbiltcs, in right of hia 
iDothcT Thcti?, such dii intoreit in iho conrla of 
lioitvf>ii, Oft to climw n iiri'pnmlt^ratiiif^ flivino A^ney 
for the time or the dide of the Trojunji; i^irtly by & 
skilful use of the chances of war, in &aai|:ii]n|: to Trojr 
a sLiperiority in the comparatively ignoble skill fas it 
iff«» tlion ii*i*4!) of the l>ow, Thn« bf raii^i.-^ tho Crocks 
to be worsted, iiotwithiitJUKliu^ lUtAr *u|Jt'ri(»niy : by 
Iheir being worsted, he flati«ti<-9 the exigencies of bi^ 
plot ; by exhibiting their AU|M-riiirity, ho fulfilft the cotu 
dition« of his own office an a nationnl poet. To ft]^ak 
of the? irgcnuity of Homer may sound ttnin^, for wo 
wrv accustomed to lusociate his name with idi^es of 
greatf'r nnt]knev»: but iitill hi« ingc>niiity. in this ail- 
jtiifitnK'iit of conflictini; donrntnU upon hftir, fi|»penn ift 
be nuch aH has never been surp^i^^-d. 

And lier« f, Uyr one, r^iiiiot but ftdmiiv ihi? w^y In 
which Homer has made puqiosiw, which others vould 
have found contlictJEig, to serve as reciprocal auxilia- 
ries. The Knibassy of the Ninth IJook ceruiuly glori- 
fies Achillea ; hut let os a>L. does it not hi'lp nlim lo 
glorify GroMe f Lot us causider what bafl lmp]H^<le<t. 
The witbdrawal of AcbiTtes ^^'a« at once full ah a great 
blo^v ; imd it actcnl cm tln^ wbnh? toiio lif the army. 
TbiH appear* in various uay*. We read it in the homiv 
sick impulsefi of the Second A&s«nibly (b. it.); id tbe 
advice of Nestor to take measures for securing the rc- 
f(po[i?jhility of uffici'iY and men (11.360-8); in tht^ 
Mlackneni of varEoui ehk-& during the Circuit of Aga- 
memnon {b. iT.>; in its being recorded to tbc honour of 
thai leader (i v. 223) tbat heUid not flinch from lu»diity; 
Instly, in the nmmentan^ reluctunce i>f the (iruck heroes 

t c i 


IV, AtfMh*: thePhti^ftJvIliiui. 

(D wtioiHii>UTHocUir(riL93), All llii* fathorougUlyna- 
lunil. I laving Want upaii a prop, the; were not at oiiec 
mvrzin! uf iimr reii^Aitiiiij; ami iiitHitsie strength. Tli<*r, 
like nil iiersonc ivho Itnvc not Icmnied tbe liabit of acrff* 
roliAncc, roi|uirod to Iconi it uith jioin' Ilcncc, nftcr 
the M-rr first touch of rom|ianitiTt> weakiHTss in the 
ftoM. they i-onceive the iJcui <^f tlio rftin|)art. Tli^y 
hiitl not rrallr been womcd : tmt tlicir cocmicfl had 
liittnH-^t to facx* them ; thetr (Hmfion wf» now no longer 
vliai it luiil UMTtl ti> be, nhen Hi^cor ilul not n^ntun? 
out in fmut of the Dardanian iinte. Hut Iho biiililine; 
of the nini|4irt |>rodiu-e<l. as was natural, an incrf-a^*<l 
«e«kiM*M. BcNiW this, Ju))iter, seeing tl»aL llie ten- 
dency af events t<^a» not to pivo a stiffifiently rafid anH 
ded^vt* tntiniph tn AchiUes. now inhibikcl tlio^e delta's, 
»bo iim- frh^nilly to Orccce. fiom lakin^ jart, while be 
hiuw^r (f lii. 75) ahimieil and ahaf^hi'v) the GnM>k« wick 
bis UttDdvf. Thoy thii« feel iluMn^lvcA thrown otic full 
atufto further into Hcakitc?^. What more natural, limn 
that tlieydiould turn to Arhilln^ and tryhi^dHpodilrJoii 
K««arii?. Ibi-m f This )« eff^ed in tlie NliicU Book- 
Tbry thiit U-vnmc arqtaintcd |»fBCticaIly, for the first 
lhni\ «ilfa ihr l>rm-tic*»t of llie seTcii lime? healed 
fntuaeo of the Wrath. This exi^erieiine leachejt ihem, 
tlwt they ninvt Aq or die. So at la^« tbe bridge be- 
hM them brin<! broken. Creece is ptjt upon faor 
mrtvK TW jpilhuit Uiomed beromiv thi^ apkcAttmit 
ml Ti*ie^ of Hiixnlrr and of common seB*»e- * You diould 
tu4 have n»liNl bim. By asking, you have emboIdeDed 
ami ban***mxl hinr I-*-l him alone. Itely ii|M>n your- 
whvi^ Kefr%>ih yoiirfii»lvt» with *leep and a guixl ni«il, 
ami thru. t^nW out xhv troopa, and have at Uicn : J 
ft>r niv |«il Mill l<^ found in tiic vAn\' Then it i>; thai 

Gr^tkJt miptriwr tftvii without AMittt- 



tbo (I'reokfi uiid(?T«tait<l tlieir position, aiifl, rrtstin<T off 
hope from Achilles, place it in tlieinsphx'?^, Ilenco 
tliut gn.*iit (It'veloinnrat t>r valormiH ciitT^irH in tbfl 
Elovuntli Book, ^lucli prorcs that in e*\uiA %1it, cvGii 
tliougfi Arlnlks w^rc uWnt, Troy liad not & Lope; so 
tlml llr <'x|H-ilir-nt of rlianor-ift-oundft, rlLnaWihg all the 
prune warnore but Ajax. is absolutetv iiw*»B*flnF' in 
order to bring about tbo required amount of dimeter. 
It apjkCAm to mc, I confess, ttiat ihifl 19 a maBtcrly ad- 
jn^Imtml, ^Vikv true in nature, and iigh irt art< 

But tirvt, after tbe f^nt ropulfto, corner ibo pllou 
balluon, tlio tentative elTort, of the Doloncia. 

Xext to the bktW and |k»w(^^t uilli which th^^ Poet 
Ims dlHirnminated tbt- cbanicter« of Km grcsat^^r Greek 
heroea, I am tempted to adrair<> the circum^iieciion and 
precision* vith which he has AMijfned their relative (Ic- 
j^rc-c-A of pri}iiiirieu(fe in ibe nation. To tho;se ivhu com- 
plain of the Doloneiu for want of a purpofte, I vronid 
reply that, ir tthc Hr»t pluei?, bi-»ide4 \X» picrits A8 aji 
npcrutJDji ivitli rut'crence to the circumstances of the 
Dionient, (for it feedu tlic army, n» h were, with millc, 
tflien tbuy were not yet remiy for strong meat,) it re- 
inarkaljly vni^ies the tcnour of tbe action, which with- 
mil it wouhl ha>c fallen into somctbin^of Mocpy siinc- 
ntws by MiWitnting fltratagem for forci*. and ciiglit* 
advonture for tfio ooiifliets of tho day. Lot tlio4t& wT»o 
doubt llii^ strike out thir Tenth Itonk.and tlien c^niftider 
bow tbe <ruun<f" nf th*j niiliUiry I hoi'i^lH iomm <if thf iioem 
wQijbl stand without It : bow much more justly the Arst 
nioiuty of the tnilicary action of the poem xi'ould stand 
liabJc to tb» imptUation uf iTionohmy, lAhich oivn now 
la of neei."-*>ity ibe be>!^Uii^^ danger uf llie wh<ile |Mieni, 
But more; 1 eozitvnd that the Doloiieia conMitutes, in 
tbe main, tlic oi^49-rc*a of Ulysses. His dn<tirigui«licd 

pan in l\\^ Second Book h political otiIj, aiiil has no 
concern ^vich \m niTlitary quuliGention^ IIU ordioaiy- 
militarj exploits elscwlicri- are ^ecori^ar}', and ala(»< 
«ciitti!rud. Tfj »w<lgii lp biiii a great aliare in tlie flold 
opomtions wotiM bav€ beeu a much leea fine prepam* 
tion, than the IIiaU now affords, for \m app^^raiioo in 
tlie Odj'Haey ; and it would aUo hai-c bazanled same- 
ness a< between bis achicvementH %w\ i\m ntlior it^- 
(TTtts of tb€ ^Cttt cbiefs, Be**id«, there wa» liltio room 
in the field, as tht; murtinl urt wan tbun understood, ^jr 
hi» diKtitiirtivt.! ipi»lili(w, M'tf-ri'li^iiiee, prt^Htniee (»f iDiiid, 
fertility in resource. But nillliary dUUnclion, ©toii 
in the time of Hotner, laj in two ^rcat departiiientH, 
one known as tlir fi^Hit {i^ax't)* tlie other f\^ amhutili 
(X(>j(Of). The Ifttter was of fully equal, nay, on accoitiit 
of lU sharper trial of moral courage K it wa^ even of 
Htill g:rcater honour To Ihia cla*« the night adventure 
eitaeiilially beloD^t^U IFere UIy*iseH i» iborouglit^ at 
homo. In tho Doloneia, Diomed is morely tlie eword 
in the baiui of Uly^k^s; who directs tlic operation, and 
overrules his brave ct>mpfinion ^lion lie bhJnkH fit, a», 
for examjde, in the inaLlor of the elnnghter uf Dolon. 
In what other way could Homer hnvo giwn us an 
equally characteristic illuetralion of the military qua- 
lities of UlvwteK? 

Xow tlii^ view of the Doloncia filU up, T thrrk, wliat 
muHt otherwise be admtttcHl to bo a gnp in tiie tH>cm> 
It being thu« filled up, let lis obscrvv the accuracy 
with iflbieh shares in the HCtioii of the poem are aa* 
s\pi^t\ to the respective chiefs. Nestor has his own 
place apart as univoraal counsellor IJIyases also, wbo. 
as the gr<-at twiu coaceptiou to Achillf», inu*»l never 

^ Sco II. L ia6-8, 3(viii ^ij~v-^ ■rid m^h^c'IbII^ jiiii. jjs^S ; Hod 
Sup, Agort, p, 9 a, 

In? rillowi-il to a))|iear iil a light of JiiferJoritv to any oiiv. 
In jio Tiiaraj2rt**3 ns not to eclipi^e t!ie might of Ajax or 
the bmvory<*f Dionn^d ; ond yet he ha^* all liia ntlribulca 
kf^fit <^itire for the great part lio had to play in tlic 
Od)iwBf, ami U never beat4?ii, never l>Hi11i><l. iiev^r ex- 
celled. Tlien Ajfix, Diomcil, Ap»iiitmtioin M^TuHau*, 
CVC11 cl<]€rl}' Idoincnouis hftvo ouch ihu frUgc thikIo 
d«or for thcni nt (liffrreiii timc^ nnd with J»copc prf> 
pc»rt{oiiH t<i t.lioir wi^vi'ml HititTii* upon u«, T1»e viry 
intcrvaU liol^cen tlicir sovcral appe[imuct<a arc mado 
aft wide as ixm^ibk : for l)iomcil i» in tho Fifth and 
RIeveitdi llouks Ajax iii the Seventh, AgtiiiU'ittiiun in 
the Klevenili. IdomeriGUfi in the Tbirleerlh'". Menelauf^ 
in tbo ScvonlecDlh. Ajcur excels in eht-er mi^lit, Diu- 
llied in pure gallnntrv of finiil, and utiat ik i^alli'^d riiif^k; 
Apiin*?nin<:>iiV dii^rntj ns a w-arrior is mo«t ^kilfnlly 
itiftriitoincd, yisl without hm bpinjf brought into rivvlry 
with tlio»G two etill jjrcatcr heroes, by Hector's beJn^ 
ronnselk'd to avoid hitti, MrrKdHiiK, secondary in inerA 
for«i>, thotijrh u-itb a «|>irit no lees bravo than gentle, is 
carried well tlirough by tlio care taken that be shall 
only meet with appropriate adventarieK, and the aanae 
pain*} are employed o[i behalf of Idomeneus^ For 
PatroeluR, as the friend and second self of Achiileit, 
Homcr'a fertile invention has secured a kind of distinc- 
tion, which d(H'?» not displace that of olh**™, and which, 
notvichff tan ding, la eclij>#cd by none of them, tie lurnt* 
the Trojan hoBt; he ?]aya the great Sorpodon ; lie U 
himneir slain only by foul play. I cannot vindicate Iho 
rlnmny intervention of Apollo, and the ineannem of 
the part played by lluclor in tln« cardinal passage of 
his career; still 1 Hnd it curious and instrnctivc to ob- 
serve in idl this a new instAnee of the Intense care, witli 
c Hp 1>«i&n tho rtiipf |kut tt*na job, Ui ^SK 

whicb tlic Poet ^-atclioa over the character OBpecially" 
afliis AHiiLlcs. IJc CX&U5 tniu, bj cxniting lirst tlic^o 
secruiHlur}^ LuninviiLt'iiL, fur abott^ wljidi lii^ livp liiPi 
towering. Thorcroro fao would have Pntrt»clu« shin 
iudtic<1,1>ut ttot dcfcoti-ti, by Hcccor; and to tlis ca|HCml 
oljrrt ]ir it]i]i<-nrH to havr mailr, |i<*rliiijiH tlllftt-oiilAlil^V, 
con»U1erablc sat^rf^c^'^. 

U|)on tlio v'holo, then, it wooUl seem that Itomer 
bnd Co inaiiitaiD a coinfdex regard to a variety of ob- 
jects. Fir»t of all there was itie relation to olMerve 
between Acbi1le» and all tho utlier |ior«onAges of li(« 
poem on both sidc^ of tbc qtiarrd. Then jn distribuU 
ing hJH minor A]|i«, (Im othtrr prime or dMirigniAhed 
Qret.*k iiarriai>, ubuut tliK great Alp, he bad to keep 
in mmd and provide for tlieir rolatious to one anotber» 
as ^ell siA io Iktm. Lastly, lie liad to carr> Hector 
and the TrojaiiA 4o lii;^1u tbat to overromo tliuir citief 
should 1>L> his crcwjiinj^ exploit, and yet ho loir, that 
(bey fibould not stan<t irieouvenicntly bctwc^cn tbo 
Greck« and the view of itucb nationul bvrocs ua LTIy^^es* 
Dinned, Ajax, and Agatiiemuon. I^ike Jupiter nii Ida^, 
from none of these objects hH« bo ever rumored hlfl 
bright and watchful eye : for alt of thetii he has made 
a provision dlike delibei^te and skilfiih 

It only n^mains lo con^^lder the outMno of the plot 
in rc^fercneo to the Providential Govcmmoiit of Ifao 
world, and the aduiini^trutioii uf retributive justice ; a 
nuhjeirL which Uitn Imi'ii nbly liJiridKuI by Mr, Umu^ilk* 

I am not able to admit that broad ilietinctioui wliieh 
is frcqiK^ntly drawn between the provision cnfldo for 
}4vtmfyin^' llii^ greiiL |Hteticid >iud iiionLJ piirpo^M in tbtr 

' Q. xvi. A44. Pninnry Argoinoni of U10 lUftd,' 

^ In hit ' ExMa\iM^Wi of th« T)e'liciil«^ UiJ^nlOrviirHk.iSAl. 

f^ritrutirf ju/tHcf in tht two poeim. 


Iliad mid in tlic Oilyecev res|icctivcly< In irticfa I Gml 
it nut "Illy rfuijirlinWe, but i-vrri claUimU'. In eiicli 
poem, llotnoroxliibit»,uWv4j «ll ttitu;,'* o1ws oiw clioseii 
human character widi tlio amplest dcvelopmi'iit. But 
diversity is the kt^-iifitu of the d(7VL'lo)iinetit in llie 
Odyaaej, j^iidour or iTi;igriiluilc In ttiu lliiul. Ulie 
hiirri<!&no-like forces, tlmt nhoiintl in the e1iarftc?tL>r of 
Achilkfl, ehtftii a greater auiouiiL of AL>erration from the 
jmth of vifrdoni. But there i** not wanting a pro[K>rtion» 
ate rctribiitivoi provi&ion«- Ulysnefl* aAer a long course 
<rf Bcvoro clj»«ipJino patk'tirly cndart^d. bns avanled to 
Itini a p(^AC(^riil nUI age, atuI a calm ilcnth, in hin Ithacn 
barren lni( beloved^ uitli 1iU p(-o|i]e |jro«[K'rinjf armind 
bim. AcbiUoA, ^n ttio otber hand, is ito loaded with 
gor^oua gift^ llmt, wmiilcrfiil a8 i» their linrniony in 
all poin1» bu: om% tfj^ii out- 1*4 the er-ntrc. lit- hns not 
the same unfulin;! ainl central solidity of moral etjui- 
poi«o. In him^lf jrnllant just, pcnoroiw^ rutincd, still 
indignity c^iii drive hini into an i-xtrtimitr i>f pride and 
fiiTron*'M, wliich adl for t-ieni correction, Hmcc U 
comes about that, «hilc die advotsity of UlyMeea ifl 
Ibo «■«/ To |ic«ctf, the tmiL»cctidciit glory of Achillea is 
attended by a fti?ri*h of devouring agoniet; the rival 
exeilenient^ of fierce j«in and rter<:er pleasun? ?tci<om- 
pany him along a path, M^hich soon and Mnldvnly de- 
aceoda into the nigbt of dUinal doatb. Alike in tho 
on*' mm and in the other, thp Imlanci* t^f ihi» nn>ra1 
ord^T lit prc*^*n'<xl; and tJiat Erinns who. In *o many 
|«rticnbir pa»«a^c?f of the poem^ Dioke» miniatui^ ap* 
{i«at!aDC4*« in order to vindicate the et«nml lavr^ Hurh ah 
the heroic age apprehended then), lEke^i«4> presides in 
full dcvelopfiient over tlie general action of cacti of 
tkeao extraordiiiaiy poems. 

Retributire justice^ inn.'panibly interwoven with bn- 


IV. Aoitk» .- eh^ PtM q/fA« Iti<td. 

man destiny (for Uiti» niuch tlic Krinuf tfigiiificd) track» 
mill iIei^ Adiilh'^i lit i<T4.?ry Mtiigtf. Tnk«> lilni, Air i»- 
«tanci-\ lut thf Ninth Itook &hows him. at tlw verv 
aiimnkit of his prido. It is in no li^Iit or joyous mood, 
th«t be repels life JOiivojs, \\'ho among readers does 
not seem to see bis «i|>int nrithe. when he desrnhra llie 
hot and bur«tin;r ri'^^^nitmcTU hi ]m br<>4stt tho «tin^iii^ 
tccollectionof llioo).itmg*'i*hubiis undcr^nc'. Even by 
ih<^ rrrepromihle curiosity, which compel him to mount 
upon ]iH shiji for vitiw. nm) tn s^-nd out P&troctils to 
loom tlie course of tht^ h&tllo, Ilomcir lias uhown tie how 
false was any semblance of peace, that he could eveu 
now iM\joy ill 1th gi<ldy elevaLioii. 

Tho ninijvirt !« piiToed, liK> NhipH Arv roacb^d, the 
firebrand is hiwM, find <ht> Hrnt. Gr<M*k ?(hip bums, 
Achillc» mu*l not dejiart from his word : fctit hi» n>at- 
loMiieMU now conceiveA an expeilient, tb4> Ai*TKlitij; forth 
ofPatrocIuB to tho ilRht. At tho same timo, ho tak<9 
every precaution that sajjocity can ^u^eat : he clothi*? 
hiff friend iii hi* owei armour, exhort** the Mjrnnidon« 
to wupport liim, above all enjoins him to confluo bimnolf 
to dvfoiixlvo warlfiTc, and not to follow the Trojitin, 
wticn repulacct, to the city. Wliut then happenA to 
him? Thul vhiHi ofhrn iH-fuUN oiirhi'lvi><(; that wheil 
we bav^ turned oar back ii|»on wi«dom, wfudoni turua 
her Wck upon us. AehillcM insisted upon the dieastcr 
of luJ* eiHUitr>n»iii. Wh**!! it I'unn-, if- roiivdniSiitNl hirti 
to seiid out his friend : and the calamity ho had him- 
«oIf uivoked WBB death tu the man that ho lovi^l better 
than his owu ^uK 

And why did PbIiyicIu* die? It wa* not that Acbillfff 

imprudently ext>o«ed bim to risks beyond his strength. 

He was nbuiulantty able to encounter Hector. Hector 

■ 11, Ik. 646-8- 

D^tthtf etin^jMt*^ <*fvr AcMtffJt, 


Imd no care, so lon^ a^ tlic l^vctk was b; tlm 6)ii[m, to 
eiJCounUT thirt cliiet And Acbille« haii enjoined liitn N> 
figlil l>v tliL' M\i^ niily, li'st. if hi- nltempLni llit? rtlv, u 
doicy ttlionid Vxkv part ri^ahiKt lilm'. Patroclu^ dis- 
nbcywl, and |nriahcd acconlinglj- Aa Achilles liad re- 
fuAiid III follow Ihr liiWFi uf vriM](>Tu fnr himHelf. »d. when 
he carefully rjbeved them, ihey were not to avail hini 
far the eAving of hiei frieaJ. Heaven fouj^bt AgaiiLvt 
Putroctufi ; Jupiter, atler delilioration, tempted him 
frnni the ship*, by causing Hector Ko fly toward* the city ; 
ai>d Iho counsel gf AeUiIU>« vaH twvr bafHed m he lia^l 
faaftted tho f'oiinaelit of r>thcf9, thi,' dart wa« lauiichc<l 
tliat yiruB to pierce bia 9011I to the i|iiick. 

TbiiflhU proud uill vvafidooiiit-d tonuffer, TlieffiilTering 
i» followed by dio rueoncrUation, and by the climax of 
bi« glory n»d rc\etigo in the doatli of Hector. 1 lo^v in 
thc^v Books wu »ot.^ him moving in iTiigbt slmo^ pre 
tenjfttural. with thu wholt- world »« it were* and all 
its fon»es, In subjection to his arm - But lie has only 
pae$«d fi\>ni one exceAft of feeling into anotlier : from 
a vindictive l^xccsh of fettling against tlii? Orruik^s io 
aiH>thor vindictive excess of feeling against Hector 
Tlio iriQtihition and dt»hononr of the body of \m tdain 
anlagiaki^t %\iivr become a »rcond idol stirring tb« 
great deep of hia pafiHionR, and liewiMering bin mind. 
Thu«, in paying off hi* old debt to the eternal laws, he 
hiu already contracted n new one. Again, tlion, his 
proud will must ho taught to bow. Hcucc, aa Mr I'cnn 
hai woll shown, the neoes^cy of tlio Twenty-fonrth 
Book wtiU itM beautiful machinery^ Achillea tmut 
aarrendcr the iWliog object of hix dc»ire, the wreaking 
of his Tengeanre im an inaninmu? mr|>«tr. On ihiA 

M n. xTt 93. 

(^ K» the 'Pn'nury Argninnit of tlic ll«tl,* pp. »4i^3r 

396 IV. Aoidos: tU Pht of the Iliad. 

occasion, as before, be is subdued : aod both times it is 
through the medium of his teuder affections. But in 
both cases bis evil 'gratification ie cut ehort; and the 
authority of the providential order is reestablisbed. 
The Greeks pursue their righteous war: the respect 
which nature enjnios ia duly paid to the remains of 
Hector, and the poem closes with the verse which 
assures us that this obligation was duly and peace- 
fully discharged. 

With these views, I find in the plot of the Iliad 
enough of beauty, order, and structure, not merely to 
sustain the supposition of its own unity, but to bear 
an independent testimony, should it be still needed, to 
the existence of a personal and individual Flonier as 
its author. 


TiiK idea of Beuuty, especially a^ It h connevXod 
witli it» TiiD^t »P^nal known manifestfition in tlio human 
form, niKl again tLv i^Oof}ii or corruption of tlmt tdcii. 
liftvv i"iiHi t!n*ir s**|mniir tsuiD** nnfl liisjjirv in tUv ri'li- 
gfloiL sii\d iimniier^ as ucll n^ fn tbc arti^, of (irocet*. By 
tliG iilva of B4>autj, I mean liero tlic conception of it in 
the Immiii mind an a |rure and wonderful enence, 
iicurly nkin Iq tliD Oivinc*: dt^nved from lipavpu, and 
botb continually aud sijontnn^ou&ly tending; to revert 
to iu source. By tUc corruption of that i(i<A. I mean 
the cfmcL-|>tinn of it cUIior mainly or wholly ynih re- 
forenee to anfinal onjoymont; ^ometiineA nithin, and 
HomotiiOL'S hoyond, tlic law* of Nature. 

In lUu vorkii of lloin^r, vtc find the first of these 
ci)nc0[ititiiia exeeeiltngly prominent am) powerful. It 
approaches atuiosi lo a worship : and yet is 9car<?ely at 
all tainted ^*ilh the *ccoiid, Mareely pre«ent8 tho 
amalleftt dofle<rtion from tlie very loftii«t type. In 
Homer, tliat is to wty, In the Homeric descriph'onii of 
lumrtn eliaractera and life, we never find Beauty and 
Vice [deasuRiWy iiwwciatcd : be Bccms (o iiavx foil in 
tho winciiKLr^ of hin mind ii^ nini'h at K'nM ji* lliiri, if 
rot more; that n derogation fn>m purity iuvolvud of 
ilR'lt' A doppcnt from tlic high<;^t lo n loiter form of 
bcanly : and tlicrcfore lie never aAai^Kiatea bis higLeal 
dvM-riptinii<« iif iHrsnity uilli vii«: dlfiiering in ihia nut 


Aiuvlvi : the «ra«r ^ ittttuiff in liotntr. 

only from m nmny Tu-atlicn, but cvimi fn»iii iiinnj 
Cbri«linii Aii([irtr«. 

But yet it is mofit rcniarkal^to tliat, even in Honieri 
time* the level of popular tmditiou on tbe Ewbjcct of 
beanty liaci begun to desct^iij. antl thouf^li be liftd 
60cap«<l ttu? uiint, yet it bad toucljc'd \ih iigi>, Ijct nf^ 
for example, toko tbal most strikbig scries of Imtbtions 
in tbe Dardanian royal family, wbicb &rc recorded tn 
tho pcK-^mw of Homer, Tlint family Hpj><'ftrs (i> have 
hikA personal beauty for an abnost eiilailet) inheritance. 
Not only Hector, Deipbobti^ JCtien^ u well »^ l^ria, 
poflai?fiM?d it, but Priam, even iii his old ago and nfllic- 
tioi)» v^as divinely beautiful as he entered the a|«rt- 
niciit of AcbillcB; and, as they aat at niL<iit, and be 
admirL^d Achilles, Acbillci returned hi» admiration". 

Thi? line n( tnidiliansbi tbi» fumtlyt Ui wriiirb I riow 
N^for^ tviTonU the best rllu^tmiioti of the Idoa of beauty 
ad ever striving, by au inner law, to ri^e to 6 beaTonly 
life. Tliere are four of these tnuiitinrs: and as ve 
pass frum ibe older to the more rpeent, iit each efep 
that WQ niakCt we lose some f^^'fiin of ttio Gnt echeroal 
purity. Tho carlic^^t of them all ia the traiislatfoDt 
iinee coan*ftIy mi<l witlionb ground rallt-il the m|Hv of 
Ganymede: conaisu^ntly indeed ko called, according to 
tho idea of tho fable wbicb haa prevailed in later a^, 
but mo8t absiirtlly, if it be applied to the tradition ia 
iJie shape in which it stands with Homer Willi him 
the tale of Oanj-mede is the most simple and perfecl 
asscrttoD of the principle that beauty, heavenly in its 
origin, is heawnly rUg [n it« destiny; aiul that tbe 
liBaven^born and bcaveii-boutid i^boiild eoiitruet no 
taint upon its intonnediate pasaage. There M-ere three 
aon», Bays Homer, born to Tros; Ilus M*ae ouc, Aa»- 

^ IJ^ K3dv. 4^3,4^1. 6qp, llion. ]i- 116. 

Tftr lhu*Uinid tradUivm- 


racu« anctiicr : and the third was OanrmeiJe. a niAtcli 
for gin]%, Cfaiij'mede. the most beauteous of tnen, 
whonii for his U^iiCjr, unci seemmf^ly before \w UmI 
eoinu U) unatttrity fnr fucces5)on» the gods Hiintehcfl up 
and Diade the nipbi-JiniTr of Jupitrr, tlmt ha rntght 
ilwc^ll ri:»r ever among tho liririJonaU^ : 

The iil«.'a of KancCity, iiicli?ed. m not to be discovered 
brro ; it* tra^tjfl cad only bo found amonjr the intpirod 
rocnrdft; the rcseuiblanco to the deity do^-S not rctke^ 
beyotKl the ficsh ard iniiid; yet thtr hum uf the lal© » 
full of iiKert'Ht. The T>t!n?r sons grew n[>, nnd became 
kings; he, that he mijcrhc not linger, might not suffer, 
tnighc not contract Uiinl or uodcrgo decay on CAitb, was 
tukoii up t^ that sphere, whtrh ij^ the proper home of 
all thing? beauttlul and g'Mid. 

The thought i;; somewhat related to that of Ihc fol- 
towing remarkable Ihice by lumereou : 

i'crt'liruiM' net ho, but naiuro ai]o<i; 
Tho wury, arid iiol thu mfojil, tjiilotL 
li na^ not ripd y» to wisUiD 
A g9Dia» of «o l^fL« Jk ttlrAin, 
Who gaxed upon llio fun And inoon 
Ai if he cAifkc uTito hiH otTD ; 
And pregnant vrith hU grmiilcr thought, 
Brnuglit the old orilur lute doubu 
iiU heautfj <m^ thrir bta\U\f tried i 
Thnf coufd tyotf'itd Ajrn, oncf h* dUd, 
And vrjbndcrcd backward, lut in eoorUj 
To wnit on Mow to be born. 

Far a« the tradition of Ganymedy. aecordhig tr* tlonicr, 
]« below that of Knocb, it ia set by a yet wider dbtanre 

ubovi^r ili(? later version of tli? «&fDc mle. Thus, in 
Euriimlc^ vrc find liim tlic Aiof Xitcrpt^v T^i?^v/ia ^tXov 
(Ipli. Aui. 1037): and Nvbat is more sad jf> to find, ttint 
tlii*- utterly flebujit^U Mitd (leprt-ssed idea prevailed over 
x\w orighml and pitrf^ otiu, even to \in ^xtinclioii, iiiid 
nas u<Iopt(H) ntid propagated hy tho Iiig1ic»:t aii<1 tlic 
lowcjtt poets of tbo lUliun roniani^e''. 

Nr.nt ill order lo ihi? Iruitttioit of n«iijiiJede comes 
ibftt of Titlionuei. who, on account of bis beauty, u-as 
rarriod up, not by tho j:od8 at lar^, to be as oii« of 
tbetin but by Aurora to become her liDsband, in whicli 
THimrity hi* rrnuiiiu'd in tbo upper re^jioiw**, Tliis is a 
etef) doivnwarilK: but chv noxi is a Rtntle. In the third 
tradition, 00 fur un is known from the authentic works 
of Eluiiit^r, j'KnpAft in tlie win of Venun ami Anrhuie«w 
but lAitliout tbeir Klnnilhig in thf relntion nf biiHliHml 
and wife. The particulars of th» iifirrativt* aro applied 
in tito carJy llynuu which pcrbai>9 wn^ tlie inotie 
reiwlily mieribed to )loiin*r, bccimm; it wiw believed to 
omb<>dy a pHuiiiive form of the tradition. Jiipit€T in- 
itpired Venus with a [w^lon for AuohiseB, and, after 
having arrayed herself in line vestments and golden 
oTUauiiJiitHr nlie pi'u^sented hem-'lf to hifn ax bo was 
playhi); the lyre in fiolitudo on Ida; when the eounoo- 
tion wa^ formed that ^ve birth to j^neos'. 

The next fall h the greatest of all : acconliug to the 
later trudltlort, Vienna, lo obtain a faTonrahle Judgment 
from Fan» (of tho next generation to Anelnetes), imn 

* iToT cuunple. vrc might port, FoH^ipirTta, in tbe llicciju^ 
<]Uol$ tiw OHnndu Furioto of dctto, vt 33 : 
Anmui i mid LIil* lerj vulgar 

Cbe tAiJUf B Giunu etiA »|^acc c dncrcwii'- 
<* 11 ai. I, Ul V. I, * Hymii, Nd Vwi. ^S'Bo- 

7%« DarxittMid trcJiticM* 



fniae<l him a wiTe or 3]ileti(lid beoutjr and divine cx- 
ttnctidU* whom lie iva^ to otttairi by IrvJirlicry iiiiil 

bbery, as vtcII fl« ntlult^^ry; &n(1 filled lilni iritli atiat 
HorucT proiinuiic^ mi evil ]>fif«ion'. 

The Poft, iii(lti"<l. U'll> us ri«lliing of this pioniiac, 
wMHi ni>p('afvi Ui iiii|*ly |KHvifr* far j^rwiler than any 
tliat Llic Homeric Aphrodite jmeges^ed. But he ineu- 
ttons th& content. infi:>rD&s us that Venue waa the v^inncr, 
malves Paris bonfil of tier [vartiaJity, utid inlrodiici^ h^ 
as mentiontu^ her own favours to Helena. 

Such was ihc (iownvi-Bnl cour^* of all in t)ie nature 
of man that belonged to the moral 9t])hiT^» apart from 
tJio ehtTtsJihij^ )K>woT of DiTiiie lUfveliUion; for ihe 
^thronologieal order of ihosc legends l^ also that of iheir 
nt, step L>y etep. from imiocenci- to vice. 

Homer, ns wo have already wen. reprctbents a very 
eaHy ami elia»io eonditiuD of liumau thouglit. We 
have now to obiJOrvo how strong and i^nuinc^ av woll 
an pur«, was his ap])ctitv for beauty. 

f^nce hen*, afi du!vr1u'n% it i;; not the Poot'^ n«agt> 
lo dccl^^re bimRelf by expreae BTatomcnts and elaborate 
dcecriptitjns, WQ must resort in the uAiml ninnuer to 
WTL-ondary evidence; which, licn^ever, cunvi-rginj^ from 
many difl<'fent and opposite cjuarterv upon a single 
poiut, is perba^M more eouclnsivo than moro statement^ 
,bc«aU3c it »how» that wc arc not dcaliDg wiUi a simple 
opinion, but with n Hi?iili<netit, a pnMoti, aad a habit, 
whicli penetrated tlirough the Poets whole nature, 

I tttiall notice llotnere sense of beauty witli refer- 
ci:co, first and chicHy, to Che human countemmc^ ami 
form ; next, with rL-«)HVi to animalfi ; and thinlly, with 
r«»pcet to foaniniate objects and to eombinatinns of 

' l\ «iv, JO. 

ff n HI 64.440,4^5 

As rv^jftirtlK ihv fthil [\n<l tlhictf limnch of thi« inquiryt 
we inudt notice to what persona, and in ivliat dt^re««t 
JIornvT wei'igtvn htrnnty, ffrim vbom he wiehlialtlft it ; 
ami how far he considerg it to jpve a title to special 
notice, in CAdos si'hcrc no otbor claim to such a divine* 
lion can be nmdc goo<:L 

Wu may thvn (iW^rvc t!ml limner (Iocs not cum- 
tnonly ii^j^n |>oi-^mia1 beauty to aiiy liumnn |i<?rtioii, 
who i» niomlly ixiiou-t. In any questionable inataa< 
wliere he does no osciign iU be Mscmis to follow an li]»*' 
tori<?al tradition, or to be constrained by Ins aubject. 
lie lia« covtMtfd TlnTsiteB with ©very sort of defonnity ; 
«nd in the doacription of tUo persons and of the twelve 
dinoluto women among Ihi? Hf\y doini<^tic firrvaatA of 
Ulyvws, thcpw i* bapoly a wor<l that implies bo&uty*** 

Melantho indood, the most con^picnoiis oAbndcr, is 
cnlM in the Kighteentli Odyw^y' *:ti\\t7nipf}fK^ Bnt it 
soenitt prolaible, that he fidluwed a Wal tnulittuii ron-> 
corning her ; for. if rfie had been simply a cre&tion of 
his own, he certainly would not have repreneiiled h«r 
nn the- daughter of the old and failhfol Doliii<i\ who^ 
wilh ]\\» Hix WHS, bore anus for Ulysses. 

80 niso the bonuty of Paris wa« an instojKirablo inci* 
dent of the Trojan tal«. Yai it ifl remarkable bow 
little it iH hroiight into relief. Whu^iv h^ 1% ckII^nI 
beautiful, it is by way of sarcasm and reproach^ 

The oidy paiwagi?, in whiirh hiit iK-jiutrfiil ii|»peaniiiiw is 
deftcrfbcxl at all. Is fh>ni the motith of Venna**, to 
whom Homer never intruats anything:, to bo either 
said or done, that ho vLnhes us to n-gaid mth favour. 
Compelled, however, to wt off tliL* ini|io«ing exterior 

I n ill %9. « Il>id. 391. 

^iffhf hfrtntft of Fati*. 



of this prina?, if only for tlic |>urpo«(7 of lieij'litcfiin; 
tlie contnwt «itli liis rnwanlit^e tn wlioii, lie introiliiceR 
him floiiri^liiiig his |uiir of spears nt the cr>mtiieiic«?- 
mc^nt of ilic Third ILitiH; uiid wliat is more, wlion bo 
agniit govs fortb id liie newly bumithcd amis at the 
cilo»^ of tliff Sixtlit lH;Hfi»w« npnn liim nTic »f titer V(*ry 
iiobk-«t of liU t^imilcs. timt of tliu AtiLll-kepc lio»e, 
higli fu<) iui<l »1eek in ooat, who hanug broken away 
from Lift rnarger ruBhea neighing over the plain". 

It was* uecesaary, in otHit Co niakr" up thf true |Rkrtnitt 
of Paris, thai hii» oxt^rior vhould bif tlitiit «pluiidii), &ii<l 
biA movcmi-ntj Jni|}odiig ; qii<1 it Mk-us a1h> n pari of ttio 
sublh^ plnij, by vrhicli Homier maile ii*i? of tronU iiiil) 
afipi.-fLrHiics 1(1 bring \\\t ilia Trojsu rhk-ftuinii fiiiil 
[>eoplc lo ^iiK< kind of lovcl with lEie Oreok. Voc 
there in »o»iclhiiig lingular in the fact that Homer 
who does not* I thinks re)ieflt bis fliiulleff lo aiiy otber 
n*tnarkflblo cau?, r^prodiiceH tlii* whole of i\m Hplciidid 
piuaagc in cbo Fifti-ciitb IIIik] for Hectors There 
U hero, we may rely u|>on it^ i»omo peculiar nieatiiitg* 
Powtbly \\it gnidgi'd tho tfxeluHjva appnipriatioii of so 
Aplcmtid a ]>aMUgo to so dc^^picablo a peraon. There t« 
also another ?*ingulanty in hia mode of proo^odinff. 
Thtt Hiniild is given to Hector wiihout addition, and 
the poem procoedw 

But where ho upptic^ it to PariA, immcdiati-ly after the 
coiichwon of thr ni.ihk- |nr«wij^* hi<! fiubjiJiuH ^Ih \\. 51'jOt 

Tf^Hial m Lhr mf-iiotiig of ^X* Vrayi ? It J* rf>mni()tily 
taken m equivalent to iX^Kruyp 'Wf^'hu', which niunii« 
the Suti. I cannot but believe that Ilomcr moan** by 
« H. ui :K an'i ti 50&. « t\. %v. lAy 

i] 1 

404 IV. Acid^: tkt mm ^ B4tMt^ in Hitmer, 

it lo *\p\\^y (lie cock, eallod in Greek aXerrap. Tbe 
i^XtKTwfi'YvffHwi', ]» u^d ns ft tiiniilo for Achilles; and it 
woald l>c rmcli agniDfit lit* maimer of Homer to use tlio 
sjium»jiiuk*ror»Tn^uii,aiul iTuiC Trojnti Pmriv, AVIivn-as 
by Ibo fiinit of the cock ho inaj mean lo redu<H) and 
modify the cflect of the nabic liguro of the sUlUhot^c. 
Achilles, who is not only the bravest but b^ Ear the 
moGl powerful tnati of tlie bo«t. U nho hj far diQ 
most beautiful ; ami tti« very $trou^Q$i t4>rms aro usod 
to Jescrikc tlic iiiipru^siot! ^hieli hts appoaraiico pro* 
Juoetl ou Prifuii :iiiiul9tt the [)rufoiitulv9t xirruwP ^ 

It mft)' be doubted, wlietlier Krij oUier Pout would 
lian^ ventured co combine the liighcftt and most 
delicate bo&uty, with a strength aud size appre<iohin|: 
the »ii]»erhtimaii. It was requisite for Achillea as tho 
id*-al mail, nut outj' lo vtruI no ^reut biimaji g'\h, but 
alec to have in iiumatcbod doj^tvos whatovi^r ^irta bo 
poi^c^cd. The beauty of Aehilles ie the true countor- 
inart to the ugliness iiiiil defortiiity ofHiersites. 

It iip]H*rta]jkii to the trharaeter of Uly^es, who oomi 
ac3tt to AehUleti, that he too should not be wanting ia' 
any thing time pertains to the excdlcnce of bunioti 
unltirc; while comj>letenes9 and ni&nifoldnesti is tile 
speeiHc character of hiu endawmeDtH, a« unpur&lleledj 
flptendour ie of those i)0»stsHC'd by Achillea. Uly^scs^ 
therefore, U iil«o bcAulifu). Again, the nflice and function 
of AgiiiiieiiitioTj r^>(|uin,- him to be wii object cupuble of 
attracting admin;tion arid rorcrenco* He, ooeordinjifly, 
is of remarkable bcntity, but of tlio kind of beauty that 
hsK in it nnivt oftUgitity'; 

p TL xiir. A>9» 

•* Od. id}L 430-1- 

r II. Hi. >l(9. 

Bmmiy qftht Or^ cAi^ and vuiffcm. 


fusAor V ovru iyup trOw X^av i^OaX^loiPf 
o£d* (<VT0 ytpapoit. 

Homor Dover abK)1utoly w]tbbol<ls beaucj from any of 
his Groolc licrocs, yet ho docs not always oxpred^ly ^tate 
that ihcy poBsi.ii?e(l it. Tlii* rmhiwnicnl is, for matance, 
never ^T4'u to Diomcd, biit U i% nscrSbed to Ajax in 
the Eleventh Odys^jr* ; 

It !s |>robabIy because Diomcd equals Ajax in chivalry, 
and Tcty far excels bim in mental gifts, that IloincT 
hfU4 t.bmwn wiMgbt into tin? »caW of Ajax by iis^tgtiiiig 
to liim cxiirc-8«ly, ^bil« ho is sllont about Diomoil, the 
gift of a In^ulifnl perftun. 

As with indiviiJuaLsaadoeB Homer deat with matfes. 
It may be observed that he lias a lowur clam of 
epIth&M for tho Trojaij»; thoii ttio Grcckfti and tiovor 
allowfi them tho benefit of ihc Kurnc tmtionni dc^igna^ 
tiona. Individual beauty in mini Js i^onfiiied cm buth 
sides to tho higher mnk^ ; but no Trojao. however 
beautiful, IS over honoured with tbc titio of i^nt^if* 
Again, wliiJc he never gives to the Trojaofl aa a boJy 
any fi»ith(.it tvjjicli describes tliem aa |>ossi?»ed of 
beauty, bo hoif a^tj;ned £>(»veral expreubioDS of thii ordor 
to the Grvek luec. Such arc tho e|»ithotd impf^t^o- 
mvTfK and cXUarTrtv, arid tJie i>1inv«e ttios u7JrTD'» (H* ▼• 
787. viii. 228.) 

We havo yet to cxamino bow for Ilotoer makes 
boauty a litlo to distinguidiod notice on behalf of 
thuM^ who hnru no other claiin. The pawng^ in tba 
Catalogue, where Nireu« j» hamcd', it highly ctirious 
witJk reforenco to tlm part of the dubjoct. It ia as 

• Qd. xL 4^9. t a (1.671-5. 

406 IV. Aoidos : f/ie seii^ o/' Beantif in Hoinei\ 

^ipfvs oB J!,vfai6fv dy< rptlt injas (tuas, 

Ntpcif, &f fcclAAtoTOf ^ifffp inro 'Ikiov ^k&tu 
Twv AXXwf Acaia^if^ fitr d^AVfiova TlrikttiAva' 
iXA' dAanadvov itje, vaOpov h4 oi tturro AaoV. 

These five lines form the largest of the merelj per- 
sonal deBcriptions contained in the Catalogue. Yet they 
are given to a man, of whom we are frankly told that he 
waa a poor creature, and that he had but a small follow- 
ing. Even this does not ehow the whole Btrengtb of 
the case. 

1. His ships were only three : no other commander, 
having so few, is named at all. The nest smallest nnm- 
ber is seven ; these were the vessels of Philoctetea, and 
they seem to be named on account of his peculiar hi^ 
tory and great ment. 

2. This is the only instance, in which the contingent 
supplied by a single and wholly insignificant place is 
named by itself. 

3. This is also one among very few cases of an 
ordinary birth, where the mother (Aglaie) is named as 
well as the father (Charopos) : the others are usually 
cases of reputed descent from deities or heroes. 

4. The names given to both parents are taken from 
their personal beauty. They thus enhance the title of 
the son ; and, as we cannot well suppose them connected 
with history, they were probably invented by the Poet 
for that purpose. 

5. The repetition of the name of Nireus thrice, and 
in each case at the beginning of the verse, the most 
prominent and emphatic part of it according to the 
genius of the Greek hexameter, is plainly intentional. 

6. Alt this care is taken in the most ingenious 

BtttHhf of yirt»4 utifi otfwrf. 



Tiiantior to mark u maii. ^vlio did m>tliiiig U> ftiMe 
lloinrr to nninv him in any (jtheiwpart of llie IJiad. 

One Ai)(i on<F otily koy is to be found, which will lay 
c}>ci) Cliv caxiio of th<i»c lingular provteions: it is Ho- 
mers iiitunite love of Wniilv, which mjulv it in hi» vjvn 
uf itself a title to eelebritj^. St» be dolermined, a|>jiiu 
retitly, that the paraj^OD of form should be Imtuortal ; 
And he hiifi pivcn cftlrrt to his detenu in ation. for no 
rt-ai)^ of tiK* Hind caii julm bv tlio )»T&ce wtdiout re- 
nuTfibcring NiruijK. 

fiL a U}^ markiid iimiii^or, bo hau givcA n kindrcil 
«inplia«in to the fMde of Na&teft. who wore golilen nr- 
nnrnetitit, and tWrafore was preBtiTiiabljr of strikifiglj 
karifl»wme fior«nu. With his brother Atn]>himaohiis 
ho commanded tho (.Brians, and bis uamc i« mcu- 
ttoDod thrici: (but that of hi« brother twice only), to- 
^■tluT u-ith th« fact that h*" wor<? giM like & girl*. 

There >« i^unieihing> as it apiR'arw lo mo, nio«t loiidor 
and rerin«d, in Xhh mode used by 1 lomcr of fastf ning at* 
lenLioTi thr^JUgh rejuaiLiim oflht^ woni, which li«4 wiftbea 
goiitty but ilriuly to Btamp uj>on the meoiory. We have 
finothcr instance of it in Il^xxiin 127, 

Art TutcOiv^t jftO^di rt. 

There \» yet another paf^^^gt^ whieb aflbrdv a striking 
|>roi)f of what inmy hv called the wnrMhip of lienuiy in 
llomor. In Che SeTcntcctitli Iliad, KnphorhuK. the son 
of I'authoofi. falh by the hand of MenelxLu^. Homer 
givcH him great credit for cbarioteenng, the iifw of ibo 
)i|>ear. and otJier accompLUhmenta; but he [lerforms no 
otlier feat in th<* |>oem than that of wounding in the 
back tho dinannefit and astounded, and hea%Gu-<ksortc<t 

* LL iL«6^ 

408 IV, Aoidos: the Bifnae of Beauty in Homer, 

PatrocluB. At best, we must call him a very secondary 
personage. Tliough Jitb personal comeliness was Dot 
defaced like that of Paris by cowardice or vice, fltill he 
was of the same race that in Italy has taken its name 
from Zerbino. Yet Homer adoms his death with a 
notice, perhaps more conspicuous than any which he 
has attached to the death of any warriors of the Iliad, 
with the exceptions of Hector, Sarpedon, and Pa- 
trochis. Ten of the most beautiful lines of the poem 
are bestoweil in lamenting hira, chiefly by an unsar- 
pafised simile, which compares the youth to a tender 
olive shoot, the victim, when its blossoms are over- 
charged with tnoigture, of a sudden hurricaue. The 
Poet was moved to tins tetidemess by the remembranee 
of his beauty, of his hair, like the hair of the Graces, in 
its tresses bound with golden and silver clasps*. 

Although it is true that Homer eschews with respect 
to beauty, as well as in other matters, the didactic mode 
of conveying his impressions, jet he has placed them 
distinctly on record in the answer of Ulysses to Euiya- 
lus. Speaking not at alt of women, but of men, ho 
places the gift of personal beauty among the prime en- 
dowments that can be received from the providence of 
the gods, in a rank to which only two other gifts are 
admitted, name^y, the power of thought (raV or ^p/i^), 
and the power of speech {ayop^v^y In the idea of 
personal beauty, conveyed under the names oJor, fiop<f>ijt 
and x*^V*' ^^*^ evidently included vigour and power, for 
it is to his supposed incapacity for athletic exercises)', 
that the discourse has reference. Nor can it be said» 
that this full and large appreciation by Homer of the 

^ 11, xvii, 50-60- Com|>are the Bympftthizing account of the 
doAth of tlic J/oi'iu/ hri^Tegrciuni Iphulamas (IL xi- 34I-3), 
y Oil, ^-iii. 167-77. 

B^nty piacfU amonff Iht prvtu fift$. 


value of 1>0()i1y oxrcllence, yvtis simply a worldly or a 
pagan, as oppasej to a ChnHtian, ificw. 

It is not true, on the one hand, that wht?n we c^se 
to entertain sufficiently elevated vie\rs of ihe d«tiny 
ATiil prciDj^ativi'fl of the «ou], our stATidord for tbc body 
n3«* titlcr in proportion or at tiW. Nor U it tna-, on Uio 
otlior, tlmt when wc tbink higbly of the voul, wo ought 
in «onticq»L'nco to think luoanly of the body, wUich id 
lioth Us tabernacle and it^ helpmate. In truth, a nonie- 
what sickly cahi KocniH to have como over our tone of 
thought now fl>r s>ome generations back, the product* 
perimp^ in part of cftrclc«s or cinnflcuktcd tcnchin;; m 
tho hight-«t inatt4T^ and due also rn [lart to thr ovef« 
rroudin^ of the several functiunsof uiir ]ifL^ But ifoitier 
diBliiirtly realized to hiniHelf what wc know faintly or 
scarce at all, thoug^h nothing is more emphatically or 
confipicuoiiFily taught by our n^ligion* nnniely, tifat tbu 
body is |uirt and iKireel of the inteffer denouiimtted man. 

But tlic quality of measure ran in rare proportion 
throuj^b all the conci-ptioas nf the Poet. Stature was a 
grent oh-meni of b(*ntity in Llii? view of the niMnoati* for 
wornon as wtdl as for men: and their admimtion of 
tailue:^, cTOn in women, ia hardly reAtrained by a limit. 
RiiL Homer, who fref^uently touches tbe jKiinl, htm 
pronhled a limit. Atnon^ the Lfcfitry^nians, tbo 
women nre of cnormouT^ fize. Two of the crew of 
UlrAse5» Rent forward to make inquiries aiv inlroduccrd 
to the <|iu?en. Tliey find lur'au^ big a^ » inomitAin/ 
and aro di^i«ted at hor* : 

<vp9P $^itv T fyt^ NCjpM^qr, KOTO 6' ionyvw oinp*', 
Ttm large hunumity of Humor iff alM manifcdtod, 
among other s]gn^. by hia sym|>afby with high ipialitie* 

■ Od. K, 1 1 3. 


IV, Jon^: tht^mgt qf BcaiOjf in Homer. 

in tile anhnai creation. There is im pasaagu of detr|«r 
pntUfm ill ull hin worku, itnt AniJroiiiiic)]i> witii Iter rhtld, 
not IMftm hcti^ro \<jh\\\^^ tbtn tUm ^^hich r^ounts 
the dentil of the dog Argus*- Tlie woixl* Ion am »o 
calm atkI <ittlK tijey 9cexn to grow faint anil fainter, 
eacli foot of tlio \erse falls a-i if it were ooiiuting ont 
the last reE)>irations, ati<l. in effect, we witness that Ion 
Blight anrf scarcely flutterirg breath, wWi nliich life is 
yieUleil up: 

'A/7o» t* aS icard iAatf* tXafttv ^iXopot ^avdrout, 

avrCt tM*^' *Oji"T^o, ^**«orrT^ ^t^tovrt^. 

We may also ti^e the mme sympatlijr in minor 
formi. A«, for ui«tancc, where hf> cays Telemachua 
W'eiit to tlio Ithfiejin fifi;tM>Rihty not nn&tlcndcil^': 

Wc are certainly prci»ftrcd to hour lliat «ome ndvUer, 
either tlivinc or at the leost human, 8orao friend or 
fuillifiil to^rvatit, wa^ hy hlf side: but no — it is simp]/ 
that some dogs went with him: 

A4M r^yt icvvtt vohai (tpyol cttovto- 
There i» im Hign, however, th^tt Homer attAehed tlie 
peculiar idea of beauty to the raee of dug^ in any 
remarkible degree. Indeed, it is only in eerUiin breede 
that the dog can be called by compajison a beanUfiil 
aniniah What he always eonjmend* is their swiflnoTs ; 
and Homvr't^ Ideas of be&tity won> uowhL*ro mure livdy 
tJjaii in regnr<4 to motion- But wu ^tH> tho Poct't 
feeling for form much mortr charactrHstirally displayed 
in the case to which we shall unw [rrueeed. 

Among oilier inferences which the poemii raitt? in 
rct»pcct toIIoniLT him^U^itcan bardly be doubtod that 
he waa h grc^i lover of horses and felt their beauty. 

Beauty hi amvmU, nqtrtiaH^ lutnmi. 


l^nrtially in colour, niiii^h more m form, an<l in move- 

Tlii« was <|uito iu kocpiitg with tbc bnbiu of his 
country aiii) bis nice. Bi^tb thc^Trojuns fttid the Greeks 
ap[»ear uot only to liavi> 4tin|iliiyoit hiir«(-H in liiioli it*e% 
nfi warp journeys^ nwef^, and affHcuUural labour, but to 
have ^vcn attention to developing tbe breeds and 
pnintA of tbc animal In his Catalogue, Homer, at the 
rIo>4(% invok<.*« tbi^M usi* to inform bim wbidi were th<* 
hvm of cho bor«cs t^* ""oil lis of ihc horoos, on the 
Urtx-k side. He cojistGUitly »«es cpitlie^ts both for 
TrojniiBi juid Grveks €onneiTti-d with tbeir vtincvMnrul 
care and trainirg of tli€ animal : c^finpoc, «iV<»Xo(, taxv' 

He not only trfrasure^ tbe traditions coiin«*eted with 
tbe auimal, but treat* them bs a ]>art of bititory. Ac- 
cordingly, >^bcn Dionicd deeires Stbeiielue to inako sure 
of tbc- boHM'S of iCnca;} be ctircfully proccc'l^ to nt&te, 
tbat it TAlHH<*iridni4i wfM»oFt1u^ ro^'Cf tlint Jupiter 
ga7e to Tros. To thom AachiseB, without the know- 
lodge of their owner Lootnedon. brought hie own maros, 
and so obtained a progeny of six: of whom be kept 
four hiinsptf^ and gave two to b» son ^^^nc-UK {W.r. 
^65-73) tbat h« ti)igbt fake them to Troy. 

Nay be goo^ bnck further y<^t : wln^xj, ejccept h 
Homer aIiouM we find a tradition like that of the 
uuLrf?s of Rnchtbnniuti, felclied from a timo five gene- 
nttionfi before bifl etibjecti Their children bad Borefis 
for their sire. Throe thousand motbon ranged over the 
plniiiH of tho Tn)9ul, ami made ibcir lord the wealthiest 
ofrnen. So light was tbinr foot*(U.^pi tlmt tftb^yikininicMj 
tbe soa it toiirficd the tijw only of the curling foftm ; 
and if tliey nwred over the cornfield, the ripe caw sus- 
taiiic*d tiKUt tri.^d nithoul *>ne hping brnketi''. 

In otlii*r |]lni*ii-M IlLimer i)t*M^HbeA with no less o( 
sympathetic ^'motion the vWM and fiery moTemetiU of 
tJio animal. The most remiirk&blo of all U tbo noble 
mmtle fi(" llie stall-kept hftr>c. wljoin every reader Rceni3 
tu HL^ us ^ilti i^rotitl hi'jti) mill flmritig mane, when he 
fcok liU liborty, he scours the bounc1lo«t |iastur«s. 

That iKlaplAtion. or ettbrt at adAftlntioiKor soim<] to 
R(^riM% whSHi with poelfl in general (always evc<*|>ttng 
esfecially Dante and Shakcs]iearef) is n sign that they 
have ai>|>li(rrl tbcrir vtIioIq forco to caroful clsboration* 
is vritti Hotnor only & )iroof of & fuller and deeper Bow 
of hiH i<iniii>aLhiri* : whorever we find it, mu may hv sure- 
that his whole heart is in the passage. In this very aimHo 
how ndmirahle is the transition from the Qim statiouaij 
vcrE€ that describes the charger s customary bathe, 

<iu$us ADt;«r^t hpppttOi irorcv^titt, 

t^ his mpiO ami easy bounding over the plaio^ when 
every dactyl marks a cjirJDfr*'; 

rW tbU adajitntiim of metre to »en«c in connoction 
with the movement of horses, wo may take another 
example. To describe A;:timcmnon dealing destruction 
among the rout<fd Trojan«) on foot, ue hare n Iijsl- and 
a half of itomewhat accvlorated but bj no hh'iuu ?orjr 
ntpid movement^; 

Bnt when he eomea to the Trojan horses in their Right, 
we have two lines, dactylic to the utmost extent that 
the metre trtll allow, exeopt in one half-foeC; 

ijn^cwf vo9/i>tJTt; ^^unK- 


< lLaii59. 

R^^mStmmT^'nt, nnd <)d£oiu*. 


Tlieii, coming back lo the tiead charioteera, he vi»tbl/ 

cl b' ful ytdp 

To exbibit numerically' tlio rotative JfstHbtiHon of 
times *ij those mcnibops of the i^nCenoe, n-c liave thffw) 
three very different proportions; 

III ihi; fiTtiit 13 k)ii^ i^ip'Ihilih^ til 8 Khnrt. 

In tho second, 16 long' f^ylbblcfl to 23 short. 

Ill the thinU 1 1 long £v||nhle6 to to short, 
Uo has iiDparCL-d much of the anme g\it\s ing niovvnieut 
lo th(^ it|H?(:^'h, which in iLe Ninc'tccnth Iliad U assigned 
to tlio immcrtol horftc^d of Achillea; though tho sub- 
ject includcB a reference to the dcitth of their master'. 
In ii^^rl}' eTery tine, diraughout the paHAOge, that re- 
lates lo their own motion, the number of ilnctyla Is at 
tho tnaxiimm.nnd in the ton lioce then) aro ei;;hty-«jx 
ahojl syllables to tixty lon^ ones; n proportion, ^»^lic1l 
T doiiht nur ^mVuig v\Hl^^^•\^^.■ni w lloimr, t*-Xi:4*|iL it bo 
among the i^lmilev, to uhicli Homor seems in maii^ 
ch^'-9 tf> give a iieculinrly elnalic proainlial moreitient, 

Itheana, king of the Tliraci^iifl, who arrivee At Troy 
after the coiumeuceuieitt of the Wrulb, becomes siilB* 
eieiitly distiiixi^i*^bed for the centrftl point of iut^nvl 
tti the Dolonda. by virtuo chiefly of his horses. They 
arc the most benntiful, saja Uolon, and the largest that 

tl have ever st^tm' ; 
The jnstjco of this panegyric is corroborated by the 
emphatic «^xpr^<^3lio^ i)f Ne^or, wiio |>nmouiiceft them* 
ai>d their uoinmilkled cxcdlcucc forms tho sulgect 
' a xix. 408-17. i IL 



IV. jlnnrAw; «rnji* of Brautu lu /Tmimt. 

of i!ii' 4))<ftfcli or Uie oM king, on the r^iim nf t'tj-Miw 
iiikI Diomfrd to iho oamp''. 

ll is not only, however, in cUbomtc pictures lliol 
Homer Rhows liifi foiling for Iiofsca. but «l»o, aiid not 
less maricedly, in minor touches. Dim^ be uotttjieak 
witfa tho manifest fuoling of a skilled admirer of tlie 
animal, whcu lie describe* the pir driven by Kumclus, 
rnpid »« binK Ibtt Mame lu »hni)(f of crdourt the Miiie 
Id yoorvs tbo Bamo to a liair*s brcadOi id height somwi 
their books' f 

Jrptx^v vJcrcdtfrt jta^i/A^ iv\ v^tev iU^f. 

Afraio, we are met by the same feeling wbtch* in a 
bolder Hight ma<lc' tho horws of iMt^sus «ocp. when 
PandHrus faWn headlong fnnii tht« rimriat iif .I^.ih^us 
and Ilia arms ntttk- ovt>r him iii denth. Tlio IiorMs, 
instead of plunging or starting- olf^ with ft Bncr feeling 
tnsniblc by ihe i*wr|j««'' ; 

ytcpifpt<fca.r li qX Tttitoi 

Vie may tmoit the rwtno dUpoeition, uiidor a lighter 
and more amuMJii^ form* in ^rhat hacl already parsed 
betwoen /F^iie?^ anil PkiidiiriiH Panditni* h&<I uxcDseJ 
hJmflDlf for not liavinp br^mght ft chariot aad honros to 
Troy, on account of his fcara about finding fbrngu for 
them where Mich crowds were to be gallMU'd into n 
small spat^e i at tfie «iuiie time describiijg. rathor buast- 
fully, his hiXxer Lycoon'e eleven carriagee with a pair 
for each, (U- t, 192-103.) ^Ineaa replies by iDvitJDg 
him iiilu hiH rhariwt when lie will tee nhst Troj&ri 
horses are like. Then. Ik» (roiiiinues, do you hgbl.imd I 
will drivo ; or, as you may chooau, do you drive, and I 

^ It K- fi44-S3' 

* IL 11, 764. 

^ a IT. 355, 

^j* to itiut'tiiu^U, /orvu ^v^ coidw^ 


wi]l figlit. Pandarus itnmHIatclf rcpUe^ tlmt -'t'tioiu 
had better by all moans be tbe diiver tif bis <iwn hurMt^n. 
Tboii ujfuiii, IIon)L>r will liave tlio utmost care ukeit 
4>rtbrni; and, HO to fponk, bo Looks to it bimeelf Wben 
ho describes tbctn as uiicmploTcd, lie speci^e^i their 
food ; ilioM! of AcliilW ihiriti^ Uiu Wraitb f*t»iid'. 

But thiisu {rf Lvcttoii* whi<^h had rt^miiintHl At Itotiic^, 

To earh h<' gi^e* tfn' npimipmUt? |iniv<Titdi'r: lo tho 
fonoer, in an encampDienu whai the grassy nian^h br 
its ddc aRbnIcd: to tho latter, iu a kind's |tabce, tlie 
graiu. or harti fcKwl, of their pmper home. 

And HO JD the nigh t-fid venture of the Tenih Uook» 
when UiynseB drags away the bodies of those Thra- 
ciDiia vrhom l>iometl ha^ slariu it ia to uieke a clear 
path for the horscw of Rhi^sus which nprt- to bo carried 
off. :hat th(*y may net tak^ fri^bt from troadin;^ on 
cofpwc* " ; 

Tbrougbout the charint-nwe, in thrTwi'nty-f.hinl Bnok* 
we find cbom uppomiopt in tho Poet'a mind, though 
the drivers bcinff his prime ben>es are not whoUy 

Kvfii IV* to <-oioiir« of which Hrifn<>r'^ fH-rireptioiw 
appear to tiave been so vajg'uc, it may bo remarked, 
that he cmplnjs it somewhat more freely with reference 
to horses, than fo other otjectn having de6iiite form 
or powen nf bicotnotiou. 

I)Gt hU livolief^t ecneeptionfl of them ar« wiUi roepcct 
lo motioiK form, ami feoHngs: and I suppniie there In 

> II i.T7<^ "* 11- V- <9&' * IL 3(' 4H9-93. 


JV. Aoidov : Ihe MAM tifBtauty in Hcmer^ 

no poom like tli« Iliad for chanictcrisik touobes in 
ftfiect Ui any of tlie three. 

It Ilbh been mueli detxited wbeiber the aiicietiU 
generally, and wlietber Hooicr io particular, bad any 
distinct idea oi" beauty in Iaii(1sc^)0. 

It may be a(litiitu?<], even in rcftpc^rt to Honif*r» that 
bis viiiiik% to vrliUOi ono would natLiniliy li>ok for 
fvcof, h'S^ commaniy refer to tbc vyu than to other 
faculticis. 'riicy commonly turn upon sound, motion, 
forr^e, ur luiiltitiide : rAivly, m conijiaHfioii, ii|jon colour^ 
or even u|h>u form; «till mon* ran^ly upon colour or 
form in i»ucb combiu&tions ae to constitnto ivbat wo 
call ttio ]iicturcs<iiic. 

1l »«-iiNiK to mo, that vn* intiy dnin' iIk* Ijt^t tiialcrisls 
of a (Ivmoiifitrnti^ju lu tbJH cnso from <;om|iariti£ bis de- 
scriptions of the form of scenery by mcAnzt of the 
^riiflini'S of cDLtiktrit'S ^!tb his UA(=f of tith^^ epittinto 
v'liic^i lie employs to <Ienote bt^auty. 

Tho country of L&codffimon waa mouiitainoust end 
it is hence termed by Homer id the Odyssey aiid in 
thi' Cnl;i!ikgiu% -roA^, {II- ii. 581, Od. iv. 1.) 

Hut it U also termed by him ipai-tit/rj (11. Sll. 239), 
and thiti, it may be obnerveil. in n speech of Helen's; 
to whom, uhilo she was at Troy, the image of it in 
memory eoii]d hardly, |K?rhii|>*> be ugriVHble fn>m any 
monil as^L'iatiou. Wo are, thorc-forer led to refer It 
to tlic pby»icu1 eonformntion or beauty of the district. 

Nest, we have |>retty clenr pmof that in Ilomer'a 
mind the e{iithet r^rcrn^^ ^vnt* oiu* prr)j>er to d<.fieribo 
boauty in the etricter^t M^mc\ For he .^ye of Ilekii, 
Willi regard to lier daughter Hrrmlone'*; 

iy^ivaro roiS" ipamififf. 

JieaM*f «N irianiitia^ iMvr^ 


'Slic I»im3 ft lovely {ipmuvf|f^ daiiglitor, eii(low6<l *vitli 
the benuty of goldeti Ajtbrodiw/ Ami I observe but 
kw |iAssages iti Homer, |icrha|)A only onc^ (Oi], xxiii. 
300), wbeti iparnvis does not natiimlly luiil properly 
b(cr this ^iim*. A scnae etymoloj^c^nlly analo^us to 
our owl] use of the word tacffy, ivbjch wo caipLcy to Jn- 
dimti? iHil mily KmntV, but u liigb di'^n't* nf it. 

It therefore Appear? to bo clear that ITomer oalloJ 
LacDf1a>iron ipttTn/rj^ becauHc it mos &hnpDd iti inoun* 
tain and valloy, and becauac countnoe m> formed pre- 
kieui a hraulifril appearance to thi' uyi>, a» con»|>an.Ml 
iritb counLrji** of other fonn« l««s niorkod. It iu fq>- 
plied to l^mathia (II- ^i^* 2^5) '^d to Scltcnn (01. vii. 
79), )>oth niouiitainouf ; to the city llios, (11. v. aio>, 
which titood on ground high and partially nbrupt noar 
the roots of Ida; and [ do not find It in any place of 
Uk> [>ocns iu90cifited vritli (lat land». 

The other imtanetj wliich I nhftU cite aeemfl lo pre* 
s^tit the argument in a cciuplute form, witbin the conw 
|mj-g of n 8in;*le line, 

\Vbcn dL-tfcribonj; Ttluicti In tbo Odvfaoy, Tcltrmaoluif 
ftu)** it it P, 

Iloro wif may ae^uniQ tlint by uiyi/i^Tt^t gvmt-f^eding^ lio 
mcQfit inomiCainous, nnd wen aliftr]* mid rocky; move- 
over conHHjueiitly, in <iaTnj«iriAnn, ban^n, ao tlmt it 
could not he agreenhle in the i^nse of hehig proKtablo. 
Oti Uiv other Land, the horse ie an animal ill-»uit«<l to 
rmpi among rock»; and by rVxiJ^SoTw Homer iilway» 
means a disttict or country »uflicicntly open and plain 
Lo he ui'iCablc for feiMlin^f boiMf* in nuinborv. Now, in 
fiayinj; that Arran 19 more r^^poro^ i\tta\ aoutbeni Lan- 
oablkirc* wc bbould leave iw doubt ujion the tnhid of 
p Od iv. 60ft. 

E « 

419 IV, Aot*ios: ^uit f^ Brantif in ilomtr- 

iny reud«r a* to the mejuiing:; which must surely be 
thftt it olTt-m nnire beauty to Uie eye. Just ftnch a 
comparisoii does Homer mate of tlie scenery of Itliaca 
&» it was ^itb what it would bavo been, if tbo island 
Iiad been flat. 

I ought liowcvBr f-n notice tliu ¥#'ry furn-d lulcrqin?- 
tBtioii of Damtii, wbidi is this: ^ttXAoi- vttjmtt^, «c 
fjuol, wtfCT i*j/ poiria mm : et nd ^ciAXor subiuUUiffii rov 
irnti * A^yfnr 0/Xo not Ictrrt, 

Homer was better rereed in the art of wei]<ling 
words to iboupfbt, tban sucb an iiitcr|>rotfltioti HU|ipo8tre. 
Fort iiccon,lui{; to it, tbc tbongbt of Homer wft9 ibb; 
Tliimgli |iiu tuV". DMT broail anil open Argosi, m^ nioun* 
taioous Itbaca ifi dearer to me, tecame it if my coantryS 
So tbnt lie lias left out tbo point of tlic sentence, yvM\- 
ont i\w fiiintt'St tmre to guide bis reader. 'Hie idea of 
tliQ ^ntenco, wlitob i<4 prolonged tlirongU mauy verses, 
turns entirely on the ditTerence between an open and a 
steep rocky country ajs »nch. and not in tbe least on 
native attAflimontf^ And Tidvinaclnifi, who in lauding 
the rifbnoiij* »nd fi-rtility of Arjfo*. and aTnd<ij;iain^ for 
tlic bara-nnci^ of llhaca, not unpnccfully. in )>ii«mu^, 
thmvTB Ml, by way of coniponHntion, the elenkent of 
btraufy* as one possessed by Ithaca, and an one which it 
miibt inise if it were flat. 

Indeed, wo bore tnicc the usual rctincmentof Ilomcr 
in tbi^ tJ]flt Telemarfiu* doc* not *ay, Tnii% your Argo« 
1% rich, but my Ithaea l* pif'luroHijtie: but, after cqdi* 
mendinji the fertility of broad Argc!!, bo say*, • In 
Ithaca MO bavo no broad ruii^^ and nothing like a 
meadow: it vnW feed nothing but goaU, yet it h more 

4 H^ UiB«e the phrnBc £f>d^ bliahcd m the cImmcaI v^ord for 
npiff, U i« ctirii^iu to fiitfl thr the br^ nji^u iipafy* oi 
w^nJ runt, sb recently rebate- i^ in the r<^oLi» i>f Ai 

pirtiTn^Mjtie than iT ^V, a little? speck oFthjit kind* nere 
flat niul opeif.' 

The? word riripuro^ is less froquoiitlj' uw(J in Homer 
than ipa-ninif ; but wu have Et in vtx ptaccn beaiiJcs tlt». 
Tliert^ i» oEil}' uii<! orcliofii wliort* it is capa1>k'< ortnettiiing 
rWr. in coiiri<>ction whh che Ktua of country'. In an- 
otlicr it incarks enjoyable or eplcivlid, being nii()li(Hl to 
tbc bniLquct*. In tile other places it U apflit-il to a 
iowv (II) t1i<* SliU-UI, » cftverii In Itbat^a (tvio^)* ^^*^ the 
^nnneniN pu: upon Venaa mCrprns; and in ihottc four 
places it can ool^ tneau fair or tcautifal 

We are not, then, justiHed in limitnig Ilumcr'a scute 
of natunil bt-niity to wliat was aKsuciftt<*(l t^Uh utility*. 
On tlio L<iiiitrary. it appmr« pininly to oxtend to boanty 
jirojitrr, ilihI o^eri to that kind of beauty in nature 
vhioli Wi* of the pn-Hent ilay must love. 
- I have<lealt thuafar uii1i the mo$t doubtful part of the 
queetion, f:ud have ventured to ilUseiit from >fr.ltu&kin, 
whose authority I admit, and of whoso superior in^iigtitr 
H}t well OA <»f hU exlnujrdinarr jKjuTn* of fX[inW0H, I 
atn fully coiifwiou*. 

!^]r. Hu^kJn thinks^ that 'Ilonicr lia^ no trftrc of 
feeling' tirtP u'liat «e call tli& pit-mn-wpm'; that TtAv- 
mnchuv ajiokigi»M for tlic< vwnpry of Ithaca : and that 
rock» art* never loved but as can^ I think that t)»e 
exprt-^Mout) I have pruduc^-ct from the text frhow that 
thffte propositioui cannot he Huntaiiied, At tie lotuo 
time I ailniil that the feeling with Hoiiu.>r is one in die 
htii) only: qs, iudevil, until within % very fevr goneratioiis, 
it hofl lain uiidcTclo)icd among o^irsclvcs. llomcr may 

r It xxil l«i. Cnmbridne KMAy^ iH^ft. p. ifli. 

■ IL U. jjB. - Kuskin V Modrtti Pftintjn. 

* Hm Ifr Cn^'* Fjmy cin lb« p^ tr. fZiop. xaiL pp i9$- 92. 

E o a 


l\\ AtmU)s : Mtut 4/ Bratatjr iu ff4m^. 

have been tlte btker of this ifcnliment tor bis nation* 
SH lie ivnri of Ko much 1ie«!tU'<^ But llie ]>Taiit tlifl tiot 
grow up kindly atnottg tbo^ wlio followed liiin. 

I Asaent cnlirclj, on the otbcr liond, to vbat Mr* 
Uii^kfi) lia« «aid respecting: hia sewsfi of orderly beaut j, 
lo oomrijoii iiaUiR^. The gartlen of AloiiLmis n trul; 
Dut^Ii in its (]mtdrA»j^l:ir eo»ce|it]on«» ; but it Iv plain 
that the Poet means ua to rcf^rd it aa truly bcfiuUful'. 
Symmetry, serenity, rc^ularily. luloplcd from lliu forms 
of living bi'Uiitv vfcliicli w*.*n? befuru bitn, entiir hirgely 
into HomorH coDceptions of one form, at lea^t, of in- 
animnU) t>craQty. 

The scenery of tlift CBx^ of Calypao^ U low restrained 
in its east, than is the garden in Scht^na; but irvt-u 
here Homer introduces four founuiiia* whicb oompoMi 
a regular *i^ure, and arc evidently meant lo mpply 
ail i*]<*iiiiMil o{ fririii nbieh vras ri<(|niml by tbo fiuliioti* 
able flcaiuTanl. 

Another clement of landsai|>e, aa we understand it, 
is, thnt the natural objects which it represents ahonM 
hii 111 rit1ii?i'<-xh'tu]vr c-nnilitimtioii ; lutd oiirrKt^bllnhi-d 
traditions Mould also retiuire that the view of them 
should be modtficiL by the rendering of th£> nttnoRp^ierCi 
especially ^th reference to the Hcale of <iistance9. 

It i% very difficult to find instjinees of extended land- 
scape in Homer. But I think that ue havo at kASt 
(^ic, in the tamed sitriiks nhore ho coni;mrev the Tro- 
jan watchfires on the plain to the calm night, \vliicl) 
by the lij^it of moon and stara exhibits a breadth of: 
lirospoct to the rejoicing shepberd'e eye- iiero are eep- 
tainly tronquillity and order; but with tbem vre Bccm 
also to have both extent and titmnsplierc ; to whrob 
even bold and even br«>ken outline niuH be added by 

* Chl,rIL iiJ-33. T Od ¥. dj-JS- 

those wlio. like m}-9L>1t nre nat ]ire|An?iI to surrvfiilc^r to 

Upon ttie wlinlc, consittcring Homers mrlj <lAtG, 
And tlie vcrj Into <t^velo|mtonL urnoiig the iiioilvnu of 
n tAKto for s(<cnory of tho ]^Ecturosquo mid romantic 
order, I do tiot know that we arc entitled even at 
first Sight to challenge him as inferior Io anj modem 
of analogou>$ A^iq in thiH provin<;e. Yet we may isMy 
pronounce ttiat ho is inforior to himself; thfll U to eaj, 
he a]«]>c-Ars to hare a svnw of bcnutj, in tfac rt^ion of 
inaiihtmli' iMiUiri>, ivrtiuidy Ics't Vin^n in firojKirlSoii thati 
that, Willi u'iiicli lio lookM upon the aniinalod creation. 

What i» (lelldent in him with KApcct to lnndF^ca}>e 
may however, in all likelihood, ho more jiutljr referred 
to pwitivc than tti npgtitivi* intiKiT*. 

it mav b« questioned whether the dbpoftitloa to 
ai>|»ri>H^mtc »till natn^t^ oapocially in [ar;;cxand elaboral^d 
comhinations may not in part depend upon eondiUous 
that were not to be found in ihe ^go of Tloiner. 1 
tUonId fiay, If the expreMion may bo allowed, that ve 
of thi« fcnemtion take landAcajw mcdicinalty. llumaa 
life gntvr^ ^ith the couree of agf^a; and, t>»|H^Ally in 
our Ago, it has grown to be exdted and hurried. But 
nature ha;; a reacting tendetu^y tonun)* repose; and* 
even in the cum; of the gro»N.r vtimuluDtn, it scemi to 
be ihi'iT flfMilhtitg pown- whirh mo%l hdpn Ut recom- 
mend them. Besldei the fact, however, that we have 
wiLUt^ vhieb the Greeks had not, this «ubject may bo 
reffnrdod in a broader vievr. 

The mind of Homer and the mind of lirs ng& wore 
not ftddlet«d on>ii to eontemplation, (kr Ivsa to intro- 
speoCion, Of idoAs properly lubJectiTc there are rcry 


IV. A^xd^: ««ntf ^Swntjf w Jiomtr^ 

fow JnileiKl to be found m the poems. Wo liftTi 
one such Tumif^bed by l)ie passage where he equates^ 
tboujflit to awing, in a Bimilc For ibe swift &|[i|>s of the 

Anil anotber, tho diohi remarkable Chat lie JuppLiea, 
n\u*ti ill irivtv rli^tnil bi.* ustfH tbrf mntton uf n iboiiglit^ 
fur .111 rlhiMtr^tion of the rnplrl fligbt of Jtlao^ 

E*tii wbcii it bt'cnmc j<|H'<nilativo, the Greek mind did 
iir>t ^ivc n MtbfL-ctiu' tiirti to lU H|K:cii1;itiEtiL!(. It W3^ 
prohablv CbrUtlanitf wbfch, by the »tiniubta It ftpgiltcd 
to lh(»|jenpml iwnscienoc, firet gsiv^ mafikii>d Ibe intro- 
fipectivc habit on a lar^ ftcalt^; and mixed caitsc^ mny 
oflen n-iidtT ibe UrmknicT rxw^jwive and morbid. But 
thu terMleriry <if tiie bormc n;ft% «tundln^ at il* rnnximum 
111 Homer, wfL« to pour life outvrard, nay nbiio»t to force 
it iiif.o every tiling. The fouiitaih from witbm iivertlowed ; 
and itA iiiir|i)uB went lo make inanimate nature bri-atlie. 
The pmfu^f' and ea»iy forltlity of Homer in rimile surely 
of tUeir dementftratc^ a wondcrfid ebscrv&tion and a|i- 
predation ef iinturo ; but «k bi%s been retitarkt-sl, tbe^i^ 
Bimileiit are very randy indeed %trti viitdlot. They de- 
li|>bt ill xmnd, in multitude, r1>ovc all in motion. Tbo 
autofn&lic ebaini of Vulcan, tlie lirinff tbc&trc nf %he 
Sbiekj of Acbillcs that oldcist mirror of our world, iho 
bounding annour of the *Anio hvro, wbnt iin* n\\ tlieMi 
but tlie proofii of that r<M]utidant energy of life, wlio«o 
firjt resiatJe^ tinpnhe it was to carry the vital fire 
of Promelhviis into tvepy objeiH tliat it encountered, 
and wbirh. ti*»i yvl hii\ln^ felt the palfyinpj touch nf 
eyhAii&tioti, Uyuinlfrno Meot'*tiCy of curative proviaons 
for repose t Therefore, wliile iidniitting il»o defect nf 
]{i>i)tcr with re?^]>eirt to colour, and xdntlttju); mIki that 
« JL w. Bd, 

Ctiujift adfrrttf to a more drt'etajml /rrfin^. 


1inrtsc»po (if vre nn? to UQ<lprst&iid by it the elalmrrtte 
conibiimtioii of it a turn! oSJocU roiivhlng ovdr coiivitlcr- 
sblo iJii^taiico«) i» o grcAt ftrl<lLtion to tlic cnjm'iiiont 
■lid irealth of mnnkimV, I tliink the capitnl explaimlioD 
of the qiie«tioi] raiflei) in to be found. »ot In rho ^unt 
of fill}' space, OP of an)- faculty, in (be mind of Homer, 
but in tlic fact ihal tlic space and the feculticswcre 
nil occn|ned uvitii more actiYo and vivifying functionr; 
cbat tbe beftutifnl forms in nAtur^, which we »ee m 
t>eautifu] forma only, were to bim the beni of tbe 
ganncnts, aa it were, of tbat life with which all nnturo 
tccnu^d. Accordiugly, tlio general rule of the pocmft ia, 
tliiit U'liprv' H^^ »ibonld 1h* puMavts bo tu ivctiv4} ; that which 
We think it much to ront^mplatc with jtativfaotjon, bo Is 
«vet at work, with a bolder energy and a keener 
pliraAiire, :o vivify. We deal with external nature, afl 
it were uririfli'^l; hv wiw in it only tho re*idiK.' which 
romained to it, af^or it had at ovcry point thrown elf 
its crenni in fttipernnturfil fonnatioud. Ills npbfling and 
vitiilixiug prur^'HA in everywheri? At work. Aniniato 
nature h raised ti^en to divinity ; and innnimnte nature 
is borne upward into hfe. 

ir. then. Homer sees Icsa in tbe mero senaible forma 
of nntuml nhjtftrUi limn we do, it jmdiably in in a grvnt 
dcj^roo bocaoBe tl*G Junius of hi« peopl© and hli own 
^niu$ had taught him to invcM them with a douh which 
drew up into itflclf the host of their attractions. Mr. 
Ruskin most jtKtty t4f<lls u», with rvferenei) to the i^es* 
that bo cuts off from ttio mac^al object tlio aense of 
tmcthing living, and faahion» it into n griMt abstract 
lageof a aea-power^ Yctiti»noul think,4|uite troe^ 
that the Poet leaves in the watery mass no element of 
life. On the coiitrar}, I tjhoutd say the key to hid 
fc Modern I'lunum, |»iift W. tli. xiii. \x 174. 

4S4 IV. AoidoB : sense of Beauty tn Horner^ 

whole treatmeDt of external nature k to be found in 
this one proposition : wberesoeTor we look for figure, 
be looks for life. His waveB (as well as his iire) when 
they are stirred ^ shout, in the very word {iaj(et¥) that 
he gives to the Assembly of Achseans : when they 
break in foam, they put on the plume of the warrior's 
belmet^ {Kopvtra-etrOai) : when their lord drives over 
them, they open wide for joy*: and when he strides 
upon the field of battle, they, too, boil upon the sfaore, in 
an irrepressible sympathy with his effort and-emotion^. 

« n. siiii, 2i6. L 48a, ^ IL iv. 434. 

» r»iAm*D Af 66Xafftra btiararo, 11. liii »5L ' IL XIV. 39*. 



Ilumri^'s pa-reptiont attff axe of yum&er, 

Whilr tlte (follicles of Elomer wew in vnanir r^ 
spacU botli intense umt refitioil iti tlicir action, Ijcrond 
all or<liiiar)*, [Krrtiaps wc niiglit «ij bcToml nil Miodorn* 
exain|j)t*«, there vef*w aihor \umii» in nliii^h th^.y liear 
the irmrks of having been le** developed tliau ii* now 
common eTen nnunig tlie tiiAf^of manrcivilisodnfttions. 
In the power of atiatmetion and distinct introspective 
eoritcfnipl&tion, it i^ not impmbabi? rImL hrf wtis infi-riiir 
to the ^oner&lity f>r educAteil men in the pre«efit day. 
In Bouio other !owor fncultiee* lie is probcbly exccllod l>j 
the majority of tlie population of thii country, nay even 
by iiiaiiT of the eliildren in iU schools, I vi^nLnre to 
i)Kfcit^, n« exatii|ilo» of the Ian-named |>ro|>o»Itioii, Uie 
fteultici of numltcr, an*! of colour Tl may be tnio of 
one 04r lioth of thesr^ thai a ciTtniti tndiittiiictnej^ in the 
pcrcejiiicin of them h Jncidenlal everywhere to the early 
stitf^ of society. But yet it is stir(iminff to ftnd it 
wlicnx lUf vrilli Hotucr, it accompanies a romarknble 
quiekneas ami tnatnnly not only of grt^nt menlA] |H>uur«, 
but of eertain olhi'r4wre4>ptlon» nion? akin to number 
and colour, such as thu^o of motion, of sound, ao<l of 
form, iiut let ur proceed to examine, in the lint i^laoe, 
the fonner of these two Bubjectii. 

It nuLy bo observed at the outset, that probably none 
of DS aro Awaro to l»ow great nn extent our aptitudes 
with rispect to tlicftc matt^nt are trAditioOAry, nnd dc* 
pendent iherefore nut iijion oiin»e1ve«, bnt tijion tliv 


IV. A^id^t Xttmbfr in Hooter- 

acxgiii^itlons tiinHc br the bummL race before our birth, 
mill llpnn (liu iU-gi'C4r ill ulii<-li tUtrnt ii<-(|iiUitiu»S llAVu 
rln;ii1ftU*r1, iiiifl bavr liei'ii a>! it wrr^ filU^n^l tlirougli nmt 
lbroHj(ti the comni unity, so ns to lako their place nniorig 
the elementnrr ideas. impreseioDa* and labit<i of the po- 
|)iilati4>ii. Tar ^ui'lt giart.^i of liunijiii kiiowlei.1ge. tis have 
attained n> this poaitm, aro usually joined 1>j oacU 
suecc^sivo ffeueralion tbmnii:li tbc nidiiim of that tn- 
fecnsiblc tniinin^. which Ijc^ns from t!ic vcf^' carliotft 
itifitfiry, nnd wbirli jux^cecIrK bv u gnMt inti-rvitl nil Llio 
Rysteirtnilr, ami ovoii nil tlio eon^intift, ^rocc4set of o<lu- 
caljoii. Nor mn I for one |)rc|fare<l l>y any nicnoa to deny 
that llw>re may 1k» an ai:t[ial * tnuludaiiiMii' in the case : 
on Ibo c'fintrary^ ia full conaisteiR-y witb the t<?sching 
cf experience, wo may heliovo that tlio ac<|mreii a|iti- 
tvdes of one gemmation may hceomc, in a greater or 
» li*«!4 tlo^rei-, ihtf iiihifHteil and inljiirii a|)tiliit[eft of 

Wo Ditiet, tberofore, reckon upon limliug a set of 
marked difference* in the relative degrees of (ulvancc- 
un^ul niumig ililTVnfnl hiirnnn famlf it^K In difTt-n.'nt vtJigm 
of fioeiety, t^ hicb sliall bo tiinjily referable to the votireo 
noiT [fointod out, and di^titiet uUugethcr from sueh vari- 
ations as are referable Li» other cuuaeH. It h not diftieult 
to arlmit this to be true in general : but the '|nestion, 
vhother in the ease before as it appliee to number and 
colour, can of ccmrse only be dcciifed by an c^tamination 
of the Monierirtext. 

Vet, bufure m'o enter n[>on tliiiM exambtatioii Jet utOD- 
deaveur to throw nonic furtlier liglit utnin the gefioml 
aspect of the proposition, which ha« ju»tlH-en bid down. 

Of all visible thrngs, colour t* to our FriglMi eye the 
mo^t striking. Of all ideas, jis conceived by the £ng]ieh 
tnniiJ, number appears to be the most rigidly iletiuitc. 

w llmt vic a^opl it jip a stamtant for T<^<liiriiig nil oIIkt 


t" (If Hnilr 

iingv u» trc nititnirK«; ns Viin^n ne say ihnt t1ti» fl^M 
nr Uii)* IkOLiw is liv(% u?n. rtr t^x^ntr timeH t^ largo a4 
that. Our nicrrUatiK fLi»d <^vcii our i^clioolctiilcEreii. are 
gofKl cnlcnlAtont. So tliAt ttiere is a ^<*[iw nf Homrtliing 
frtrikifi^ly |k»niiloxir!Ll» to \is in par(ir;iljir, wlieii ue 
trpcnk of Homor Ae Imving IiaiI otiK iii(l(?leriniiiate jd<.-iui 
of lllCftC Hu1>jccl«, 

TfKTtf nn* howirvi^r two prA^tical instvnri^ wliicU 
tiiry lie cile4l to lllufttrnio clio (tcMiilon, timt miriiWr i« 
not a thing to be as mattor ofoourse dofiiiit^ly c^oikoeiTixI 
in Ibe niiiiil. One of these ia tlie CA»e df rery young 
ch'Idn'Ti. To lla-m lli<? vi»ry lowtfst nmnWre are ?*oon 
]i]tclli^l>k*, bill nil !k'¥oiuI lli*?lottc«lan?nolso.ainloiily 
lin-sfiit uvflgucw-nA? of multitude, timtcnnnol be ftcvonjd 
inlo i til component partft, ThediatinctiveniArkof Acknr 
arilliireiirai rimL<i*plii:iii is. llmt tliP miiiil At ono ami the 
Kitne time etiibracos the tvro iUeAs, first of the ngj^re- 
;rate, focoiidly of cnoh one nf the units wbicb niAkc' it 
tip. Thn double oiicratioii of tlic bmin becomes tnote 
nnhiouii, AK wv n^^crid high<*r hi Uu» lacah*. I luiio 
hoAnI ft child, put to count bt?ad» or Komothiiif^ of thtt 
BOft, reckon tht'fn tliiis: 'One, two, three*, four, a hnii* 
drcil.' The lirst words express bis ideas, the laat oil© 
his desjiair. Up to four, bis mind could eonttiin tho 
joint idoA« of unity Aud of tevorfihy, but not beyond; 
su be then pnwed to an expression vrhr^lly goneiaL aud 
meant lo express a s^jif^e like that of the word multi- 

But tHou^h tbf^ tranfiitioii from numlicr delinit«ly con- 
ceited to number without bouuJj^ is like lauiicliing iulo 
A M-a, yot iW ciHM^vplinu of muhitnde liMdf Lh In oiie 
seu»e SLi^eepiible of degroe. We nisy have the U\q^ of 
ft limited, or of uii uiiboimded. multitude. Tho on«ii- 


IV. Atti<it>^ ; Suniber in Homer. 

tiftl distinction of tite fir«c i^ that it migbc possibly be 
cmintccl ; llio iioliufi uf tliu w<'OHt! 1?*, tlint it h vimlly 
beyond iIip power of nmneration to overtaikt'. Probably 
even the child, to whom the wor*l Mmnttrcd* expro«Mx! 
an indefinite iden, would Imrc bcori feintly sensible of 
a dilTerr'nrc in ^logrcc brtw<.-cn 'linndrc*!* nnd 'miltron.' 
an4 would lavo known ihjit tlie ]tttUsr cxpre^wil Ki>ni«>o 
tliinj: Inrgcr thnii tbu former. TIj© oireunbvHbIng out- 
Irnc of tirt' i<iwi ajjpn-liemletl is lf)0fte, but **ttll there ia 
Huoli nil otilliTu-- Tlie clearness of the double couception 
IB indeed oftaced ; th^ whole only, ami not tlie whole 
together with ouch psnt, is Goiitutnpblod by tho iniiirt ; 
bnl trtill there is a certain c!oude<l s<^w? of a real differ* 
enee in ningoitutlf, <l.h lieiwi*i>n one ftinrh vlmlc; Hir] 

And this lends me to tlio cecoud of the two illnstrft' 
tious. to which reference has heoti made. That low nf 
Titfiuiteiiem lu ihr coriieptiiui of uittTil>or» whieb the 
child in our dny niflVr* before he hn* counted oror liie 
fiugere>t]ic grown man ftnlTer!4 al?»o,tlioiigh at o jjoint com- 
tiioiih nmi'li hi^,h('r in llm f*i'iile, Wliat jHtinl that may 
be, ilepeiids very niucli upon the [uirtieular habiti^ nnci 
aptitudes of the individual. A student in a library of n 
tliouBand volumes, an officer before bia regiment of a 
tlioMKunil men iipuTi pnrnde, irmy hjivr.' a p n't ty clear 
Idea of the unit* ae well il* of the totals; but when we 
CODie to n thousand timet^ a thou??tandt or n thousand 
times a million, all viow of the unitn. for nioHt in^, 
probably for every man. is lost r the million for tbe 
grovi\ man is in a ^reat ilcflree like the hundred for 
the child. The numortca) term ha*^ now beoomc essen- 
tially a symbol ; not oi»Iy af every wf>n:l w by itM e^- 
Benee a dymbol in rt^ferenee to the idea it ini media tE>Iy 
denotes; buu in a further dense. It is a ^ynilKtl of a 

fiymlic^, for tb&t i4ofl wliWi it doTwUs*. iit iti*t-lf ^mbol* 
iciil; Jr, h a 4^oiBT<>ntU)iia] rr-jircTseiilutioTi of a oerUin 
\Asl number of units, far loo great to be imlitiduaHjr 
conU^m|>1ut<r<l ud<1 apt^tvlii^mled. Ab we rise liij;her 
■till from millions say for cxninplc, into tlic clnwi of 
billiontt, th(> vtigm'iK^^ iTUTt^ancw. The million i:^ now 
become a boH of now udIi, ami the I'elatlon of two 
Dtilll<iii8 tn one miilion, is thus pretty cloArly a]>t)r«>* 
Icuddl 05 bcin^ double : but this too becomes obscarwl 
se we mount, and even (for eK£ini|ile) ibe n-lation of 
<]aantity betm't^ii tc-ii billions of uliust-corns, ami mi 
hundred billions of tho mme, is far \cm dctcrmirmtcly 
conveyed to the mind, ilian the nrUtinn Itt-tween Uni 
wlieat-conia nnd one. At ihifi high level, tlie nouns of 
uuTober a|>proxlmate to the im^efinite character of the 
clnse of algebraic symbols called known c|uantitios. 

Iij pn>|ii)rtion ar^ nnr concf|itinn of nnnihcr* h dclinitc, 
the idi^a of tlN<m, iukUiuI of briiif^ united for an ai!dr(<sft 
to theimaj^inatlgn, rentninsunsuiled ff>r ptketic handlin^i 
Olid thrive? within thenjihere of theundcnitandingoiily. 
Bnt wlien we pass beyond the sciil« of detormiimtc into 
that of pmcticalty in^fetenniriate fimoimtf, then tlio 
Uio of nimibors bc-comes bt^hly poetical T would ^itioit'i 
as a very noble example of this u»c of number, a tqt^ 
in the Iti?ttdnlton« of Si. John. ' Aitil I bt^ht'ld. And I 
beard the rolee of nianyan;;ele round skhr*ut the ihrone, 
fuid the beasts and tlic elders : and the number of l^m 
vaa ton ihouoand times ten ihouaand, oiid eboiinandsof 
th<in;<tndttV As A proof of lite piiwt-r of this fine |tas* 
Mf^e, 1 would ohfcrve, tlmt the descent from ten thou- 
sand tim€& ten thousand to thousands of thoumnds, 
though it IB in fiict numerically very grcflt> has tnHxa of 
the ehilling efibvt of anticlimax J»e<'au*c tln.«e numl>ers 


IV- Aoiiiw: Nittabvr in Homn". 


are not artdiinclirallr conceived, nii'1 \he h\%l mvvAyt'r 
of tlio fwnioiioe W ^\m\\y^ «o to 8]>eat:, tbe trail of llgbc 
vrliu'li Uio furoi'^r cimws ht-Uiiid it. 

Now wc must keep clt^arlv bo^ii* our niinrls the idea. 
lliftt rliis noKieal ami tigunitfvu tiw of mitnhor Hiimiig 
the (^r4.4>ks at Iwi»t iirooodt^cl what t may ea!l it« ral- 
culatin; Ujse. We MiaU Hiid in Hcmcr nothing: chat 
call Mriclk he raited fomentation. He repeatedly givee 
ai what may be termed the factors of a tftini in multipli- 
catton ; but bo nover eveu iMrtiaUy t^omblnee tliem, evwi 
as thej arc combined for example in Cowpcr's ballad^ 

Jflhn fi it[iiTi"r» *pijniu' wiid fo hi*r iWht, 
Though wtHliltJ wtf iiaiB htwu 

Th»c ^wi'cf ^* trdiguB yean, yet w* 
No buliilrtv Imifc »ccn. 
IlereiT^nGe lias been made to the eon^^iiieitee whicb 
we Bad in u&io;; number as a measnre of qtiantity, and 
aa a means of comporlnj^ thinj^ of every t^pccie^ in 
their own kind- But we iirvcr meet with ihxn M%ts of 

It fii llnmer, Ht liaa not e\e!i tlie wortU neeeaaarv to 


enablo him to s&y, 'Thle bouse in f^ve tinios as larj^ a» 
that/ If he bad the idea to csipresajie would sny. Five 
houses, e«ich an large lui ibai, would liardly be efjnal to 
rhix. Tl*e word rpr may lie railed an adverb of iiuitti* 
|dicatioM ; bnl it is never used forthcwcompamon*. Ih" 
deed, Damm obsetvt^. that in a lar^ niJ^'oHly of in* 
hfj^ires it Mgiiifii'H an indejinite uuinU^r, not a jireeise 
one. TrrjioicJp U found only oiice^ aiirt ir a eense wboll; , 
iudctermlnate : the pa?4^j^ is^ TfittT^'ixafin Atmol teat 
TtT/KLnrtf. IltiTfiTK iToes not even exist* Ajax lifts a 
atoi^i*. not ' twiiH> hn lar^i* ax k mitiljil of tindjiy rould 
ftdm\ but so Iar;re ifjal it would refjutro Xviro &uch mor- 
tals to raise it. All Homers numerical expre^ions are 

fc Oct V. 306, 

in tlie inoBt eloniefitan' foTTii^; sncli fornix, a^ mc wltb- 
out cotik]>Duiiiou, and rofufHi ftll fiirtlRT iitialy^i«. 

His use of niiriiljcrap[X-fLr» trk linvc bci-n conlinecl to 
!<uii|i1c fLdtlkifii): iiiitl it Ia jmiTmbtif rTuil all ihtf tiigticr 
nuuibeni wMcli we find In the poeni'vUH-p % nmtlve rtiirl 
most vaguely conceive*L If vrr arc nblo to moke ^oj 
llie |>roof of tlicae propositioiis from tlic Homeric tcxti 
we ^liall lli<?ri be welt Mi' U> tijitler^lam! iIm- maimer 
in v'bi<^h NHnu-mtk»n» or tht; sHenee of number, is 
siKikon of by ibt- (Jrccks of the historic ajjo as a niar- 
vellouA invention. It aptH^&rs in jF^uebjlus &^ among tbu 
vt>ry greatest of cbe discovcrii.'« of Proni^bi-us* ; 

lie goes on to iidi1> 

^ lliat the u«o <if niimber« by mtt^ ^tlh to the Greek 
mind as much a discovery m the letters of the alpb&bet, 
and is even described bcre asa^cater one: miicbaAin 
later time& men have vitwed the use of lo^aritbui^ or 
nf tbo nietliQil of fluxions or thv cAteulm. In fnll eon-* 
fonnily with tbiu oro Uiu tinperlativc tcrni)*, in vrbicli 
Plato H|teiikft of nnmht'r, NnmUr, in fnct, *eeniH to bo 
exbibitetl in ^reat |i.-Li't of the fin-f-k |diiKvMj|rhr, at* if ll 
had actually been the guide of tlie liuman mind lu its 
;>roj;roi^sf to^^rd^ realizing all the great and cardinal 
idtAS of onk-r, mea^jfL-, |iro|»ortion, and relatinn. 

Up to wbut |Hit]tt biti[i:iT[ ini«^lligeni-ts in the time af 
Homer, nax able to pusb tl^e process of sim)>le ad- 
dition, wo do not prociiioly know. It ie not, howevor, 
hastily to be a«i<timcd tbat, in any one of bi« fAcultica. 
Homer ^hh beblitd bi^ i*g*^t ^tiid it tii Mift-r to Wlicvt* 

■ J{«oh, Prom. V, 466. •*• alio Sopli. N*tt|il. Fngm. v. 


tV, Aoi/ion: JVumArr Ji» //<>iWr. 

iliBt till** popms, L'veit in time jioitits, repr«m>iit it ii^lirati- 
ta^x>u»U\ Xou\ in oiio pla<7C at lcG£t, wo Iiavo a prirei- 
ciw nccouiit of iL process of a']dittoii> The passage 1$ In 
th** Ktmrib f)ilj>A»?y. wlw^rw ^IntrfEuiti n*U(<^ IiOW Pi 
COiu counted upon his t^ngerfi the number of his seabi * 
That It WRS a ccrtniu particular i)UDiT>er U obrioaSv 
because when four of ihem ha<l bocn Itilled hy Eklothe^, 
thtir ^kin^ uon? put tifim Mefiebu^ and M^ three com* 
TB.^pft ^d the four GriH'kri v,tsjv i\wn counurO into tli« 
IkhI, mj tliAt Chc word »f j^/ir/r here evidently nK^aiiH n ilc- 
fiiiite tolfil. This AfMilimi by Pmt4^ui<, liawevcr, >van not 
addition in the |>ni|>er nriclnnetit'al M>ii^o,niii1 w^miIiI bo 
moro properly called eniiiiieraCioQ : it Vf%H probably 
oRcctcd simply by adding eacb unit singly, in 3110* 
ccmion, to the oIIiltb, with the aid of the tiugt^ra, 
(proved ihroti^li the won] TifiTaTrrm^,) but not by the 
aid of any ftealo or eombinj\tiim of nult^ cither decimal 
or<|uiiial. Ill the word Settle we ba^'c, indeed, thciirtit«Uip 
towards a decimal scale; but we have nob eveu that lit 
tb© cflse of lb© number five, tliere bohig no xci-?vjv or 
wvfiiTTfff, ITic int^aiiing of xfj*xoVTrrni cridciitly ift, 
not that lie arranged ibe iiumtraiioii in fives, but that, 
by meaiiK of th4i fingers of one hand, employed upon 
thofo of Ibo other, he a^eistod the procc!« of bimpio 

FlrttMcr'K higbi-Nt^ numeral 1^ tttfuni. Hi? dt^ac'iihcK 
the Kljmiidons as Mi\g fn^piw ^ thougli. if we aKfuine m 
mean etrength of alKiut olghty-fivc for their crewf^ Uio 
force \vould but (iitl(r huxe exceodiMl four th-nKMod: 
and ill the mti^timnm of tww lunidrcd »tiil tweiUj for 
eiwli ship, it would only comu to %\x thou«ui(K Again, 
Homer uses the expre^on w^ta ^irj^ to denote a 
|ietvon of jostrncteti and accom[dtHht*il iniiiili'. 
* fW, iv. All, 451. f n. \\i\\. i<y E CM. il 16. 

HitjheM HUaiert 


Next to th« f^vpiot the bij:hest numonle employed in 
tiie poeniii zire those contaiDt^U m tbo pBiaage whcro tbo 
Poet sajs that i\w howl of Mhjh, on iM-itig wuuiii]ecl by 
Dionicd, Vt'Ofr M loucL fu tbo Rliout of att army of nbie 
thou-^^ariU or teii tboueiimt mou'' : 

But it is clear that the expressioiiti are purely poetical 
and figurative. For ho never oomos near the uso of 
such bitjh numbers elsewhere; ami yet it obvioiwly Uy 
in hiv i^Hlh t<» unc; MirNr, nnil bigbrr niiiiitH^ri^ Hi\]\, whoti 
he viLs deftcribing the strength of tbo Ort^ek and Trojan 

The highest Uooieric iiumber,itfter thone which haro 
been ria[iiL-d, iw fuinid iii lh« thrvo tlmu^nid hwnsL-H nf 
Erieblhoiiiu^. Thiit wo must also consider poetleatt 
because it is so far beyor<t the ordinary mnj^e of the 
poems, and in some dcgreo likewise because of the ob* 
viou« unlikelihood of h^s having poswvsed that paitieubir 
mimbi^r of m&rǤ'. 

Oidy thrice. be«idc« the m«tanee« alroady (|uoted. doc.4 
llopii^r iH(? the fourth power of niimberA; it !h in the 
case of the single thousand. A thoutiaud riea<iare« of 
wine wore soot by Euneos oe a present to Ajfamemnon 
and Menclane. A Ihouitand vmtcb-fire« were hindled 
by the Trojaun ou the ]ilain. Iphulamas, having gireii 
an lmndre<l oxen in order to obtain htH wife^ then 
promised a thousand gositst and ibeep out of h\9 count- 
less twnUS In all theee three caws, it is m<>re than 
doubtful whether the woril thousand in uot roughly 
And lo<y«oly uM.rd Ji» a round number. TIjo combinaiion 
of the thousand sheep and goats with the bundrod 

*> 11. T. udo. 

< II. KXl. l$t. 

^lhvu-571. via. $6t. X). ^44^ 



III. Aoiiht i NtiPiber in HoMtr. 

oxen, iniincd lately n^vftkcnii tlio rccolloctioii tliat oven 
tilt Hou\Qv'ic hecatoRib, thoitgb iiic4mii)g ctjrmolof ically 
au hundred oxqu, pracUcaWj meant nothing of ihe kind* 
but onlv what wo ehoiild call a lot or batch of oxcii. 
Again, it it) eo obviously improUililc tliat the TrojaDS 
riiould in an hurriud bivouac b&re lighux) ju»t a thou- 
sand firths, niiA pliu^ed just ftfty m*n\ by eai^h, that W6 
Toay take this passa^ji? atj plainly figurative, and aa coti- 
Teying uo more than a very rude tipproximatioUt of such 
a kind as vroubl Ik; infidiiit^iblc whore; the practice of 
calculation is fannliar. It is then nioU likiOy, tlmt in the 
remaining one of che thr^e passagefj, tho Toot moons only 
to convoy that a larjfo and liberal present of wine vras 
sent by Euncufl» as the consi Jcration for his being allowed] 
to trudo with tht- aniiy. Thtrru la eorlainly moro uf a]>- 
proximntion to a dt^tiziito use of tho ftinglo thovt^iancJ, 
than of the throe, the nine, or the ton: but thta diflcr- 
mce in dt'finitrnoHA ia in realitjr n inHln point in tha 
ovidonce. Most of all does this become palpable, uhen 
W6 consider bow strange h in itsolf the oinieaioa to 
state tho numbers of the eombatanta on cither side of 
ihiH grt^t struggle: an omission ho fltrangt^, of what 
would lie to ourtielvPN a fact of such elementary and 
primary int'*rost, (hat wo can hardly account for it other- 
^9c tlinn by the a<itni:<ftion. that to the Greeks of the 
Horu-rtc Kg^ tlie totala of tht? armirs, ii\*iti tf IIik Poet 
him«olf could have reckoned them, would have be«n 

Among atl the numbers found in Homcr^tho highest 
which he appears to ucn with a ehiarly det^nniitatti 
meaning, t^ that of the three hundred and sixty fat 
lioge under the caro of Eumo^us iu Ithaca^; 

< Od. liv. TO. 

n* ttaTi4ifl^ ami num^rais ttfwnli^. 



Tlie r^aftaii for oona!cl<*ring this number a« having ii 
protty definite sense in tbo Foci's mind (<juite a dirter* 
out matter, ]H it be borne in mind, from tho qocetion 
whctJKT tiK* circtimetaDCc U meant to be t«kcn ttB 
Ui»torlc»l) in. that it «tnnd« in evident ti«M)oinl1on M'ith 
the number of days, as it waa probably tlicn reelvoned, 
in tho >'car It seems plain that he meant ic dcecribe 
the Krholo circle of the year, where he say*, that for 
eaHi of the da^a and nigbtit which JtiplLer bnsgiiriM^ 
or, in his own wordi'", 

5^tT0i yap v6Krtt rt koI iii-'^ptu it ^i6t tlvw, 
the greedy Suitors are notconlented writb the slaughter 
of one animal, or even of two, Kuma^ue then givce an 
account vf the wculth of Uly»0cs in live i^tock, both 
within the inle and on the nminlitml, from wlienre Ibe 
aniniais w«^re supplied: and add?, that from tJie Ithamn 
More a f^oatherfl took down daily a fat go^U while ho 
himself » ctten sent down a fat hog. I have UweJt 
thLU< partTriilarly <m the detail of thiM i^aae, lieranw it 
may fairly be inferred from the conespondence be- 
tween the number of the ho^ otkI the d^ye of the 
year, that for ouoe, at all events, the I'oet intended to 
flpeuk, though ^oniewhnt at mndom, tH in a degree 
ariibmeticaUy, and tliat of «o high a number aa 36a 

There are other easos of lower nnmbeni hi diF'fifrent 
parts of the poems, where it may \k argncd, with vary- 
ing tneasurea of probability, thai Homer had a aimilar 

The word innropfiit without doubt, aflords a strik- 
ing proof of TaguencM in the idcaa of the heroic age 
with respeet to number: and ibis vaguencfla extendfs 
yet ap[>areiitly in varying degrees, to the M^jective 

(M. xir. 93- 



IV. AcidOB^ ^iO^terin /lom^. 

nrariMi^otor» I have elsewhere" refcrretl toai^ecUvea of 
tbis TorDiatJou bs indtoattve of tlie iiict, Lliut for those 
Ifcticnitioim of mfiukinfl ox€n may bo ^iil to have ooo- 
StituU:<l a mcMtinj of vahie ; and this iJict <:«rtainlir in- 
volves ftn uim lit imiimnoal pxactitudc. It swmf. lu* 
deed, on general ^jrounds tar fnuii iiTiprohubJc, th&l the 
basioess of oxchaa£:c may huvo been the original guido 
of our race into tlic Art, &»d thun into the acieiicc, of 

In the descnptioD of the ShMd of MiTjcrTi, which 
huA ati huiirlrt^d golden drops or taa^oK wc nro told 
that each of thc-m wo^ Uarcn^otou or n'orth an hun- 
dred oxen. This ixftt^ of the vrord niu^t l>e ivgjirdiMl an 
stron^y chArgi^d with figure. Minerva was arming to 
mingle among m^u upon the plaiucf Troy^anditienot 
likely, thcrcfort'. th:it the Poet would repn-scnt licr in 
diirietisioiiH til.U'rly iimriHiiiit^). lie judn-iuiwly roierves 
tbiB license of exaggeration %1'ithout boumls for t&eeiictt 
vhcro he ia beyond the ^horo of relations properij 
bmnan. xm for exaniplci the Theomuchy and the IJnder- 
WorUl. N'ovi vvi; iiiHy veriliin? it* litkv tlio Homeric 
iralae of an ox before Troy At bnlf an ounce of goid. 
In the pn'soe of the wrestling motcli, whero a tnpod 
Ti-as worth twelve oxen, a highly Ekilkid womvn <TiA\a 
i' ririTTqTo JJ07") ww« worOi foiir?. Two ounces of gold 
wonldbealowpHce fortiucha jH*r«on in nIniOGt anyago. 
According to thie computntion, each drop on the -i'ligis 
of Mintrva would weigh fifty ouiict-s ; the vliole uoiihl 
wt^igh ahiive 300 Hisi, iirtiiri/tJjiiv\ ard if we were to asi- 
sume the purely ornamental (tipgo in a work of thia 
kind to weigh one tentL part of the whole, the jfigia 
iticlf would weigh nearly a ton miJ a hidf, /Wiwrf 
fvvif, tlibi m MUifcvptible of explanation in either of Iwo 

n AfiOrt, ^ 83. « IL ii. 450, F II, uwl 70^ 3- 

The numnrofff ofmivr. 


vmj% : the one, thAt t1i«r nuniLeni ttre iifBml poetic&ll; and 
not aritlimedaLlly ; tlie other, that of slieer JDtentiona) 
exaggeration in bulk. Tho nil4>8 of tbe Poet, a^ they aro 
ciscwLcrc applied, oblige ti» to reject tbe latter soltiilon, 
nn't riitHcH}ur*Tit1jr throw uh Imrk npon tbi.? rortnor. 

Again, we ar<* told that, wben DIomed ablaiiied tbe 
cxeban^ of arms from Glaurtie, lie gavo a suit of 
copper, tind obtainod in return & 8nit of gilti; 
Xfi^i^ X^X'^t^i', 9iat<Sf*fioi irtfto^ttov. 

Ht>r^ tttcnf seems to be a mixttire of tho motaikboHcal 
And tbc arithmetical urtc- For, on the ono hnad, it is 
sinpilor tbat be shotild iiare cboE^ii numbers vhich 
requiru tbe aid of a fmction to express their rolatinn 
til om? nn<»th<-r. He e<iiild et-rtainl/ not hnro itiMnt to 
snr tbnt tbe v&luee of tbe two suits veer& predselir as 
1 00 : 9, or ae 1 1 1 : I . And yaU on tho one b.iiid, ho 
eoiibl Acarcidy u»e tbe cenn mtaflo^a, except with re- 
ference t^ the known and tisnat value of a suit of 
armonr* ^bile tho ircaT^/ifSoUi, from its n»e in other 
places must be euspcctod of having; no more than a 
moroly indeterminate forfe. 

With tbi» fnietioiial relation of 100 : 9, maj be eovn- 
pared tbc orrongenient at the feast in Pylos, where 
each diviflion of Gro hundred persons was supplied 
with nine oxen. TIiobc nuinbcnt, however, arc pnv 
hnbly le«B< \agi)e than in noine other oasefl: for the 
provision stated, though lar^^e, is not beyond wliat a 
rudo plenty mi^ht soj^^est <m a ipncat public occasion^ 

Again, Lyeaon, when rAptnred for the second time 
by Arhlb.^ nrmiiids tliat bero of what he bad fetebed 
or been worth to bim on the former oecasboQ': fVaW^- 
ffotor if TOf 3\4pov. Here we hare a decinve proof of 
the figurative ufte of number. Had the young prince 
<i IL vi a$6. ' U. ui, 79. 


1V< Aaidott: JiitimlMT iti Himterw 

Iwon rnnjtomcd by PriAtu, a groat }»fice» uo doubt, 
would have been givcD, But Aeliillcti 9old \um into 
LemiloH, Snv&tv Sjtoif TrttTpi^ re t^iKmv Tf : antl to Um 
liUtnniHnH Ik* i^ouM TkHnllr \m\r- valm* but ii« & IfLbounsr, 
olUiough iiiJocd it cliftn<jcil tbftt lie wn* afterwards re- 
deemed, by A ^ttvov of Priam ^, at a high pnco. We can* 
noL, then, snjvposfi that ho bad bmngbt Buy &uc1i roturii 
ii£ would bo represetUed by a fnll hutidn?d of oven. 

Tbc ovidonc^ thus for, I think, tcods ]K>trerruny to 
support the hypothuiHJ^ lliut then* i« an amount of 
v&j^tJ4Mtr^ ill IIiiiiu-rVH gt-ru^ntl uae of immU^rK unlesa 
indeed us to very low ones, which cannot be escplain^d 
othonnso than a§ motaphorical or purely pocticctl : and 
that his nimd never had before it any of ibfwc pro- 
4VKS(t<n, itiinpli? nH lht\y nri* tn id) vrhn art; rumiliar witli 
them, of multiplication, subtraction, or diTi&lon. 

I admit it to bo possibltj. that bia manner of treating 
nuinbcr may have been owing to Ins determination to 
he inti^lligihh-, mid tn thr *tnU'. of tho fariiltitTn of hia 
hearer^ a« much as, or even nioro than, \th own. But 
to mo tli« &n[})>neitinn of the infant condition even of bis 
faeulticv with rcvpoct to number, though at tiret «igbt 
sturtting, ai)pruvi;H jtrtelfoii ruHection a? one thorougblj 
in conformity with analogy and nature. Indeed the 
experience of life may convince U8 tlat to thi« hour 
w'e fihould be mistaken, if vrc supposed aritliDietical 
conceptions to be uniform in dilTL-rt^nt mind:«: Llinl Ibo 
r«>lattouc of number are faintly and imperfectly appro- 
bended, except by either pmeliaed or else pecuharly 
gifted persons; and that, in short, there is nuthiug 
mora mysterious than arithmetic to thoMs who do not 
understand it. As one lllnstratiou of tld« o^ifuion, f will 
eite the difficulty which mc6t edueate<t p^uifousr wbon 

> n. £». fj- 

J&itm^ <u fo fh^ nujnl 


•tnrlyifi^ history, certaioly feel iit mn^tcrln^ Its chro- 
nology ; while to tho»c who nrc iipt hi fi^ircs it id 
not coly acquired with case, but it evt-u httc* as the 
nexiis and SQpport of the whole cltain of evetils, 

Tliore vnjfQ se'veral occaHions, ujKia which it woald 
have bot^n moet iintiiml and appropriate for Homer to 
UH^ the faculty «f muitipltcation; yet oii tio orie of 
thene ha.4 tie ufted it. He. constantly sapplien ijh ^ith 
the materials of a sunit bat iiwor oiic^e performs iho 

The firfit example in the Ilirtd 18 supplied by Uiat 
jHiMiHge of ihti unhappy s|x;iHdi of AgiinieiuiKtn In the 
iUMmbly in the Spoond Book, which causes the fevei^ 
fit of hoino-nickiu*N(K He ooniparcs Iho ^trcn^th oftbo 
Gn-vik army with tliat of the Tnijims; atid he <*ttiy 
eliecU the pfirpoae by thin fetfble but daborato con- 
trivance. * Should the Greek* and Tnjmkt agrt^ to be 
mnnbored respectively^ aTid iihould tho Trojans properly 
ao called he planed one by one, but the (ireeks in tens* 
ftnd every Trojan made cupbearer to a Greek ten, 
many of our tonti woiitd bo \iilbotit a cupbearer*/ Iii 
tho firat place, the fact that ho calle this ascertaining 
of couiiKimtivc force numheriug (a^t^^i/j^W*-™*) >» ro* 
maj-kable; for it would not Iiave ahown the niimher^ 
of either amiy ; nor even the dilbreii€«» by whidi the 
Greuks exciHKl«d a tenfold ratio to the Trojani; but 
simply, by leading an uiHrxliausted residue, the faet 
that they were iuor«, wli«»tJier by mucb or by little* 
tbnii ten timeti as tnatiy as the besieged- Secondly, 
It seems plain that, if Homer bad known what t^-a* 
meant by multiplication, be would have u»ed the pro- 
eean in this instance, in lieu of tbi» elaborate (yet 
jioetical) circnmlcxnition which he has atlupled; aiid 


t\\ Aoi4k0: XumUr in Hmm^> 

vroM li&vo said tlie Greeks were ten dmw, or 
timce, or twenty times, as manj' ma tlie tnbabitute 


After lliiH^ 1Tlyi«« nmtmilA the AsMinbljr of the «p- 
pantion of the dragon they Jiad seen M Anli*- The 
|ilini»; X^'^'^ '^ '^*** trfDwi^cit which ho employs >n&y 
graminaticaliy cilhcr holoii^ to the epoch of l\^ gather- 
Uig lit Autist, or to tlia time uf the plngue, which bad 
cari'led ofT a part of the forco n fortiiij^ht or ihreu weelcB 
belorc- Jn wiiirrhcvor connection vf the two wc pluca it, 
it AlTunla an iii^aiicc of extreme indcflnitcncae iq tho 
use of two adverbs whkh are at once exprefisive of 
thne and of number; for en ono eupposition he mi 
1100 thc*n] tij ox|>n.>T;$ wbolv yt'fir*, and on tho other' 
the; must tncAii near a fortnight, und tbercfore a ccr* 
lain number of days. 

The ii^xt caso is rcniark&blc. It U that of the Cata- 

Ttio resolution, nhich introdnccei it, ^^ not a resolu- 
tion to number the host; but &imply to make a earafuL] 
division »nil diN! ribtiti^tn of tie men uoiLlt tbeir leaden^ 
wWi a view to a nioro cficclivo re^pon^ibibtyk both of 
officers and men". But when the I'oct conic» to euur- 
merate the divisions, it is evidently a great object wiUi 
bim to Difikt* known thi> relative furces. and thus the 
rektivo promiiienco nnd ]K)wer, of thcj different Stat^js 
of Greece. Yet nothing c^m be more imperfect than 
thif muimt-r in whiih the enumerating portion of hia 
task is executed. In rhe first place, we irac^ again tha 
old iiabit of tho looeo and figumtivc use of numbers. 
For Homer oould hardly mcaiL us Co take literally all 
the nnmbera of shijis, which he ha^ i^tAteil in the (dia- 
logue : dnce, in every ca^ where they come up to or 
* a ii. iGj-«- 

Siienee a# fo M< $mm^4 ^ih^ amiM- 


il twenty, tli(jj nm iti cotnj»loto dociutefl vitltout 
odd numbers; subject to tbc ^ii^lc excoptioQ of tho 
IwifiiU-lvtij s1ii|iK ofCiiiitiK^iift. PtxlnliriikH and Machaon 
have tbirtr, the Pliociaiis forty, Achillea fifty, Mene- 
lnu« sixty* Diomed oij^bty, No&tor ninety, A]^momnoii 
nn hundrctl: the only full iDiilripIc of tcii oDiittcd 
Imiiig tUi^ iittf*r1y iii1rai*Ubb; rflSofiitcovTa. Ttut Again, 
be gfve« IIS no elfoetuaL i^lae to the numbers of llie 
crews. Kach of Uic fifty sbi|ia of the Boeotians bad ono 
liandrcd and t^-^nty men. ami each of llic wtcii stiipa 
of PliiWti'lee had fifty', Tbus lie «n]i|i1i(.-M uk witb tbct 
two factofS of tho »nni, which would find l\tc number of 
men, in each of thc:Ac two cti&c^ \ but in neither case 
doea he perform the auni; and such \s tho uniform 
praeticf^ tbruiigTmut the j>at*nn!. For tbu OR'rk f(>rco 
I^HJomllyr his liafl not oven given n« the faccorK. It bat 
iodeod bccD conjectured, that fifty may bavo been the 
smalleet abip's company, and one hundred and twenty 
ihti largest: hnt thi* U nicrv cnnji^ture ; and i^ton if 
It be noil founded, still wo do not know whether tho 
panerality of iho ehipe were about the mean, or nearer 
one or tho other of the cxcrcmcs. Again, it would ap- 
pear prahabh- from tbt^ OdyMcy, that thi^fto numbers o( 
fil^y and one humlrod and twent}\ are exclusive at least 
of ]>ilot9 and cfjnintandent, if not also of tho Btew'&nU' 
and the minor ollicers'; for the number mentioned by 
Aldnoiis^ ia fifty-lvro; and althongb he »ay« that all 
xviiT^ to >Eit du^n to row, Che Cexti when compared 
cannot Imt mg^aCf that tho number fifty vras an nana] 
conipknient of oars, and that the two were the captaia 
and pilot rtRpoctiTcly*. 

Plainly, there muvt have hoen lery great inequalltio* 

• It iL 5^,719, 
^OiL vii. 35- 


iV, Aokt^: Nuanbtr in Honw^ 

in UiD ercvs of Uic Greek amiamonti or llomer coitlil' 
not have said, after giving Agamemnon &n hundred 
sliipa, that be had by far the largest force of &U Uic 

For DIonied and Ii)am4^neii8 have earrh eiglilj' Ahi|ist, 
and Nestor has ninety, so tliat their utmbera wnuld 
como very near A;iamomnoii's. unless th(Mr Bhi|)B woro 
Hinalk-r. Bitt to »um u[> thia discu^ion. It is o%-idont 
llmt, if only we f^up|Hi4e the flnjekn uf Homi?r"fi tjm« to 
hH\(t liAd a definite* and well dcve1o[ied smiiie <^ nun^ 
bcr, ihc mention \>y Homer of tho amount of foreo in 
tho Tnyan cxpodittoii would Imvo bocn a fact of iho 
highest national interest and importance. Yet he has 
Iwfl u« nothing, which can he wdd eTi.>n dtJjnitely U» 
approximate to a rof^rd of tt, thoujfh the etsumcr&tion 
of the CatabgLio appears almost to force tho subject 
upon bira. The fair inferences seem to be, that be did 
not undentund the ealculativt- uho of titmihi-nt st all^ 
«r boycnd tomo very limited ningo; and that, oven 
Mithin that raiigei ho for tho most jnirt cntplo/ed them 
poetirally and orn.Mnenliilly ; they wtm? deconitive and 
effective. like epithets to his song, but they were not 
titatifTtical ; as expressions of force they vere no more 
than (as it were) tentfltive. and that but very nidciy- 

J urn fiirtlier confirmed in the l>eiief of Flomer's ill- 
determinate conception of number, from the strange 
result to which ibe contrary opinion would lead- Ho 
tells lis of the Trojan bivouac*^ ; 

• IL iL 573. 

d n vliLfifi*. 

subnet a^ to th* nvmbfrt ofitw oraitci. 


In this case he lias ^Wen uh again the fiiGtore of & sum 
in multiplicintioii, tbou(;h not tku prcxluct Diil liu 
tncon IhciRi to be tnkcn lilcriill^ ? If tio ilid^ then it la 
indeed :itrAnge ilmt. alihnu^h he i^y^ iiotliing whatever 
on ibo ftiibjt^ct of Dumber iii ihe TroJAii Cfltnlogiic, ycrt 
l>e has hore Bupp1i(^4 u>) with nil tbo i^Lrtieiilnr* tiLNTCHKiry 
for estimating ihc Trojmi force, while as to the Greelc 
amij. we remain unable to any whether it amoiintod to 
Why titcjij&aiid, or to h&lf. or to twice or thricv that 
number. But it is quite plnin from tbo totnl abM'tiCi* of 
specified numbcre in tho Trojan Catalogue, that be had 
DO de^re> as indeed ho had no occaiaioii, to give an ac* 
cumte aeei^unt of the Tnijan force, Od tlie other band 
it appears, from the details of tho Gr«ek Catftloguo, 
that ho did wish to describe the amount of the force on 
that eide, luj fur a« he could conceive or conver it. If 
all this be 3r\ then nothing t^aii t>bow mon; cWrly than 
the thousand Trojan watch-fire*, with their fifty men %i 
each, Ilomer'tf figurative manner of employing nutne- 
ric&l aggregations. If however we Adroit tho hgiirativc 
iii-e, WH ttt once find everything hannonious. He Je- 
sctibefl the IVofans by the method of bold enhancement. 
At a juncture of tho poem whore it is hie purpo^ to 
makc^ them terrible to the Greek imagination. 

The iiiMtiineo of ProtcrUfl in the Odytaey has aTready 
been referred lo : but one moro tnarkeil U afforded by 
tho description that Kumacufl givce of tho herda and 
ttockft of Uly^es. Tliis, agwn. is one of tlie jD»tanc«s 
when4 r.hi* Hjiint and gixt of tlit! jvaMcngv nlniUHt n^ipnred 
that a total should be stated. For the object ie to givo 
H telling account. The wealth of thU prince* says the 
Poet, was bomidlew; none of the Iieroes, uhctber of 
Ithaca or of thi» frrriilo c^ontiDont^ lud ut much ; ncK uor 


IV, Aoiiio* : Xumbrr m HtttMT. 

hail anv twenty oftliem. Then he rnentions lioir many 
herds cf caUlo, goate. and swine, and flocks of she^p 
there were, but gives no numbore of any of tlic hcrd^ 
nor any totiil : tboug'U, «)iortly before, tlie poem bad men- 
tioned the ttin>t5 Iium1r<^d and Aixty fat bogs under tbe 
cere of Kum^itua^ and bad also given us t1i» sows in tbe 
uma\ manror, etatinjif that there wen) t^'cko sties witb 
6ftj in coeli ; but not a])ecify]r£ a.TiywbEm.' tbe totnl of 
9ix buEtilred whidi these ftgtirett yiebl w1m*u multiplied 

AKaiii, then tbo result of aU these pBsiB.goBt cis Vi-ell ita 
of more wbtcb miifbt be quotes), ia, 1 think, to show 
tbat Momer's e(>i3ee]ftioii<4 4tf number, and his use of 
iniinher, espet^ially nhen beyond a very low limit, were 
eoindotenninate.tbatthoy may not improperly bo called 

In i4Lip|iort and in illustration of this belief iiitb r&- 
spuvt to (lomer, I would once more refer to tbe curious 
fragment ivoribed to Honied respecting tbo ago of tlie 
^jmpba with beauteous locks, which hegita^ 

In tlio Etyiiiol. Ma^n, 13. 36^ the rea^Hnf;^ is yttpelr- 
Ti0v; Euid Aiidouiiis, fullowjug this authority iu his 
Eighteenth Idyll, umkt*s the yt^-fiit no le^ than 9674*01^ 
But the sense of -y*!'*^ Is Rxed hy Homer's account of 
Nt'stor, and others iso, in such a way as greatly to favour 
the rcr^ling ii^wrTf^f. The word therefore meaus tlie 
term between birtb and the prime of life, wliicli maj 
well bo (aken at thirty y*jar». Tlieii Gomos a table as 

■ OA xiv. t>-»o. 

't af^ itfthtr Njfntp^i^^ 


The ago of tlie davr = 9 age« of nieD. 

T\n* agvi 4>r ibe aLug=:4 of daws = 36 of men. 

Tbo Qgo of tbo crowss3 of stags^twelve of <iiwft = 
108 of tnon. 

The age of the |«lni = (^ nfcTovni = zyof^tMg^= 108 
of dftV't ^ 97a of men. 

The ago of llioN)Tiiph= loof pii1me=:90ofcrows=3 
270 of 8tfi^= fo8o of <law8 5=sc)73o of mcu. 

And if tic 7fi'tii be 30 j'wins the ngc of tlit- N^irijiha 
= 30 x972o= 291,600 yt'oi^. But tli(? pnjnt nKJ»it w* 
markablo for tiAt 19, tbat wliilo He^iod, if Hesiod it be. 
9ap}>1i«A 119 with the whok of tho firat Inctora after the 
ytvri), for tills Toitg Biim, he doc?s not actually perfortii 
Oiii" siogle mul(i]>IiCHtioiL ; nor diit*« hv ovon <lefine tho 
ynt^, Hhich is tho first and most vital clement of all. 

lie lia» thuH griven us at once a verf pretty poetical 
Invention for exprecHlng approximately tbo ago of 
Nymphs, wlio art' Jove-borti itidotv), yet are not iin- 
niortul, and a remarkable proof of tbo IndcfiniteiieM 
of mimtriail conception?, ainl of total unftc<|uaintance 
with the rules of arithmptic'. 

Olio conftequenee of the proposition I ha^e advanced 
with rcepect to Homor is, to destroy a1to;*Dthcr a sup- 
poaed tliBcrcpancy- bcttreeit the lliiid aiid tbe Oily«»ey, 
irliicti tiaa often \teen |)ara(led aa a reason, among 
others, for assi^inng iht^ni to ililfereiU nnthora. It it 
truly allcgttd that, in the Cuialo^ue^ Crete is called 

' I mlycrui Ui« Rst ot this ciinoiu tnjpncut ; 

Aw n n!tt tifiOMot- A«nA' 4fuiir mt ^oinoc 

It if ncitlccil lij nhtyt (N'aL UwU >ii- ^S.) mbo t<riiM it CulMftliHu f 
1)Ut it ii with icnn.' projincty, I lliink, to be oJlcrJ pHtic«l- 
f 11 ii. 64V- 


EV. Aiiios ? Xitmfter in H&Mfr. 

tf<iT^uToXic; And tlmt In Uie XSnetefMith Oiljf«i?T^ vr0 
ftre t4)ld of it. 

Each of (licse vonls n|i|>(?ar» to bu int4?q>n;te4 MS strictly, 
as it would be if cAuglit by an nmlltfir (n iha ««eouiita 
of some delin<]aeiit Joint^8tock Company; and thus, 
forsooth, a diversity of autttore for the two poems U to 
be nin<]e guod. Now it is not u little udd, if botb those 
poct>L loolcHil at the subject with the eje of ststi^tJcians, 
that while found a difler^iit number of cities fo 
Crotc, yet cncli found an cvoo, and more or Icssa round 
number. Hut why is HnTiw^oXif t" be more rtrirtly 
(uterpretwl tlian Jkoto/j^v? And again, if we are lo 
construe nf^K^/tn^a etatifltically, wliat are we to do witb 
tlio ycry word that prcccil^.'i! it, nninvly, olvcj/>^io( ? Tho 
«implc fact of thi> jtixta|iOMtioti of that word with the 
cn^KovTQ iraXi7<T alinuhl aurely have stifllced lot^liow, that 
the whole manner of speech waa (wliat we now call) 
poctJcEil. So re^finhng it, I venture ov<*n to sny that 
tho cj^ct of a comparison with the epithet in tlie 
Catalogue is to e^lahli^^h. not a. iliscreiiancy in |>otnt of 
Act, but ratlier tk similarity in tho measure of 6gi[ntlivo 
conception and cxprc^ion: no thut in consequence, as 
ftr &3 it i& i\orth any thing, it rather tt^nds to prove 
the identity, than the diverhity, of anihoffthip between 
the two poems. 

A second conftcqucnco, which must be drawn from 
the foregoing conchision^i, i* this ; (hat we rfiall do wroug 
to seareh the poems of Homer for any sehenie oP ehro- 
nolog)'. The minnto enumerations of the Mosaic books 
have perhaps given thi- tone to our orcliminr hi^terical 
in<iuinos: but» at leaat with respect to Homer, it must 

** Od- xix. 173. 

y^ MiWine ^ CftrONoic^ m Homtr. 


a])pear an crr»i>co»8 couno to uee hU numarJcal state- 
merits OH literal^ whon tUoy arc applied to time, after 
we Imve hud »o luucli evidence of their gpncrnllj oma- 
mrnrul mu) figurativf^ eTmr»rtcr. 

\Vli<?n Homor lias occatjou to define c]t«tai>c«, ho 
do«e rot attempt ta do it by a fixed mcaeuro* but by 
reference atvrayH to Imman or other action : it is as far 
OS a man can tlirow a spear, (<?ow^f 'pf^fj l ">" ^ f"r n» 
a nifin a cry can be heard {oatfr re yiyt^v^ ^wjrfns) ; or ai 
far, yf\\en wc conic to larger spaoea, as wo ean sail 
within a ettrtajn Lime; if I nmke a gocid passage, says 
Achilles^ 1 may get to Phthia on tho third dny: and 
again, %^ hoar or the distanco that a Hhi|> i-an }>erform 
within tlio dayK Tlie hor^» of the goi^ in Homer 
clear, at each bound, a Ap:kce aa largo as the eye can 
covor Tilohg the »«rfaL'e of the sea. As he coinef* to 
apeak of p^inte moro remote and lets kuowi^ ho be- 
comes greatly more vagt;e, and ea>^ of Hgypl, tliat even 
the birds do not get back from it ^iltLin the year^: 
wichnut doubt dniwjng his idea from those birdt u-hlcti 
periodically mi^mte. 

As with »pacesp ho with times. The year indeed by 
ita revolution forms itMrlf into a natural vthule, and la 
thas in a niaunor self-defined. So the waxing and 
u-aning moon definee the month. But even with these 

I H. Ix, l6>, ^ itrnt rt voprjtapiv w^ii fiun. Oil lr, 356. 

I Ud.iii.333. VTilh DiiK cnmpOK tbeT<9np«t,ActiiS&i; «l>cn, 
lie it obntfrvtij, miAk»|Hiir« is irru^ug hm Bubjt^ ■■ out of Uremn-' 

AnL W1io*ft llio licit lii'lr of KftpJc* T 

»>k. Ckhl»L 

AttL 8bc tWt y ijiKca of Tuuti -. nhe, tliat JwrtU 

T«rr tnguM b«ji>D(l iruai'* life ; «bc Ibnt IVoin N^iklca 
Ckn Imir ui> tiulti, iiiilm llii? ma wvrv puiC 
(Tho nuuk i' tb' QDOon '« too alcnr,) tUI ti««ir-bi>rD Ait» 
Ik mnglk «U(I ntonlilfi 


IV. Apidim: ICm}h^ im Hcmtr, 

veJI marktNl u?mt$ Homur d^aU loosely; for tUo birth 
of mfftikt^ m (^romincd to take plnoo after t)i4^ revolution 
of a joftr from the time of oiinco|>lioii™. 

r cKi not n?Tneml)«>r that he ever meptiona a very 
bijfli number of d&js or of years, hot hi^ use of both 
6n,ys anil yL*ar«, nhon it iloca not cmbmcc ienui defined 
hy ciiHtom« hail the mark:* of ht-mg highlr |K)eticak Take 
fur iriHtAiKre the jirineipal nod aInioAt ont}' HUUemeim 
of the po«m, tliat cnn clain] to be caJled ebn>noh>gtca]. 
T!kj arc those nbirh nrprc^cnt the period of the siege 
AH n tl<*cfu]c! of year*, ]>n-ccd<'cl hy a decade of pn?|iani< 
tion, and felloweid bv a third decade for tJje vieikMitudes 
of tbo Itoium. Her^ fire three tomis of years, all foubd 
in & Poet, vho doc$ not elsewhere ^loal in ternit of 
years at all. Of history, or what |iiir^H>Hs In be »ncht 
Itomer has given us a great dc-al, and ]ie has placed it 
ill the oxitoteet and clearest order. But in no one in- 
stance, out of all bift prior history, doc* ho found himsetl 
on any nmncrical deBiiitiimn of time. Mon-o^-cr. thc«i* 
tbn-n tftniiM o^f y<-ar« are all exactly ecjiial, which b^^ht- 
CDi tbu! unlikelihood of tbeir beiug hifitorkak Lastly, 
the three tcrme arc just of the number of ycarepeciiiired 
to make u|» what wa«» aceordiiig to all appc^nrancefl, thft, 
Henieric tenii of a y*tv^, or geiieratioij of men. 

The paawige- ou which the proof of ibis last as^rtion 
must principally bo founded, is that in the First Book*, 
which describes the Bg^ of Netttor; 

T^ V r;ft7 h4o ^P ycjrcdj iitpovny at$piu'aitir 

f take the word 7^1^ to mean here, ' tlie term of 
thirty yearv/hiit ^viUi ibenee^tisarj'qualiltcntion of ^or- 
thercaboutt;' and for the following n-aMUs; 

*tt Od. ri. S4S. • ri I t5o->. 

Co** i\f fhf ihrt*- ti^ijodt* ^ ;ft<rrd» 


NGslor is roprc*efiUKl fn tl^* lliiul us llii? oIdc*l of 
the Greek cliieftaiiH of llic firsl onkrr. Yet rij¥«>s" 
WB9 dderly, io^oyipmi'. likmioiieiiA, ii^iii, wft» <il<W 
than T.n vv>ieSf as i» pUin from the more nmrkoil in&mivr 
in vrliich Uh advmirc iti years i^ <fe<»crib(Ml. He U 
m^atwcXtof^ iLiiJ not fully ablcbodiecl, as api^enn from 
liifl Minit^wIifiL 1iiiiil4?il fihari* in inilitiirjr fi|)(?intioii?«; but 
Nestor i» ovidi^utlyoWor limn MonK*iiou«, a** lie ftlwars 
a<ldrcASeH the wlioIi> body with tlie autliority tbat he* 
loiij^ to the most cxlviiilrd t^ijicnt'iir^r inid ru )lc never 
tnkea an aetive |)ATt, either in battle or in t!ie gumdft. 
We mustt&ocordin^ly, Hupposo Ne»torto be re|>rc8L<ntC'd 
BB at tb]» time an old man of seventy, or from tbat to 

Now the poMfij^ iinplii?4 ttiat he vta^ In the third 
yert^t and in the midst, J. c- not at eitbur oxtrotnity* of 
it ; ibe w<>nl« are ptrrti fptrKtronii^. No lo»vr ntimbcr 
tbnii thirty yeam will jiliire Ni>«tor fairly am<i4ig, or In 
the mid^t of, the tlitrd gonenition from his biiih. If, 
for oxami^e. we take five antl twenty ye»ni m tlie 
term* lie would have been not no much among the 
third as on the eve of arriving within the fonnh 
^nemtton. But neither ean we assj^fii to ytnii any 
meaning, which tball make it &cii«ibly ejected thirty 
year«^ For iw we invy miy with (Htnr)dt*ii€e that thv 
Ne»tor of the Iliad h over seventy, so, on the other 
band, we imiy fairly compitte that ho ifl under ei£:hty; 
ina^Muncb as, though he lakes no ptut in exertJon» 
actnatly atbletie, he «parea himself nothing else. He 
jft found by Ainimemnon. when the commander in chief 
go«8 biB rounds, on the iteld and at the head of hia di- 
vitcion ; be U wakrfnl for th« night council, and he got* 
almut awaking otberc**. Retaining co latga a tbaro of 
* 11. iifcti. 791, r M kIU 361 <\ t\. I. 157. 


[V. AioHm: Xuinh^ in ffmnrr. 

Isodlly ii(*t>vltv% Tic is fX\\\ not repn*-vnte<l tat fosa^^siod 
of fttro^Mti in ^ucli a dt^gree as to Ikorder upon the 
mnrv<^lloiia; he la simpl;, in regard to corporal qiiali- 
ttcs. wliat v-Duld DOW b^ called a i^toarkablj Rne old 
gentleinuii. But if imtvad of thirtr vr<v wrrc to take 
fbrtj" ycont, tbcn* in ordor to liav<; woll oittotod into 
thotfaini term he must have bct^n already- nmrh bernnd 
i*igliLjr» iTid«i?it, pnihNb])' bi^yotid iiliK'ljr, in ihe [Hull, 
anil above a» hundred in the Odytsey; an ape, whWi. 
&!t he retains in that poem all bis mental powers, we 
may be quite iuttt Homer dift not moan to mmgv^ to 
liitn. ir, ihrii, 7'w^ mrant unyterm ofyran^it inunttiii 
all lik4-Uhoo<I,hnv(^b(H-n f^omcwhero nbonttliittyjroara* 

Homer hns been can-ful, in the ca*e of ?feetor, to 
mark, by an apprD[iriatH diuiij^? of t^xprt^ons th« 
difference between his age in the two poems re«pect- 
ivelr. Iti itie Hiad he is exercising tho kindly office 
amofig the third generation diaco his birih. In tbe 
Odviwey Inr lit Kjklil la hiive ('xhauiiihiHl fbt* threr tvrnift' ; 

That lundity anri aoirnr&cy in Homcr'e cxprceBioni 
to which w(? mv mt oft**ii beholden, may :rtand u» jof^ 
fiirUitT in jffiod hivnd. Two ytvta) bad putaHrdf not of 
men nt lar^o. but of fhe tncn o7 ce vpo^0<y a$At Tpa^>n' 
i^ •7**i>vTo, of those who were bred and born with 
him, of Wi9^ eonteniporaries. Kow this prntiw t^t by 
^cTHif Homer does not mean th« full duration of humaii 
life, but that Qvcraffc interval between the* guccc^ions 
of men, which geneml cx}ioneiicc p!acc« at about thirty 
yearx. For if Homer hafl mmtjt by ytrtij i\iQ whole 
time required for the dying out of a ^iteration, N&«tor 

f 0(1 iji. 245. The TiK'nniiiif the Iljiwl ua morr *■ iniplJrd limn 
may be tlut ho burl rciyrKd For that hc b«d tVMi VtU into ■ 
felH>^ twri ^Q«rbtTO[ir( : hui III third. 

C<t*e qfth^ M*w <(rc<uffsi ofy^ar^ 


couli] not have outlivH two ^nrmttons of cotitcni- 
porant*ft. In ih'm ftHn?*^'. his rnnti^iiipomrii'A wen* iiinm- 
festly not two fenerations, but one, or llltte more. But 
if iho Poet Tneanl tlie asnal inlen'al at wlucli diiUI suc- 
ceeds to, ot rather follon-a upon, fether. tbc expression is 
clfftr ; for tht; muaniiii; is tlint h*.' liml m^ii two of tliv^c 
tonus of years, or Kucc^^ioii#, |>os£ nvcrtho^e \tho >voro 
bom at the same time with himsolf. AntI in faot this »t.iiw 
of the term 70*^ is much closer to its ctj'nif>T(>g| tlimi 
any other We may, then, on the whole, ptetty safely 
asnime it to be a term of years, having the number 
thirty, 80 to speak, for its pivot. And thus the three 
decades of the vmr hccomt^ yot nntro in;idniis»ihte ns 
historical i^xpn-unloiis, because they nre under tlie 
strongest suspicion of being poetically employed in 
order to make up the jt^rh^ so far at least as tlhey 
aD<l it cAU l>e considered to Approximate I0 an actual 
niunher at all. 

In full corfomiily with this muoning, it has been 
shown by Mure, that the events of the third decade, 
vritli their ltmew> iiistvatl of t4*i) y^am uiily, itiako np 
<iglit ycnrs and »even months*: and he proceeds in tho 
lane dirtK^tiou with the for^^gcirg argument so far, at 
least, as to observe, that the decades and their Arrange- 
ment are conceived 'in a inixL-d spirit of liyperlniTe 
and method,' which commonly marks the genius of 
hor^c romances 

Tliat, however, which enables me vitb great confi- 
dence at once to urge Homers historical anthorrty, antl 
yet to decline rroognidnj; him t\» a ehronologi^t at fill, 
is the fact, tliai he nowhere founds \m hi>lory at idl fn 
ebrotiology, or in i\w mimberiug of eventti by years* 
more than he numbers dbiances bv miles, hut that he 

* Lh. On«n^ I. ^60. \l 139. 

<lg i 


IVt A^itUi* .- XwubfT in Htunfr. 

Armii|;cft the siii'^sdon of oiN!urrenc«fi by U^q ytnoA Off 
sucoessioii of Imm&n ^norations. On thcBO fronerfttiniis 
we muFil look aa tbe real titnc^kcepitig ot^ganism of liin 
works : ainl tW time wiili >i« vlii«tir (icrrUxlK, klUiuugli 
tntlcUTiniiinte in it« details, Ia kept by him most ftccu- 
rnU;!/ qik) ctTcctu&lIy a» n whole; so thnt hli^ gonemCioDF^ 
wlurb iin? 4liH|H'r*r(?illv rfl(^ird**J in various parU of tbe 
poems always tally wben tbey meet. Thia is mtt the 
place for tbe proof of the assortiou : I only refer to it, 
because it may help to dispel tbe illusion apt to possess 
tbo iniiifl witb n^Kpix-t U» ilomt'r'w (lueiiileM. We, with 
our definite numerical i(l(>ii«, may naturally (-cnsidvr 
that if an otitbor of our own day ha^l »uid a war h^ii^l 
in pre))Cirjitioii, ai'tioii. and rettini, ra^^li ten yenrM, and 
if it was afterwards found perhaps to have tasted rsay) 
only for ten years alto^tbor or little more, such an au- 
thor would have proved himself unworthy of belief: 
hu wmpM bnvc hrukiti fiMi witb ii.v But Mintu-r dooi 
uot bnnik fuitli with u* \ix u»hig immWnt poetically; 
they belong to his pictorial and not to his hi^ncftl 
apj>aratust and in coimoetion with thin pictorial appnm- 
tns it is (hitt he c^:instantly employs them. I doubt if 
there is any exception to bo made to the brood tswrtloi^, 
that, unless in the sin^e case of the wan witb the pre- 
e^dtn^ and fotlowing decades. Homer never applies 
number to narrative. And yet the poctns are full of 
iudcpendent narratives^ Of nil these, very few indeed 
arc left uuS;ccd in date; and in evc-ry case tbe date* 
wh[*ii found, is found, of entirvti with n i^'rlain margin^ 
by means of the order of j^enerntfonH. 

Now this view of Homer's mode of chronology will 
serre. I tbink, to explain some diHicidtieft thai bavi? 
heretofore led to much of needless perplesdty. If I 
am fi^hU it will follow that wo tnu^t not adopt the«e 

fii£Sfuhi^ ofiU^ /iVtfiW mirrpr^iittkm. 


l(1p« w n guide to ilelennine HritttnTetirnlly tliv 
ortlvr of ovuiUk, becsu^iv Homur liii« mivcr ooiict-ivcnl 
tbom aritlinicticnUy, Init La4 coiimvoi] thoTn mtbcr a« 
we conccirc tnilltons or biltionfL. Ilrnrc they Arc more 
Juitly to he vlew^nl ii« a ilrA]M«rv thrown Intvtely ovitr hU 
airtion, Elmn a^ n n^id framf^work int<> which it muitt itt 
all costs be tiiado to fit. Let ti8 apply thi^ to varioua 
Cftses; :tnd ainon^ them to Ihoae of Telemjicbus ami 
Neoptolc^mutt re9»poctiv(>ly. Ulpscfi left Tdvrmacliut; a 
men? cliild, trV ytyn^' iy) oUn"^. Ilc comox bac^k and 
flnd^ him not a full iimD. for if Ii4) had beeii ii full niao. 
he would liavu Ih^4*ii gi^ilty of a rooted nowanlieif l>e- 
jond excuse, which there is no si^ that Homer meare 
to in)|)Uto to Him; lut yet ho waa npproaehjn^ man" 
bood. Still he i*t contempt doubly called ^o\- -wnU^ by 
AatinuiiM, ir|Kin Uie wbole, the caw? <if Tidi^irmrliiis 
would perhop:!, nccordin); to the analogy of tho poemit, 
beet fiLlI in vrilh All abwM^co of not more than fifteen 
years, though it dues not ahi4i>liitidy t^xchidt? nirH-lH4*ii. 
Here there ma; be a iilight. yet there Is not a glaring, 
discropaDcy. But In another coee, that of the numbtjr 
of the day$ for which Tclomnchns wa? abscutv More 
has shown how little llomer csres to follow the lapse 
of timet ill & caMo w'here it dooe not oaieatially touch ihe 
general onk-r of tlic jwonit with tbo prcciaioD that he 
oWrvoH in «veryihitig hi? lrr*aU historically -*. I 
cannot treat t^iis aj» adtQicjIty with re«pect to t lie quee- 
ticn of antborahip, or admit it ta be one : it Is bi« cliild- 
liko and iadotcrminate but poetical habit of handling 
uumWnt fi»r elTurt, ji»t as a painter liaiidleR cuTonr. On 
the otiKT band, in the case of Argos, on whom dark 
deatJi laid hold', 

avfU* IMrr' 'Otif^ya ^tunMrrf iwtavfft GrrcDC ml. i. p. 437, 

9 Orl jriL 3J7, 


l\\ jImWm: A'uuihir m i/onwr. 

he preoiself ooincHlett with 1ih own f1e€«di.'«. Tel ( 
believo be ices tbb nnt from anf wu$e of ttio nocetK 
sitv of sudi coincidcfwo, but Ixcause in tb&b incAtn- 
|iftm1ifc iKUDWgr hv liarl ihp rxlrvniu uld mgtt of n ilttg 
to repiVKeiii, ftn<l to thw the exprotfston of the twentieth 
year wns suited. AV|>en, however, wo come to llie ca=te of 
NeopUi|piim». we find this to be one eKtrumcly difficult 
of ftilJQsttiient for any fritif, who wrnild iiis^ist upon a 
merely numerical prectdon in Homer. Wi-iiiu^t tndoocl 
dbmm from our miiida the t«k-£ about Cbc ccnocalment 
of a bcfirdEi-^ Ar'hillvM al ftrynM, undu'r it fi^niiik- dis- 
guisa; from which he weui extnieted Uy the art of 
UIyi»c*<' Of tbc»c stories Homer knowg nothing; 
tlioii^h it fieemei pmbable tiiat the grsce aiid beauty of 
the great warrior, aa In.' ktaiwls in Homer, may hnve 
heon connected with, or may have suggested, them, Bot 
what the? Poet doe^ repreaeot ta. tliat Achilke went to 
Tmy when without expeni?nco in war, that he; wm put 
under a ir^jrtJiin UiU'lago of Pha^iiix ht« ori^inul t^aelKT, 
and now oiic of hi» lieutenaatjf, thai Pntroclus as bin 
Kenior was deiiired by Pelifu,-( to givo him good Advice, 
and ihftt be is c.nlled yiTio^*. Yet his son Neopto- 
lemus succeeds him in command before the close of 
the vrar, and attains to rcry high distindton. It ia yeC 
more ni'^fnl to be ob:»er%iid. that bis diHtinctioo is in 
eoiindl, a« wrll nji in ih*- fii'hl*. Tho ngo of Achillea tw, 
hidood, procmnably ^meuhat rai»ti^ hy tho facrt, that 
Phcenix »eetna to represent himsLdf x^ a good deal 
younger than PeleuH. vihuJiesay^treaL^I him nHa ftithi'r 
might hnvo dorm''. And again, Achilles is never repre- 
Hantod fi« a young mnti in tho Jliad, while Uiomed is Sfi 
represcDted. Stilt there i$ a decided incompatibility in 
Lltrf i4tatenient«i art u> Achllh^s luid bih von, if wu Huppnfte 
that Uomer earrit^d in liis mind the elTect of his tbroo 
« n. ix. ijS. auii li. ;aj, * 01 xi, 5J0-11. ^ 11. ix^^Si. 

ViK» i^ltte prvfMtai iiiterpretatimi. 


Iccadee, aa determiiiing t>reci»cljr lln? growth of Neo(M 
lf>lmnu» iu yearti aiiU t^trenglh ; for NeoptoIeiDus is 
mow arlvanccd at the end of the war, than Uis illus- 
trioiis father had been at its beginning* Mure liaa b«^n 
al tliv pains^to arraiigQ all tb<.*ft<} tnattere which depemd 
on i\w d«cu(les chronolojncally, wtth'>ut, I think, rcaior- 
Ing tlio ii3apric>9»io[i that moro chronology w ron^idcr^ 
ably strained by (hem. and that if utriclly judged, tlie 
narrative is, to all appeannicerchnrgeahle vrith Home few 
ycarv of maladjuflttnent. It «e&ms to me more near tbo 
truth toconuidcr the thive decades, together making tip 
a 7«r«jv*as a distribution of time which the Poet adopted 
for ita symmetry and grandeur, since St n*|iK-»entvd 
th« wsir AS absorbing an u^o ur j>cnoratio» of men : but 
not to bold him bound to adjii^t ibc rvlationa of all tti« 
cTOitta be uarnUi^ with n?fentiicr to h minute regularity 
of progrefiHOU, which be seem* not to bfive taken into 
Account, and wtiich his hearcTa weio (probably tfaito in- 
CHpabIc of Bpj>reciatitig. If we wibU to test his historical 
credit, wtf may In- him by hUowiT itchuuifTof rltrniiolog}', 
uanicfy, h!a £<(>n«alo]^o«. Ills logetida ombraco boiuo 
Bcvcn gonemlt(»n)«. The 8anio cbamctcn* an.- prodoeed 
and rr]inMinriri1 in many of thcin ; but tliey ar« no- 
where presented in such a way as to be Jnoonaistent 
with their order of succession accor^linj? to the ordinary 
laws of human nature. 

The ii]»plicatt»n of tbo»e conoid i^rotionH to the porma 
will u*»hi In explaining dlflScultles, which it baa been 
thought worth while by learned men to raise. 

For instAncn; while we take the three decides of 
years historically, we are [lerpleaced by such (|uebtinua 
iLti, How it c&mo about that thu Grcoks^ never htid 
boon muE}tcrcd till nine ycar« hod pasaod* Secondly, 

" uu ut«m«,m. 141. <t a b.3^ 


* J v. vi^'<f«# : ^tunttr in tfMttfi'f- 

haw 11 Hji^ tliiit ttio Trojans lind iieTi>r until then s«en 
them ill sucli force*'; wlicrens wo knov tbnt mnltitiiiles 
of the Orei>k airmy 1i»il difHl f; mu\ then^ U no ai^ that 
any ftuch coiiunuDication Mitti their nfttlre oouutry tonk 
place tluriiip the course of the wnr, as pii;;ht hn w ^uffieed 
le rcplcnifib ibcir ranks, 'ihirtlly, why the Trojans had 
retnaiiivil mt rlirxHy Hhiit vrilhiii thi; wiiIIh, iukI ytf\ nt 
ths Bauio cimo the (>rctfk» hsul »o »«Mom rome Dear 
thctu, tluit PriBTn fth<»ul<l not have Icnmt to know Aga- 
mciniion und hU r4>r»j)ei-r!t Ijv ^JghL during *o ]f>ii^ a 
period ; nnrl this although Achillea tnay prriTmbK ]t%w 
beeu abHoiii, for conHidembtu Jittenralfi. on hia (ttvclatot^ 
cstpcditinns. Fourtblj. bow it cnnio about that the 
gn^al nnniber of allien spt'fikitig various Umgnt^ who 
hud patberod round I'rinm to qmUIh him, Hhould, like 
the Greek armj.not have been Tnnr^halloil at an earlier 

Bui if wi* »u]i[)OHi^ the lerni of ten jears to he iti tho 
main n figurative expre?»iou fnr conveying xbe idea of 
eHbrt lengthened in duration, as well as extraordinai^ 
in iatefisity, diflicultics like tbesE, wbkdi at the worst are 
porha])« Tiot wry wrious, either wholly vanish, or are 
rodueed to insignifieant proportions, Wq are then at 
liberty to BU|7pofle that, without at all dcimrtiiig from 
the gvuend Imlb of history, Homer felt biiDwlf an- 
tJiori^ tno eompve««, to expand, or to group thLtev^'nta 
of tho war, in 8uch a mniitier as ho thought bcht for the 
concent rat ion of intereAt, and for the prndurUoa of 
auk-quate poetical and national cftecL 

• IL II 79p. 

' II l^t. iL30J. 



Homer's Pcrccptioiu and Vftt <tf C<tlowr. 

Tkb subject of the Homeric numbers has b«<Ki dlf- 
cLisHed at cousidvrablc Icnj^tli. on account of its connec- 
tion with imfioftiint i]m^f(tiatis of bii4orj. Ttmt of 
coloure may, even oti Its own meritSi d&«^^Te a cvofol 
exsmiiHitioii, This iu<)uin- wiJl resemble, bo\*'cwr, the 
foniHT *liMra,*f*ioii \i\ the nppwininw of jiamtfoXt which 
the »rj^iiitR'iit maj 4KH;ni to pr(<R'nt. Ni^xt tu the IdeA 
of numhor, ther^ i^ none |x^rhupf< more dofinil^ to t}ke 
moilvm mind genemli^, ai4 irell aft in particular to the 
English miuiJ, thui that of colour. That our outi country 
Iia* Bome spechil aptitude in thtd re^^p^ct, w? m»y ^Ag» 
from tlio eompRrativciy advantageous position, Vrhldl 
the Britiifh paintcn barta always hdd a« colouriflta 
ninoiig utiter cotit4^n]pi>rary hcIjooIk. Notltiiig Meema 
c-ro readily undonitood und rot^ined by vcr}' young 
lildron amon^ uk. than the dj^tinctiouH between the 
principal colcura. In regard to one (loint, the ca^e of 
numbers U h^>re revened. Tliere the idea beconi«« 
ludcOuito as wo ascend in tho scale, hero it U ne W0 
dofccnd. Colour becomca doubtful as it bi?coine* 
faint, more and more ck-v as it ia acrnitintatMl aiid 
heightened. But tho fibcUity witli which we diM?rtnil* 
nate colour in nil ita marked frimiB^ is probably tho 
reeult of traditional aptitude, simre we seem to £nd, as 
we go far backward in human history, that the l^ulty 
16 leas and I«sg mature. 

I am coDsciouii that the subrecti which U ik>w befen 


IV. Awdo*i Coiour im lUmtr. 

U9,iiin-al]lf d««orrce«»el«iitlficiiivoitigiitloD,Hhic1i lau 
net caj>ablc of affording to it ; And tiw tluit wc arc, as 
yot, fiir frank Ix-ing ulAv to ren(!t?r l1it> I^iiguagv nf Lh«* 
anoioiit* for colour into our omi nith the coiiMenee, 
which wc c£Ln feel in atmoBt every otbor deparlmcnt of 
interf) relation. My cndenToun will be limited, firstly, 
to a collection of ' realien* or facU of the pot>ni«> in the 
case of Colour; aud, eecondly, to poJncin;; out what 
&)>[keani to be tbc hw9\^ oftlic ideas and perceptions of 
Ilomer r»^>cclin;^ it, und the irlatjon of ibnt bofis to 
Che idvas of the later Greeks. 

Among tho signs of tlie ttnmnturity whieli f bavo 
inentlonc(]f the following are found in tli« {loeinn of 
Homer : 

L The paucity of his coloum 

IL The use of tbc same word to deuoto not only 
differeiit hues or tints nf tlir ^me oolour, but <mlouni 
which, ACCorJing to uh, ^w vi^ni^'iiliMy drlTcnnit. 

III. The description of the Kinic object under epi- 
tbeU of colour fundaniuLitally disagreeing one from the 

IV. The van predominance of the most crnde and 
elemental forms of colour, blnck and uiiit4\ over every 
other, and the decided tendency to treat other colours 
as simply jiitormc^dMe modm between tfaeee eitremec 

V. The slight utio of colour in Homer, as camparcd 
vith other clcniciite of beauty, for tbc purpoM of poetic 
ofll^ct, and it« iihweiici' in ct^rliLin caKi-« wbcro vfv might 
coufideiklly expect tu f^nd it. 

V&ch of these topics will deserve a distinet notice. 

I. l-ir^t, then, witb reHjtect to the paucity of his 
colours. W« find. I think, scarcely utort* tlmn the fol- 
lowing word« which can with certainty be described aa 
adjective* of colour properly so called : 

Homrrk MifBCtuHv ^ Cobnr. 


There are other wonls wbicli are taken from objecls 
thftt have colour, atxl to luoat of which I vhatl h^n>ftfter 
refer: but which cnii honlly. io winsi^lciicy with the 
whole c\i<ienci' (ntm tfao test of Homcn be classed lu 
n<yect!vv« nf ilcfiiiiU* rnloiir 

Now we iniist at once bo struck witli tbt^ poverty of 
the liat which has just been fiven, upon €oni]>arm^ it 
wvtii i>ur own Knt of priin&rr colour?. wbicL has bcL^n 
doti^nnmed for us hj N'«tur<\ nml wliidi 11* m fiillwu*: 

I, Red> 4. Oreen. 7. Violet. 

2* Omo^e- 5. Blue, 

3.' Yellow, 6. InHigo< 

Til tliesp wc are to add — 

8. Wliiu\ the coiupntinfl of all colours ; 

9. BInek, the nogntive or al>Hutice of them all. 

Out of theee nine, three at least Btond unrepreaenCed, 
For Ti^fJi; can mean none of them : and tfaxn^ can do 
no more than double either xo^^yMoc, or ^i^or, or 
ifit4p6s. The laost ^voumble presumptions would per- 
liafm armago the Homeric Jii^t as follows : 

t. Xnirof, white. 4- ifitSfiiu red. 

A. t/iKau black. 5. ToptpifHov. vioSet, 

J. ^ov^ofi, yellow. 6. 'cvivtou indigo. 

And thus orange, green, and violet would reniaiii with- 
out aiij (^rre^]K>nding tvnn& But. in trulli, wh<Mi we 
exAdiino fiirthi.-r into Kouier's mode of uniploying his 
atljecti^cft of colotir In detail, wc t^hall perceive that he 
ia hj DO meana ao rich a» thiat olaAAjfication would allow. 
The other words which will presenUy be convider^. 

460 IV- Amdos : Colovr in IIohtei\ 

but which have very slight claims indeed to be treated 
as adjectives of definite colour, are as follows : 

1. j^XojpoV- 6- /ii\T07raprio^, lo, yXavKO^. 

3> poSoei^, 8. apyot* 12. triyaXoct^^ 

4. toei^. 9. aioKo^, 1 3. fxap^aptof. 

Along with eacb of theee adjectives, wbicb are the 
chief though not quite the only ones of their class in 
Homer, T shall take the cognate words, such as verbs 
or compounds, which may belong to them. 

II. Let us now review the particular applications 
wbicb Homer has made of these words respectively. 
Among them, however, it will not be necessary to id- 
clude XcvKov and luAa?, because those epithets indicate 
ideas which have at all times been used, to a consider- 
able extent, by way of approximatioti only. 

I- ^av$m is applied by Homer to the following ob- 

a. horses, JxTUf ^avBi. Kaptifay Ih ix. 407. 

6, hm of men, ^ai^o^ Met^ao^, passim : Achilles, 11. 

>' 197- 

c. hair of women, ^avO^ ^AyafA^Sti^ II. 3d, 739; Aj^ju^ 

Ttipt II. V. 500, 

2. ipvQpov is evidently the same word with the Latin 
ruber, and with our own * ruddy,' as well as probably 
the German roth. 

It is used by Homer for 

a. Copper in 11. ix. 365, 
6, Nectar, II. xix.^S^ 

c. Wine, Od. v. 93. 

d. Blood : in ipvdaifa^ II. x, 484* 

3. 'rop<pvp€o^ again is the Latin purpura, and oar 
' parple,' as well as our ' porphyry.' In the uses of this 

AfipliealiMtA afdt^m. 


word Wti »lia)) find for llic flist Lime & sUrtlin^ itmniint 
i>r obvious ilUc-repaney : and it will require Co be con- 
«idor^l it] tile proper pbcer^liether this diBcr^pADCT^ is 
to be referred to & bold cKcrciso cf the Poet's Art, or 
U> jin iiiuk-Vffloped ktiow]i?i]^o tiiiJ a comptjitetillv de- 
fijwtivo Muiidarrl «f colour 

Tlio woriJ 'r<>p<pwptot is employed as follon-s for ob- 
jects offense; 

a. niood, IL xvii. 361. 

L Dark cloud, ibid. 551- 

c, VVitvo of a river wbcn distcrbcd, 11. 2x1.326. 

4. W&ve of tlie sca, II. i.481 ; nitd the disturbed sesi, 
IL xTi.391. 

e. The bull mih tvhicb the PhteAGian danccr« plnvo>d, 

^Od. Tiit. 373, 
/. Gfirmenti^ \a 11. viiLiii ; Od< iv. itj. 
j^. Carpets, 09 Od^xxi. 151 ; ILxxiv,64j. 
A. Tlw raiTibow, IKxni. 547- 
r. Mctsploricaily it is Applied to l>Emtb, IKr.83; and. 
HM it would appear, tn blondy death niilj. 
Further, tlio Yerb wofjtpCpja i« npplled 
' a. to the M'a rfarkcrting. It. xtv, 16, 

' A. to tlm rnind brooding, ILxx.551. 

Agftin, iho ootnpound dXnrGpfp^po^ ia apjdied 
d. to wool, Od* vi- 53- 
^, to ganiTeiits woven of it. Od- xiii, 108. 
hi tbiH ep!l}>ot wo liave tlir ndHiliniml idiu M tbo 
sea introduced; sind it literally means 'WA-purple/ 
But I postpone nny remark witb resfioct to Homerli 
particular intention 10 tln^ uMe of tbe word, until we 
eome t^ the epithet« derives! from Toi*, a \1iilet. 

Tliree forms of eotour at leoi^t ^eetn to be compre- 
hendi'd nndcr this jpnnp of ^-orde; 
). The rrdnesi of blood. 


l\'.,M<Xw: Khlonr iti Ht»itfr. 

%. The purple pro|>er. oa of iho wa in II, i.481. To 
itiis alTO probobiy belongs the mittbow, of i^hose sgtoii 
coloura tbnic maj be said to belotig to the btnilv of 
b!ii«; imd wliicli is U-riiRHl blm.^ by HliMk^H|w«ru. 

3. Tlio grey nml lourlun oolour of a 'lark cloudij 
when about to burtt in stomi, mid of a river wlicii dls- 

We shall hen^nfti^r «ee reiuion to flup[>oso tfiat the 
word mav also ami ofWn mcaD what is tawnvor brown. 

4, The word Kvu\>tuK ia very impartant in this iiiquiiy; 
and uiifonutjn^<ly it \s tint Itxi^ itbNCure. 

It ac onc« ttirows u>^ back ou the prior c[[io»tio», 
what was KiWov? But tbii* <i«ctfti<w rcrnftins almost 
wholly imdotLTTniiu-il*; mi ibal wc iim*l fullow, m wi-ll 
aa we eaii, the Homonc? ajtpliciitiona of tho word iraelf, 
toother with it» adjootivo nnd its eompouiidd. Thow 
are very luimerouA. Mrst we hare the subfltantive 
runi-fic intnxtuced in three places: in ea^^h of wliirli it 
evidently betonga to a oombiuation of colours as w«ll 
as of substances. 

tf, Onro it i« kj'hi'^' simply. The interior wall oftho^ 
hull of Alciiioii* is ccivured with t»hi^oC« of t-opjicr^; 
and rounrl tlio top IH u ^^ytit or fringo of cva*«r- Od. 
vii. t)?. 

/>, TwW ic U t^iXit^ KvdiMK. On tlie bre»t-plA(4f rvf 
Aj^mcninon thero are twenty Htnpes or layers of liu, 
twelve of gold, and leu tJ.ik<ivo^ Kuavoio. II. xi. 24, Alsoi 

r, Ufjon bis shield there were lt«i roands of copj»©r; 
and ttivn, Appureittly on the face of tlw shield wtlliiii 
tbo0C, twenty white bosses (^M<j>'t^o4 \nvoc) m^ade of 
tiD, if suoh be the meaning of m<r^tT<ptK : in the centre 
of all. there uslh uxw Iiokm ^/Xnrar tvn^sufy. II. xi. 35. 

Pawing DOW to -rturrof, v<! come next to tliree paft^ 
t Si-c tLolc ji£ ibc cEul vf Uitr Sf^ion. ^ flibl. 

Ofthapot rtjui nv^vtot. 



agps where it iiirv he quest-ioiiefl Mhctlit-r tlicy devribi? 
colour only, or 6ubti&iii<G odW, or Wtlj. 

rf. U|K>n tlic brcfL*tplatc of Agamcninon, vrlijeh Las 
ten layers of bluck ii'^^ifv, Uicrc are on either tAde three 
JONii'fOf ipnicovTti (IL xi. a6). The** are t*oinparp<l li> 
the rainhow, which, as we have alrvadj t^eeu. >h de- 
scribed elsewhere as wptpvpti. 

€, On the nlver-plated belt of Agamcmiioii there is 
a rwij'«i>c jj^rtjicdi', II- xi, 38, 9> 

/• Aniwiul the gohlou viiioyanl on the shield of 
Acliille»i with Us eiWer »cake9, there is^^nicc of fu^T" 
rrmpot niid » trench (Kavrrov) clwicribcf^^W^^wfl. U.' 
xviii. 564. 

The' other nppliciLtioiis at once a|>perir to have rofei^ 
dice to colour only- 

^. Tn ihi^ i-yebrowft of .TupiU^r niid Juno. IK i. 528. 
XV. toi. xvii. 209- 

A, To a dark cloud of vnpoiir; but not to a Btoroi- 
oU>ud< IK xxiii, 18H. v. 345. xx. 418. 

I, To the bair of Hector, IK xxii. 40a; and to the 
beard of UlyK6o«, when he tb iv^^tored to beatUj by 
Minerva. ()d, xvi, 176- With thi« vrc may couiparc 
tilts hyscinliihir liair of l^lyme» in (M. vi. 231. 

J, To the ftimlod niaiMO« of the Oreeks: «i«i»of «• 
nfyri? ^a\ayytt A<^i^iti. IK iv, 281. \ow thU epithet 
mu»t have been derived from their arniB, nnd these 
would pro1;iably be comjiosed io the inain of tuo ele- 
metits, not easy to combiue in n common idea of colour ; 
Jir^tlVt cnpficr, which t^ niddy; nnd faocondly, tbo hides 
of oxL*n u|K>n the shii-lds and i-Uewbere. Momer never 
(oxci'pt ill IK xiiK 703, and Od. xJii. 32} dc^u^nlies theie 
oiiimaN by any epithet of colour. In tbofte two pas- 
sages tliey are ffot o%ok€. This cpittct will be consi- 
dered presently. In the tneAirtinH?, we may aMume il 


IV. AMo4: (Sfhttr in li&mtr^ 

ns probable, that a durk colour ^voulil preiloniinale, an< 
tljttt Acctmlinj^ly wo fdioiiltl ^ uiiderstiuiU n^Qtrai : but 
tbo loaning towards btru\ uhicli so nfton cba^acto^i£4^£l 
tlie «(iif liet, thu« entirely c»>c&pC9. Tlie word la alrtri ap* 
[>lieil lo tbe Trojan liosl, in TL ivi. 66. 

k, Th€t)9 puts oti mounnnjT j^rnientG for Patroclue; 
wliCD about to appear to AcLillcs, I), xxiv, 93- 

Here Homer i@ ciiroful to inform us that the icaXv^/xii7 
or Imo<l find ninntle. WiW tho blarkeM ganiient pojotthto ; 
ard.eince in 11. iv. 187 ue 6nil that lie lA-as acrjuainted 
with pitch, vro need not ecniplc to offitimo that hero ho 
speaks literally, and cithtT means a real \A^ck, which, 
rievertheWsH, h^ »1mj vii\\% tvAvtar, or yuev^ no diffproiiee 
belwoen the i^onuino blaek aiid tlio colour of jrMuot. 

/. Wbon the vravc of Charybdis retires, the fthorr 
ft|ipoar9 ^aftftw Kvtivir,. Now the colour of fea-aand, 
when U haft Jii«t boon leit by the wave, is a dull bat 
also rathor a light brown. 

We take now the conipomuU. 

r. tami^tiy^tiT^^ is applied 

4j. To Neptune, e.g. IL xv. 174. 
^. To a marc, IL xx. 114, 
t. jcuai^wTTtf IS apgtHed to Amphitrite, or tlte ma, 
beating on rocks, Od, xii. 60. 

3. K(Aiw)V«^» is used for the foot of a beaattfal table 
(IL xi. 638). Here pot^ibly bubstanec may be do»g- 
tiftteil mther than colour^ Metal nt the foot would 
give steadinea^ to x\ tnhle. 

4. \\'d have icuaroVy^flBpof and K^ayoirpatfxto^ for Iho 
|>row of a &hip- Eyidenlly it is the coloured prow: for 
othcrwiNo the prow would ho of the *Gino hue with the 
rest of thi» ship, (II, xt. 693, rf aUbi.) 80 th« [irown 

O/'^if, WJliof. 


of ships aro called fnXrxrjrapiioit in IK ii. 637* and Od. 
ix> 125- Now firi\Ttj\- was red eurtli or ochre; aiitl yet 
t£ MHiiiK that (Tfinier usi.*)« ftiXrovaprjai im equivalent tu 
irvaivV^4ipov. For lIjo Brut epjthet is applied in the 
Catalo^G to the shipfi led by Ulysses; and the second 
in i)d X, iij to the ressel tn which he sailed. 

Th(p uses of thiB group of w(jnl»» thus ii|ipe»r la t-x- 
bibit a dcgrco of indefiniC4Mie«ii, tiftnlly rccoiicilaUo 
with the stipiKmiitiou that Homer poaae^^od accumte 
Idtitut r»f rolour Therff \f^ no one colour that can cover 
them all. Tlie hood of Thetis is closely akin to black; 
the piYjw of A ship to at leaAt a dull red ; tho sand is of 
niBWtora lightinti brown; the etond a leaden ^rey; the 
hftir and eyc-hrows Are of A drf^p but rmt & dull rv>1our; 
the eoniico in tJie hall of Alolnous inu»c ha\^ been in 
relief and contrast as coinpan^d with tho copper wall, 
and ftufTieiently light or clear to strike the eye at a diiH 
tance, in au interior lighted at ifight only from the 
f^und. With perbat)fi tbis esccepUoii, the word 'dark' 
will covLT all the uses of <n«»fof ; but dark derives its 
tcrce from a relation tij lights and not to colour, 

j. <^olA'f^ in Homer is clearly a word dcM'Hptive of 
colour ; but it as clearly pnKakes of the iadefiiiite cha- 
racter attaching to tlie other won:is of the cLias. 

a, Tlio blood drawn by P&ndarus fioni Merelaiifl ia 
conigwri'd to the colour <potvi^y used for staining ivocy. 
In this slinilts the sense leans to red, espcciully as tho 
hue of ivory is so near to that of flesh (Ih iv< hO- It 
is mentioned in other places, probably wUh the wimo 
sense, an aii ornamental dye. 

^. In IK xxiit. 454, wo learn that one of the horses 
of Urotned was 0<tVi^, with a round white mark on his 
forrhi-ad- Wii-ther w« render thin bav rir cbiiitiint, it 
la niiti^ally different from tlie rod oologr of bloo^L 



TV. j4c(do§ • G>rmtr In ff(MB#r. 

c, <tMMOff is ha^ for blood, Od. xvEii, 96. 

4/. As ifl ^o<i'^ in It. xvr 159. 
tuf^tfcoKv in 

JVnd ^( 

Jl. xaLJit. ;i6. Tbie vrord is 

applied to a i^loitk, II. x. 133. 

Jl A dra^D or B^rpent, bomo by an «agk% u tfuxt-itiu 
app&roDtlj because dappled or etroakod vritix hU own 
blood, 11- xii. aoo-6, aift-ii. 

y. 8hi|W ur«r ^io4Vfffnir<^jOiMi'» Od. xi. I'lj, niid xxiii. 
27a: tbia word h apparenilj synoDjmous wiU> /uXnh- 

A. ThQ acrpcat is Si<f>aLn>v *V! »^tu, II. ii. 30S. And 
wo Iinvu lUv Sti'lioivov iJf^ta XAiitvc, 11. 2. 23. 

Oil tlic wholo,wo trace boro not loMtbantbreesenaoe: 
that rii wbich ^o('»<^ Id applied to tbc iiorso, which 
a]tpt^an< tu In? Ihi; tti[tiivfLletil of ^ai/Qtk, iho tnore pre- 
viailing v-ord : next, that of the tatiDy and ilull-coloiired 
lion'H liido : then that of th« briffhtur but jot deop 
colour of blood, nhich is fixjcly called -n^piftiptct. 80 
tliat tpoivi^ ni*»rvly renders othur wtinltt, ami doi** iml 
ftt all a^lvt to mnko up dettclenciefi in tlie llomerlo 
vocabulary for the expression of colour. 

Considered as an epithet of colour, the word Sa^Mtrott 
moaning blood-red, is iuapproprhite to Hn? dnigon or 
serpent, and further etjrvoe to illustrate that vagueiicse, 
of which the siguH multiply as wc proceed. 

6. T(v\(t»i' is a]>pli«d in Homer as follows: 

«i- To human hair in coiinectJou uitb old a^c, II. 
xxii. 740/0/^^1. 

i. To the eea, II. i. 350 ct passim. It rcD^aius to in- 
rjnire, whethi>r this rcfun to tho »ea, or to Llie fuam 
upon it. 

c To iron, IL ix. 366. xx, 261. Od. xxL 3, 81. xxiv. 

d. To the hido of a wolf, wbich Doton put on for his 

77k« €/fKrsi'tid/tffit^» of'f^itmr. 



nocturnftl expoilitton, II. x.334. TTio irioaninf^ of tliu 
word lioro appears to be not 'gray' but * vfliito." It h 
HoTtier'i e\i(icnt intcnti\>ii to cxlijliit Dolon ad a aorC 
of simpleton" {%, 316, 17) ; ami acrurdingly lie takes a 
urbitc covtning, uliich makes bim visible to tbe eye by 
tifglit. M> that UU'SBoe saw Lim (^piio-aro, 339)- 

The Etot. tbcDp of these four uses ia k*/*iV^. The 6rst 
clesirly hicliiii^ ttj tliLt H&mc idi>H, Tho »ecoDi1 might 
boar ciibcr of two senses. Rut iron canuot bo brouglit 
nearer lo uliite, even if vre aat*iimc it to bo alvrny* 
)>o1iAlieit, than a bluinti grey ; ^hiehf w trulh, i^ ^inif^* 
what di&tant from white. It nil!, moreover, be sieen, 
thfit Homer al^o ilescribes iron as ulBtav^ and as i4tit. 

I now c'>me to the cIash of worda, in dealing with 
whieh it will Ih- nhuuii that thi^y \iii\*f not in gimi'nd 
even tlie pretensions of those thnt have preeeded to be 
treated aa adjectives of definite colour. 

7, 5tXa'/>of is used iu Ilomcr. 

17. Cliii'fly in a meUtjihorica) vuiiiw, as directly Ui% 
urtptivD of fear 

i. Pot the ]ialeno4?i of the face derives) from fenn as 
in j(\tipiH vnni Mois, II, X. 376 iLiid XV- 4. Thift ufle 
diicloiees to U9 the liasis of the last<>numed luetaplior, 

c. For twigs, aivjinreiuly when fresh-pulled by Eu- 
mitas to mako u bed for Ulysecfl. who wa» an nnex* 
pected guottt; Oil. xvi. 47. 

^. Por honey, IL xh63o: where it must mmn either 
)mle, or freiib. 

■ ThectfelintuI HunUTiioEicet] 
ikti UoDKr hwl DMdo Dokm im 
only «un witli fli« »ist«ra, m 
A firoof of the Po^lV mptotj 
In otuvrvicknn r hhiinff hlmHrif 
ffiur\d, that youds wuler «udi 
drcumMaDCM atv {{cnimlly mort 

or Wri ^emiruLtr f vwe Mm 

itEvlEn^Uii^l hnu^ lupmbrn of 
ihf pTofMoDfiThk'lk Uiiiit«thiai- 
fiHf PLiijmtflL H na ■!■• a fn- 
■fount* mnArk, 1 Ntirw, wlcb 
Mr. Bogen 


TV. Acidf>i - C^Mir in JTomer. 

e. For the olive-wood club of tbe Cyclc^ps in 0<1. tr, 
310, 379. Here, for iho first time, w* find the word 
ftpplicd to nil object tbat might porbaps bo called gjeeti. 
But *tt[l Lhertf ure two observation* to bo imvW. Firsti 
even tbo leaf of the olivo i$ rather grey than greeo ; 
and thia is tbo bark, not the leaf, which is yd more 
grey, and yet lew green. Set^omlly. the goveming ideik 
U not tbe grePiinesH, but the newnees: for Ulywi's* wja 
that bo heated it iu tho ashes until ft wns about to 
take ^ro^x^wpiv irrp itvf ; although frcshlj out« and 8till 
seething with Uih mi|), 

/, The derivative x^otp^U Is applied to the nrgbtiu- 
gale ia Od, xix. 51$, as a lover of the woods: aad 
here the idea of greeDoess seems to be rather leas 
fiiintly indLcated. 

Upon the wholoi thou* x^*^^^^ indleal€« rather the 
absence than the presence of definite colour, attliough 
it h ilorived from x^^'^* meaning young herbage. If 
regarded as an epithet of colour, it involve** at mirc an 
hopeless contradiction between the colour of honey on 
ttie one side, and greenness on Uie other. Again, the 
nioro we nwunie it to mean graen, tho more ^taTt1i[]g 
it IxH^onivH that it could h&ve taken T>al(nje«*, u is mani- 
festly tbe cfise, for its governing idea. Next to pale- 
ntfte, it Serves cLiefly for rn?!*hnf«»t i. e- as opposed to 
what U »t»lo or withered : a ulngular conibiralion with 
the former sense. The idea of green we scaroely find, 
unless onc^ connected ^vith this word in the pocmd of 
Ilonier: and yet it is a remarkable fact that tbero is 
110 otlier word in tho poems that can even bo snpposod 
to represent a colour, whicb, not tbe rainbow only, but 
every day nature, present* so largely to the eyc- 

8. I take next the woni tiiOaXaft^. The Ilonierie 
Bonfio of this word seems somewhat to resemble that 

o^ Kwiveo^\ nltlLoa^h there is tho difference t>ctvx>oa 
thcmi, that the derivation here is from aiOtAXf, 800t. 

TlijH opidifTt is afiplieil by HomtT, Ui «iif!icieut coiw 
foraiity, ne S» contended, with the iden of soot, 

a. To the interior of the i>alftce of Ulyasoe, Od. xjdi* 
£39, and to that of Priam. II. 11.415. In the latter 
ra«e tho word will, 8« it a|»]ieani fmni ttiu conUtxt, 
bvar to ho comtrucd with rvfcrcnco to the state of a 
houAG blackened by n confla^tton. 

6, To the dark aah {^ayi^ at0a\otaira), Mfhich AchillCi 
prMrredoi'er hiif head, II. xviii. 23, and which, iti ver 'z5>is 
called ^iXvipa r4<}>pti : this matcriftl IjiLerte« nltoQied for 
the same purpose in Od. xxit. 315. Yet the propriety 
of the iKrcfHtd of tlirse two npplirntioiis depends, first, 
upon the rathor hardy G;uppo«itloii, that both Achilles 
and Laertes liad by them, at the moment of their sor- 
roir. the recnaina of a wood-lire ; and, eecondly, upon 
thu asminption that the word iroW mny irit^ati firc^asbei 
as well OS duiit in general. But we may donht both of 
theec assumptions; while, if jr^>-<t means 'dust,* &&d 
ai'OoAmv 'flooty,* it becomes plain that this epithet ia 
UBcd» like others, witli rerr great latitude, 

9. It may be admitted that, at a liret view, the 
troptia ^o96eis and ftoMajeTv\oi would apiiear to bo in 
the strictest sense epilhcU of colour. But it still 
would seem that they mid nothing to Homer s defec- 
tito meanH of exprvninjcr it : and not only «o, but, In 
fjiee,8caDty as i« their use, it is so little congnious, Uiat 
we are driTen to »uppQ#e he mti»t have employed these 
wonis ill a seiifte not only dastic, but altogether indo- 
terminate and purely fiji^ratiTe. 

'PoioidtmA/ou Or rosy-fingepcd, has become, through 
Homer's example and authority, a claaaical epithet for 
the mocning. It is, however, more 0{>en to eriiiciam 


IV. Aoidoi r Cohttr m JUmtT. 

tbu b'uiasllf tbo cav «ith the nomonf* t\H\ 
There it nothing ttr^ngc in p cti ottif f i ng Horn, in wder^ 
to cnibeTlisli ber wiih an epitbet belonfuig tc jMnoonl 
braut^; b«t reilneis, ajiplied to tb« Engei% and not 
merelr to tb^r tips, » more tbao eqaivcKsl in th» i«* 
spcct.Hnoethat colour is onljoren admissible in the in- 
terior of tiio hand, wliicb ia the p^rt not seen, sod Uicrc* 
fon- f>remjmft)ilj^ tiw |i«rt mit intendvl Jii ^i^Jo^ftmAAr- 

Theiv are cvrtnln v*^ f^ffitWo linu of the aky, 
wbirb apprvKMrh to the hue of ilio rose: but irili 
had the colour of that Suyier definlteij in hb vtcv, il 
in mwL xirrgulsr that he ^liould never xiwc lU i^itli 
fi>r iho brunao fomi or otherwise, except oti thiH and 
one olbcr occasion onlr. 

TIjo iraturc of that other occonoii r« vet Dt4 
Mtninge. HectorV L*orji«c iv aiioiiitc-df iu II. xxtit. iStff 
with roHV oil, jDoJovrrc iXal^, It does Dot appear allow- 
nble to follow Daitim in rcmicring this as «! vts^c/r 
ro!M-H: fi}T wo. have no Hiieh Llitti2A<i tX<iiov m Homer* 
excejil from the olive-tree. It (herefon* applies in dw 
bue of olive oil : and no conceivable use of an epitlwt 
could be more eoncluiive to abow an oattrenic fflguc- 
newf in tlio PoetV U\va» of cnlour, an n-cll a8 ]«nlioU]r 
in those of bi« tijiv. 

10- The vio1c^ tio lc»f thnn the ro6c» has wjpplled 
Homer with epithets vrhich be lias used in snch a man- 
ner jL-t l(t ih-jirivi.* tli(*rii of a.11 ^piviHc force as vebicles 
for tho expression of a peculiar colour. 

There H certainly a great temptation, wrhon wo And 
in Homer the iouSta TFotrrvf, to give him enxiit for tlie 
fi]1l niirHDMij^ fif t1ii»« \i<i'v iK^aiitiftil rpitht-f, vrhirb hei 
uses thrii^o for the sea (II, %x. 398, 0<l. v. 55, xi. to6), 
and never in iiuy other conneetioa. But when «^ 
examine hiii eniplojment of cognate word», it b obvious 

Th4 ^wm-w^^n^ f^t^hsr^ 


that h€> c&n moan littio moro by tlio cpltbet, tban to 
convey a rathor vagitc idea orUnrkiiea^. 

For he u«efl iotiv lu iin epithet for iron (11. xxiil* 
850) : and To^vr^i?* fir^t for tbe woo! {Oi^ it, 135) with 
xliich ffciori is Bpiiinirij*. llorQ wo mipflit bo Urmptcd 
to presume a purple dye. Vet it would be a somewliat 
etraineii »ii]i|io«ili()M : for ^!uiL title Iture we to tiajr 
ibat dyeing was ia use among the Greeks of tlie Ho- 
meric Rgo? Do wc hear of any dyo except that of tbo 
*t>o!^i^, a Qsmc ^bicti tends to indicate a (brctgn cha* 
Tftcter? And dni^ not tbe iittrrxlttctiiui of (be Mwonian 
or Caiian woman In the kJmlle of 11. Iv. 141, to soiin 
tho ivory — a meet simple example of the art, or &aireoly 
an example at all — afford ;\ strong pr**^umptkin. that the 
art was foreign to Greece? Such i« appsrently lb© tnio 
inference: bat, if it be tho tnie one, then wo at once 
lo&o the specific force of iiurple for all tlic mantlc«, 
ear]H7t!i, and the* like, in thp p*>pmii ; aiid wo are only 
entitled to prVMume them to havo been woven of a 
dark wool. 

Thiff conMraction i* ffiippr>rt<v1 by the eccontl and 
only other pft»«age, in whfoh Huinvr has used ibc word 
(oJi^vv. For hero (Od. ix. 426) be epeaka of tlio 
tiding Gbeep of Polyphemus as 

Tliis pwKij^c af^)oarfi evidently lo apply to vlmt wo t^rm 
black rii(x:|>, which arc mort* Etrictly of a dark browiL 
Soviawmljt iiflonlH another iiio«t Ktrikhig token of lb« 
indetermiaatenew of (lomcr!e colour*, Cbat tbo nanio 
of the violet can be employed witit sncb a f^igniFicatiort. 
And it also seems to cany forward tbt; i^roof that the 
Tf>^(fit'|Oicu ^nii^t, i\w fiiyta^wind all otborn'oveo objecta 
with that 4»pith«t annexed, were in reality either black 
or brown. 

ii M 

Tbe acft ii Uvc ;t^. 4r fnm. One are Itek, b«T. 
I 4o Mt i«Ar to iMr %fcter iiliwn, 
jKlairf ty tW fi# of a> qpMMC Tt« 
tiaK. MM^e cai«Mi pvoperij io cftlled» 
acme whatt-Y«f . iIctitciI fran tbe ninifi of 
IB oljert, tint are Bgte, wtlat ii ba m ite am of tin 

BUT be; ore all duk. And. to t^ ela» «wv^ e^dcotlj 

Wloe to meatioiied br Uonusf ia ncaHr oam boa- 
drcd tad 9ottf pboet; hi the aurovit? of ^^>^°i it bao 
an epithet : but onlj tea Umefl is it deacribed bj an 
apttbeC of a>lo«ir Of tbesc* twtf are laed for it^ iff&pit 
aad /uAar; 00 ibat be plainly coii««ired of it ai tbric, 
bot probabljr wjtiioat a dctCTrninatc boc He uore 
ftvi^aentlj calk it 0160^ : but tbis wocd, which Aoc- 
tual«a b«Ttueeu the tdeam oi fiuua and unoke. either 
Dieaits tavnr, or elfe refefs to Ggbt, aod not to colour, 
and bearti the sense of fifiarkting* 

Tbu9 ihen oTro^'i tike ao man; other words tbat wa 
bavo gone tbrough, Tv^dy mdicat<4 a dark hue, but 
caniiot be referred to any one of the known prioeipal 

13. The vfori ^tXT9T<^rfi»f Iias already been dispoied 
of iti roitiiertioii tvitti tcvti^ttK im*] ^rV^. 
ly at$^t h applied hi Homer 

The ^uati-adjeotxvw ^^otour^ 


a. to lionet, as in 11.11.839; ^'i- 185, 

&. in iron, n<i itt OK L t 84, 

c. to a Hon, ii* 111 II x. 13, 

</, to copper iitcn^lv, us in IK ix* 1 23 ; xxiv. 133. 

f. to a biilV, lt.xvi.4B8; anil U> oxen, OiLxviiL 371. 
y! to ail ea^Ie, I L xv, 650. 

With this word we may tftko iu coni|>DU]id a»^4'- 
It is used 

a. for wine, «» wc liavc swen. 
i, for coppvr, IL iv.495 ei alihu 
€, for siDoko, Od, x. 1 52* 

We liare al^o the Ac^'ox^f, men of the tt^nj or 
Bvarth)' coiiiit<*riai]i*e, beneath the SDiiihem ■^Uti. 

Ill what maTtricr aro wc to fiiiil a eoRinmti throad 
upon which to hting the coloiire of iroD, copper, borsoa, 
lioit4^ \>\\\h, eagleft, wine, siu^rLhr men* and amoke t We 
Diusl beriB again aihigit the vn^iie unril 'ilnrk/ a woni 
of light and not of colour, for ibe piirjKMv. Dut a< 
the iilc« of <iT4^tf includes flemo slni^ling witli snif)kc» 
80 there ma; bo a fla^h of light upon the dark object. 
^'oXiMif, BQQiy or smutty, belongs to the Htme group 
wtcb ai*^\o<ic and a'^tav, and need not, therefor^ be 
aepamtoly discutficd. 

All the remainder of the word* noted for cxamtna* 
tiofi arc tn hv dijidt with lii two groups each rL<ferable 
to a single idea 1 the first that of motioD, and tbe a^ 
cowl that (if light. 

I4« 15. Among adjectives of motion, which have 
aonieliuK*H boen improiwrly trvgttt^ &j< adjoctiviw of 
colour, aro '^^or and «ToXor. Tlio former nci|uirce an 
affinity to \thiU\ because it may »igiiif/ an object wliiclit 
from In-iiig rripidly mored^ aaaumes in the light the 
np{K'arance of wbiteikess*, and along with tt may be 
* t^ .\i-1iipiii, ur Ktliidli^, p. J83, 


LV. Aoidtm : Ckfimar in JYoiMr. 

F"r.frf ^ placed its denFatiTps upymtit, ifiytrrhtt ipyh^, ^py* 

il'*^^'j««9, apyt^t^t apyiirov^t and apyacipam/of. Tbe latter, 

£^ /"* ^ OM ill o^oAof &^f, aicXos Tvirof, irof>i^a<i»Xo9t xo&f oToXiK, 

' KetDft to mean whatever from the ramc cause appears 

to shift its Ime?*. 

16. Of tliof^ adjectiTef! of %1it in Hompr, vrhich 
have also bocji taken for n^JjectiTos of coloor, Ww ino«t 
important is yXauKov^ lis osea. howeren arc 011I7 as 
f(*IIoȴ : 

c. yXat^ 0a\affo^ II, xv!. 34. 

L VXavwirif, the standing e()ilhct» and evea a proper 
name, of Minervau II. viii. 406. 

c, yXfuvtiofov \ aj>p1ieil to tlie eje of a lititi, when, 
reacbiiipf tlio height of his wntfa, be makoe bis rash it 
the buatcr^ 11. Jtx. 1 72. 

The last of these |ifiBsa<je« »eem» effectually to fix 
(he sDiifte of the term. The wonl 7\tfiiixfotf>' describes 
a progrewion. The lion doe* not euhance the colour 
of his eye ae he vraxc« angry. If. for example, yXntxit 
can be takcu as blue, it ccrUinlj docs not become 
ition? b!«i' : uif ihv vmiiriiT\\ nigi% whru khidlhig fin* 
in the eve, rather Bubducs its peculiar Lint by flooding 
it with a vivid light* So the word seems clearly to 
refer to the brightening flash of the eye under the in- 
fluence of pa^ion. Of light and its movement, as also 
of sound, and of beautiful fomi> Homers eoneeptioos 
are even moro diatinet and lively, than tbo^ of colour 
are, if not dull, yet at leaat iudeterminate. 

rx«(r*m' i« derived fiom y\ru'fTfft£ ; nnd lias for its 
root Xnat, to see. Tho meaning of bright or Hashing 
will duit tbo flea, tm well us the epithet blue. And it 
snits Minena far better. 'Bluc^^yed' would bo for 
her but a tarue ejiithet. Tht? tuinimniN nye, on the 
roatraiy, entirely :icc*ori|s with her character, and bo- 

VohfiUt t>fcitlonrir in the (Wui* objecU 


loiif*« lo a marked tmit of those primitive tmditiocs, 
which «hc Appears to represent**. 

ly, \opirrttk^ iM npplkiL to the lion in CM. xi. 6ti; 
and it U the proper nam© of the father r>f Nirom in 
the Calaloguc, while liia mother is 'AyW«. From 
this latter une we see thnt -j^aptmttv \ft not in Homer an 
epithet of colour: *mce lie never describes the fat-o by 
moans of colour Its etymolofrf refers us to f;lad>oiiic- 
ucfts; and this is much more coiiocctcd, in the Poot'a 
mind, with light thflii with rolour. 

1 8, 19. Be«Idef) iho«c we have 
9iyrtK£it9^ glo^Vt like WaXof, or hx ; and 
/ua^Mq'/icDf, applied 

a, to a web. IL iii. 116. 

&. CO tlio .^^% n. xvii.594, 

c. to the Bco, 11, xiv< ^73, 

fi. to the rim of Uie Kiiield, XL XTiii.480. 

Wo have also the ptappapvy^i) -vn^v (Od. viii- 265), or 
twinkling of the feet in the dsineo : and the verij M^tj^* 
i«a/^ id applied to the eyes of Von 114 (Tl. iii. 397), to arms 
(H- xii. 195 d alihi), and to the gohlun ]>alace of Ncp- 
tuuo (11 Mil. 12). The inflrWe, fnmi which the words 
are doHvctI, wns white: but that signification would 
not ffuit SLiiy of the qacs of the wordu, cxocpt tho 
ueS of Helen. Tlie fienw, that will Atnt tliem. b one 
derived from the idea of lij^ht, that of glittering or 

Lastly : ^rpoeiJic (II. v. 770; Od.Jtiii, 103I is so evi- 
dently nil alniciH|)lHiric ejnihet citily, that it requircv no 
detnilofl dlKiMsloiL It if^ u^orthyof note^as it indicatet 
the idea of atoioflphcric trans|>an?ncr. 

III. We might hare attained lo some nearly viniilar 

^ Sc« UlyiupOA, ttrat ii p- 5> 'f^^rn u lftjmc4iatolj ahin lo 
Wi>kk«r (ftrvrkw^ f7atifHrM^ -Mq^ >nd ihc uica of liflbt- 
vi. $j, p, 300} ln>t« iho DNin* 


Vr. Aokio0: Calotir im ffoM^r^ 

remits, by taking tUc mmcs of ffubstutivcs in Momer, 
ftiLil coi^fiuiering tlie diirerei>r«g in the t^iiliets of colooi 
by which \te describes thera. 

lliuft, for cx&mptc, iron is violet frojt and ar(Wor 
tawnj. There is a ccrUiii opposition bctvp'ccn the fii3t 
■n<l hocoikI : a T<-rr markir^l i>fir lii^twi-iffi th<* si^ond and 
thin]. When coiulderetj m names of colour, ihey cannot 
bo reconciled, but they may pcrhapa be made in Aooie 
degree to harmonize by introducing tbo clement of 
light. Iron t8 dark or t&wny if in tho »hiu)e: «1iilfl 
under light it may appear grey- 

Again, tho dragon^ or scrpcDt. irhicb i^ ia^totv^r id 
II. iL 308, ifl also <na>cov in IL xi. 36 ; and ia compared 
to tbo rainbow, which b To^^^rq in II. xni. Ati^rar. 
being applied to the lion's bide in Il.x.a3, Ja eeaentiany 
of a dull colour, but the minbon-js oa cssonttally bright* 
Iler^, again, tho only mode of harmntiiaiuig is by the 
iapposttion tlint Homer really rt'gulate^ the use of 
tlioco epithets according to light; and thus the aarao 
object may be dull and bright in diSbreut poaitions. 

Again, rip^iwov ia in composition white (ifryuipaww^if)! 
but it i« it]«o >/'oXo«?r, smutty. In truth it ia ntither: 
but it9 near connection both vrith light and vitJt dark- 
ue^ wii) admit of its being referred to cither. 

IV. 1 have next to notice the rast predominanca in 
Homor of the two (dimple oppoflites, white and black, 
which may bo called, perhaps, the elemental foraia of 
colour: white being the compound of the seven phA* 
amtto culount in tlieir natural proportion«, uiid black 
the abs^ncCt or sim|tlc nogatito, of thorn all. 

Tbo n<|joctivo juAar, or ' black/ is uaed, in its dif- 
ferent degrees, ca&cfi, and numU-m, hIhiliI mm hundred 
and aeTeuty tiKn?«. Bcwidea this, w© hare tho verb 
^X<if*tf, and aeveral eoupounds from the adjoetiTo. It 
also forms a very frc<iueiil element in proper name*. 


Great jirmtittninnafvi cf whtfti ttmt bltwk. 


Tlie word Xtucoc, or ' wJiite/ is used iieari;' rixly 
timeu: ita compound XevKuXcyof forty more, but almost 
ftll of thc6C as tho atock-cpithct of Juno, Mhicti ghoiild 
not bo taken into tlio nccount. Wo have s.Uo \tvKWM0t 
Xfijuiffwfc* and tome proper iiathos. But dii» by no 
TneAns exhausts Homer's niouif of ^xpro^King nlilti^* 
iicss. For that purpose he also uses naf>iAaft<ov^ acya* 
X(wm pcrliapa ^T^JXiOT^ and an extensive group of words 
having a^oc for Etn coolro. In atl, vrhitoiiosf, or wme- 
tliing intended for it, niaj porlmps bo tbus exprcwod 
one humlred Ljmv$ or m<in>. 

Now a3.siuiiing for the moment (bal &t|jectiTeB of 
colour, in the prismatic sense of the vord, are foufd m 
Homer, 6till it is rvnsarkablo how rarely tboj are found. 
Id coniparisuEi t^ith whitcnc^n and UodEncM. 

For example: excrpt a:« » pm|H?r nsuiis iind nst the 
Btock-epitliet of Menel&ufi, {qv^^ is, I think, hardly 
foand ten times in Homer. 'loVc, and it« comitate 
words, come but six times: poJwfv is aa ami^ \<7*- 
tifvtfv: tdXrtK 18 only iutrt^ihuvd in il« coinpouTid twice; 
yet It is probably the beat red in Homer: ipv0pi^ aod 
^pu^oiW coDae bat thirteen time?; irop^i'pfiK and the 
kindred words are found in all twenty-three times; but 
it has, I think, been iihown tlial this word wus wtmlin^, 
with Homer, in tJio ingrcdieat of t;E>CGlBc eolour, and 
only implied what woa dark, wlicthcr brotrn, crimson, 
purple, or even blark. 

V. It remains to complete thtt circle of evidetiee, 
by adducing; eaacQ where Homer's omission to nmno 
colour, or to describe by means of it, is decerviDg of 

1. Homer's «imilc« are so rich in the uh of all seu- 
Bible imag^cry, that wo might have expected to tind 
colour a frequent and prominent ingredient lu theni. 


IV. Aoidot : CoUmr m Homar* 

Bat it Ih not BQ. 

J. Motton* 
a. Force. 

3. Form. 

4. Sound. 

Tlip; turn cliiefly, I thmk, u|ioii i\\n 

5* SjinmoUj* 

6. Numbor 

7. Light find DArkncoL 

8. Very rarelv, upon Colour. 

In tie greater part of thein CM)loDr is not even men* 
tIon«4l. I lmv(> «e<^ti tlie ^imilea of tlie poemit leclconedf 
at tv-o bimdred : aiLil I have fouud k dlfBcolt to note 
tnoro tban (Lrcc whicb turn upoa colour, eteii wfaen it 
is voguelj' cooceircd. 

T|k> fint is tbo blood of Moiidsus. eonipirDd to a 
orimson Oyc. on tljo chcok-pteco of a Uor%Q, II. iv. 141. 

The second, the iccditatiozifl of Nestor, Ukeucd to 
t^if^ dnrkeiiing of tb(> ti-a bcfun: a ftLonn, 11, xiv. 

Thirdly, tlje cloud in which Minerva is vrappod !a 
cotirpured Ui the miiibow, IL xviL 547-52. 

Of these the second is verj' iii<t(>finit«^: Uie i<fe& of 
the firgi, lu ti*e huTc ftocn, ^^-at8 iitoceumtely and I0W10I7 
conceived: and tlie third ia one of the most Mriktiig 
proofs of the want of a close discriniitiatlDn of colours 
Id Homer. 

Yet hero again we may find life ajid beauty in tho 
pofleagCt if only wo con*true it of a cloud ilhiminatcd by 
tliif T^y% falling on it. IniVcd, giriiernHy thrr clnrtrtit of 
light brings w% back to 1 lomer's u#ual definitenesa, when 
ble uso of colour makes him oltscure. 

7. Again, iu the numerous and very exact epitheU 
by wliit^h the Pot^t Ileis deHrriljed the foriii aiid ap|iear* 
ance of different coimtriee. w© seurcely find any epithet 
of colour. Out of about dxty of tbesw opithcto in tho 
Greek Catahigue* there are but tliree that refer to 

Omissions to specify a>ifAir- 


colour, and thtsc all iDcntion whitenoes only (u^wjt. 
I!. iL 647. 656, and Xctwo^ ibid. 733)- 

3, Tl IM DioBt singulur llmt, though Tloiiirr tto Kivc-il 
tho horeo timt ho i« never ucary of adnj;^ him with hb 
M'holc heart for Uio |>urpofte^ of poetrj-, yet in all his 
animated and hejiutiful deAcripliniis of this nniDial, 
colour should he so little {^mmiiteiit. It i« said, hidi.^tHl, 
Ifaat llomer tells ue Che horwe of Eunioltu cor- 
r^pondcd in colour (crr/><x't Ih ii> 7^$)'* !>tit what the 
<U}Eour wiu Mro know not; mid the qn^fioa may also 
raised, whether the epithet employed does not inorL-^ 
riy indicate Himilarity in the liii<?iio^ of tlnur coM. 
Perhaps the only ca«c», whore colour i« distincttji tm^ 
•jgntHl to hon>et, arc lh« following two: 

Fiwt, that of the hordes of Hhesufi. There the 
colour is the ncj;:atire one of whiteness, which seemB, 
with lis counterpart hlackne^ to have been so much 
moru prefvnt to the mind of llomtT th»n ntiy Interm^ 
diate eulour. Tlic«e hor^fi were (11 K.4^7) Xrvc^irtpct 
Xf^rov* Anil at^crwards Ncator in a nohic line declarer 
thctn likt^ not to anything having colour, but to the 
raya of Lhe >nn (11. x. 547). TIiih r<-appt'»n tlici old 
identification in llomer^a mind of tigtit aud c<»1our. 
There ia. liowever, another reason to which it may be 
aus|>eclod that wo owe the mpnlion of colour in thbi 
instance: auint^ly^ that thi> Miiteneifl b IntondtNl to 
make them nmble in the ^loom, and thus to oasin the 
capture by nighL 

The second rase ir, that of the horse of Dtonied In 
the chvriot-mce, Iloro Idomcueua mentions the bav 
or diettnut colour (II. xxili. 454) with the whit^v mark, 
but then it id the only means of id^utifyiDif the tna»ter, 
which ii efttential to hia puqiooe id the Bpeech, 
Apart from these special retaont, Iloracr speak? b- 


IV. Joidct : Ooitmr m Uemer^ 

deed twic« of tho JurW rdpnva af horeoe ; thiB, how-' 
eveif is of horses in the nbstract. KcHtor {W. xi. 680) 
mentions h set of nne 1iuii< anil fif^y tiun?s iill wjlU 
colour, that is to say, ^<vi'da/; a new proof of tlie bx uie 
of tlio word, as thoy would hardly be iiU alike. 

Among the (our horses of Hector (i'*^ii* ^Bj). tk« 
two of the Atretflff (Tl. xxiii. ^(^5), and ifae UinM; of 
Achilles (xvi. 475) we 6nd only tbe name Xnnclius 
whioh is clearly rcfcrublo to colour: and tbis 19 in 
tnitli tie only colour which, beiidos wlitc, he eter 
givi?6 to Ilia liorae*;*. Fur it Ik more probable Uml by 
tbe D&nte BuAiup be meant to refer to the eflect of light 
from rapidity of motion: while Ar^Fj in II. xxiii. 409, 
AiOtiov and S.un.iTii'i (Ihvtii. 4S3) m&y signify brIgUtncw 
or clArkn<.?H» iuileed, but noitlier of tboj^c is colour 

Again, in the uia^^ifieent gimilo of the ^rarot (tto^ 
there is no colour. The three tboasand horses of Kricli- 
tboniu$(U. XX. 221) have no coli^nr Tbu borwjs oflJio- 
metl (II. V. i$y) bave none. Nor bav« Hu? Iieawn-bnrn 
horscG iif Tro3, nor tbo^ which Ancbisea bred from tliem 
(Ihv, 265. €t ietftf.). None of the teams for tbc rncc 
tn II. xxiif. have colour, L^titly ; Homer ahonndff in 
cljuractvrii-itic and set epiUiots for horHv», such us cJv^, 

i^'i'ix^i' *o\^/*/p^^, rax^Vj and otlicrit ; but none of tlwm 
nn> taken from rolour. 

Yvt colour i« in horees a thing bd prominent that it 
Boeme, wherever they are at all in<lividu«lisod,alnioec to 
force iti^clf into the description. Let us take two ex* 
niii[»l(*f( a]li«<l in tbeir bi^auty* although separatcnl in 
birth bj twenty-two iiuudred jeai^* T\te first ia from 
Emipidee, where tlie Chorufi m the Iphi^atta in Aviid4 
deecribcB the Grecian ho^t bctorc cin barest ion''. 
• Kuirip> Iph. io AuL ii^^j. 

Jn il*t rfiAf vffh* ftttr^e. 



nJmp<f Cttifatiiuovi, rovt ^*il^ ^^- 

ffaKwvt^ Tout a*ff» vttpo.i^6iio\fs. 
ivT^piii KA^naifti hp^fxt^i' 

The seconil, also cmincniTly Iwanttftit, is Trom Maoan- 
lay, where in the ' Bntllc of tbc Lake Rcjapllue', nfUT 
tb€ <lc-a<ll)r conflict of Mamiliaa nnil Ilcrminiiis. Iiv do 
flcHbes what then hap{»eneif to their AtfNjrt«. 

Fut, ra»t. wil7i Tiii'h will! Hpirrfiingt 

Tin? ftitrk-4jrrtf cliiirgt^r i1*hI ; 
We burat ibraugh rauka offif^ht'infE moii. 

U<^ ftpr^ag tiV heRi« of dtiad 

But like a gmvtii inijige 

BUtck A II iter kc]>t Im plACo, 
AJid cTtrr wifitruUy |i« lookrij 

Into his tiia«lor'A Taoo, 

How obamcteri^ically the element of eolonr entert 
into tbeflO t;iliniraJ>le 4le9CTipt)oii<i. 

4. It ift not. bowcrer, the case of the liorto aloii^ on 
whidi nn urgitnieiit ni»jr Ih^ fouritloth Homer ationncls 
vritli noiicNK of other niiiniah. both Uomeitlcated ami 
wiM, Wo liavo oxen. <log«, gonls, hojfs and sheep. 
None of bis stock epithets for ihcm are dravrn frum 
Cfihmr; imi! wi- have w»en that hy bin wiDe-ooloon!cl 
oxoti, ami his violet-eolourofl Kheep. he, in all hkehhood, 
nieiuie no tuore than dork or ta^ruy. HU e|>itbct« for 
wiid anhnals arc of the same character when tb^yooeur, 
ami i^iiriihirly d4*j>eitd on th? scale of degrees between 
iiglit and darkneaR, not ti|>0M colour Onei* he meutioiie 

L i 


IV. Aoidos : Cofour in ffot/iei'. 

h wlikf^ g<H)W'(f>«i XV, i6j) ; }iut U is \ntrui* on liigli Ij 
the talons i>f nil c-Qglci ami the object evidently ia to 
create a ckar vbuaJ imnge. 

5. 1 vould not lav overniiirli latresa on the fact, tbat 
Konn-r tK*vcr refers tQ colour in ^onaectioii villi tlie 
human rraniu. unk'tiB as rcfr^rds the hair, which is 
eitlier ^itvOot or ^ti/aww ; esprcesious which, as we slinll 
aee, arc np[mn.'nt exri-iilioiiK, mul mil, n*jil mvm. Tlje 
olive hue of tlie Mediterranean IntkinleA mnkea colour 
a less prominent element in human T)oauty fi>r a Oreok 
climate, than it is for onra. Htill Its almost entire cx- 
rUision is aii Dl«?inieitt in the esse. One instance that T 
have noticed, which introducr^e it, adds to the ffouoral 
masaoftoEttimony. When MinenatOd.xvi.i j5)ri'&tore» 
the beauty of Uly^t^e^ the exprcfl^ien h ^"^ i* fuXay 
^oiijv TvVn-o. Now thifl ct=*rlainlj does not im-an that 
hi« fl^eh became black a;;ain. Tr can only si^rnify tbat 
he resumed tlie olive lint, which wa^ asAociattd with 
personal Tigour and beauty. So that even the wAar of 
Homer memiH dark, and \h indefinite: a« mi^ht iitdee<I 
be shown by many other Invtance^. 

6, Lastly* it ftccins to dcfcrve rcmfirk* that there is 
not one single epithet of Iiis taken frnm colour Sh« 
is once, and only once, ^utroTTepov (11- Tiii. 398); hat 
this is in virtue of lier office, and hfw no relation to 
the rainbow ; a^ Indeed, gM with Homer ulwnja 
belongs to liglit rather than to colonr. All her other 
epithets, without exception, are taken from motioni only. 
She is swift (wWtj and Tti^tto), swift of foot [W*fac 
taKfa), ftwift wn tlie wind {ttoJ^mjuoti, fttorm-footod («rX- 
\4woift^). hut from colour she ilerivcs do \io.H whatever 
of her Homeric roNtiuni;. -Nnw Ihoiigli the tdiain of 
tradiuonq which identified Iri» with the rainbow was 

*1 IJ, ivlit 40p txiv, 159. 

pectiitop tiSmm 



irofepn^ yi>t iho intam of it wore not wrImUy lo»l. 
Forllomortrcateil tho rmfn1>ow, phyf^iraltv.aA a pro|t1ict 
of flomi <ll xvii. 548): Diid o^iir. wc Rttii tint r^lie wu 
ftill tern [HwUFon ted. This i*|nl1iet can only h& t\t:t\veA 
from liCT orij;n"al relation to the ninbov. It is ther^ 
foro htifhly instruotiTo, timt noDO of lier traitd of colour 
»hou]il have been prescrTccI, 

I4i9tly, let ii« tnkolWciUBof the iiky> or ttio liifiTom. 
Hero Homer hftr) botbro him tlio most (wrfect csnmpl© 
of \Aue- Yet he never once so deacrilw* the sky. 
His owptsvav h starry (IK 1,317), or broad (ILiii.264). 
or great (IL i. 497), or iron {Od,xv, 328), or eopj^er 
(Od. iii. 2, li. xvii. 425) ; but it i£ never blue. Tbie is 
an inipoHant piece of ne^tive testimony, 

Wv liuvc now brfnn.' iik a pretty large, though I by no 
mecuif venture Co «npp060 it a eomplote, collection of 
the fftcts of the ooaie, 

1 submit tliat tbey warrant the two fnJIoving firopo- 
sitions : 

I. That Homer'fi peroepttons of tho pri«matie cotoura, 
or colours of the rainbow, which depend on the de- 
composition of light by refraetton, and a ybr/ior/ of their 
compouiida, w«^re, bx a general nile, ^gue and indeter- 

3, 'Fhat we must therefore taeck luiother bajus for 
liU svatem of colour. 

But a few words may be permitted on the cause 
which baa loil to bin treatment of the subject in a 
manner ho ditTcrent from that of the modoma. 

Are we JufltlRe*! m referring Ft to his ^<^pated blind* 

Are we to auppofte a defect in his orgaiiixation. or in 
that of bia coimtrymen T 

• Btt OtympuH, srH, n. p 157. 

t i a 


\\\ Avido^fz Voktir m Birnixr* 

Or arc wc U> reject altogvtbei the idoa of defccu End 
to ba^nt tiis uae ofcoluur &s oim conceived in tbc spirit 
uliii-h, ViiIhIi 4?vl-!Ii till* mcMt perfect knowlvilgo, would 
}»rop©rly belong to Ms art? 

The inor« trotlihon of HomcKs blinHnc^ is liardi;' 
relevant. The ]>rvnniii|itKBn of it drawn frotn the 
[Hjeiiis, because tbey muke Deniodoni* blind, i« io- 
appr<?(.-Lab)y minute. The tefitimoiiy of tlie Hymn to 
Apollo 18 ancicDt^; but> as bis btiiKlness (if he rcallj 
Tvas blind) allowed of the most vivid cQticcptioiiB of lij^ljt* 
it uiU ii'it ucoount for dL'firctivencKS tu \i\% oanoeptiofi* 
of colour. The vj^^rouft approhension and accurate de* 
scription of sensible objeeta in the ]X)enis du'monatrate, 
that wc cannot seek in this hT|KJthes!s for an *^Tplaiia- 
tioD i>f what limy be either singular^ crude, or irregular. 

Nether can we resort to the f^up^ioKitioii of anytliing, 
that i« to be prapcrly called a dcfoct in bts or^^aniEation ; 
when we bear in mind hi8 intc^nse feeling for fonn, and 
when we obsi^rvu hif^ elT<^ctiT«- mid powerful liandlinj^ 
of the ideas of light and dark. . 

Our answer to the third queaLion mu»t a]»c, I think, 
Ik.' ill the Mej;:ili\(\ \l i» tnte. indeed, that mueh of 
raerelj literal dit^crepancy as to colour mij^ht be undw- 
»tood to appertain to the liceuso of poetry, Tht-ro is 
high poetical elTect in what may be called stminiDg 
epitheia of eolonr. Rnl it «ecios i<^enUal to tl^at 

\i.\ That the straining should be the exception, and 
not the rnle. 

yi.) That lher<- fthould be a llxeil standard of tlie 
colour itself, ao that the deparCuroa from it niay be 
measured. Otherwise the reonit is not license, but 
fnHinn, Sh]iktfH]>eare vrlth bigb etfect aaya*. 

RlryiiA' ^^Pocfriy lu to t^trmr- 


HiA Hilvor nkitt Iflooil nitli hu gold«n Uiaod- 
llej'e tli« irW im not tlint «i1vt?r ii« cif tbe aaroe colour 
84 ekln, nor goUl n» blood ; but tliat the relation of 
colour Iwtwccii silver and ^old mav be conipitrod with 
that between skin and blood: tlic skin tlirowa thu 
Uhuit] into raliuf, as a gmuticl nf silver wniild tlimw nut 
n |)roj«>ction of gold, fti Iicen«o of lliin kind wo onn 
nlw'iiya trace Iwtli a rule and nn aim. The rule i» re- 
laxed only for tlte jiarticuhr orou^iou. The effect pm- 
diioed is chac of lenderness, digiiUr, nnd (luritv. Hail 
8liakeepeare been de^ribing the horrible carnaj]^ofa 
battlefield, he probably would have tjiokcn of black or 
/bill gOTv insleai) of iisiii^ a Un^hlmAu^ %iire, 

Xow tlil^ pur)Ki64^ i^ nut traceable in Homer'* uiw of 
i:vr1ain voTd», if wo orv required to trent tlieui as a<l- 
jeetixi-n of colour Tliere i» m* Vit^U w!io*e nUionaU [» 
i^oitimonly more ai-c(<>iMibks hnl tlieue ea^eft, n|»oii ftneh 
a principle, do not &<lmit of a r<itionfiU at ull. 

Take for instance his nae of the rainbow. It is 

(l) TTOptfu'prttt ^lld (2) lik« A Spium, which \a ci^aviK. Of 

tbOKe, the firet may be construed dark with a hue of 
Orimaon; the «ocond, dark with n Ijue of dee^ bluc^ or 
iucltgo, Surely we have here, vu-wing it aM a whole, a 
most inftdei]uat« treatment of the colours of tlie raji»- 
)x)w. ShaWe&peare indeed aays^, 

Ul*" on.»l. itiat pnjudcr than Uuo Ifii hwd» ; 
and a^in, in the Tem|veftt. Ceres atldreBws Irin tlma>; 

And irtth ooch end of thy bla« b^ir 6<M crowu 

My l>o«ky ncrM . , , , 

But (t) blue diHera from To^Jpra^. which U eaMui*- 

»■ Tv«Uqk *uJ OaaaUii. i« J. m Jl<tty Wit™ t^f VVtiiibcirr »"- 

xhA fill A, WUl'frt Tidfv iv J. ud KUig 

* T«in|»tiJt, IT. t Hir rtttiili»w Jobo, iv. 2. 
k tnrntiniivil u oS luuiy nuUiun. 


IV. AmdW2 C^iour in H6m€t. 

tially duk. And h not bhw. { i) Blue. laken largely, re* 
[irc9Cf)tfl three of tbi; st^vcii prismatic coJoura ; i.e. idcU^ 
hikI pat]>1e aloiij: with ilAi^ir (3) In the lost quol 
fossa^. Ins is al^ railed ' rn»ii5-cvloiin<«l nK^wfiigor^^ 
and with 'safiroa viiDjET^^ llovr diSbrrnt mi efTcct do ch< 
words give, aa they fonn « vrUolc. from llm: of the sinitle' 
in II. xvVi. In what tiuintior tlieii are uc to ut)d<?r4fAn<l 
llomert lamtrerjittbevitjoftiiotftphor; and with re- 
ference to hgiii nnd d«rk, not to pmmniic ct^lour. The 
^Muorrff o» tlie buckler aiM belt arc <iark and terrible: 
so i* Che storm of \^hu<1i ]m is the ty|>e. and it is in- 
viewing the niinbowaa a type of what is awful, that we 
are to fitid the reaaon of Ilotncr*a simply trcatitij; it as 
dark, and not as a KricfianJ sy^cm ofooloumL. I'<?Tliapft^ 
we ought imt to ovrrkmk the |tii(«4ihility that Honi 
may aleo Diean to «oui)nro tbo »bifthi£ hu4^ of the ser* 
pent wTth the Taried nppeaiaiicc of the mJiibow. 

Again. let us take hi^ nsr of tf*>ii7'x/**^V- Now tbOi 
i^netftioti i^ dtd Homer iiniin by thin dimply to eX] 
dnrknev^^ that » to say nas dark his idea of fUXatt 
did he, with the spedik idea of black iii bifl niiod, use 
the terni whidi denoted it poetically fof the olive cQa>--j 
plexioit of I'lvfts*"* ? Stifvly tl»e fonnrr : for iho latl 
u«e of it would tuiY« bo«n bad. It woold have be«ii 
stmintn; ttie figure m the- wrong direction. For black- 
noa uoiiM tn* a (iiting tm|>i? only wheiv the objtrct waa 
to describe something awful ur repulsive^ 

Bat beAutr of fi>rai in Homer always leans to light 
hxkcn and Dot to dark ones, whence the (vit^ks are 
and the Trojan Hector, thuiit^h iR-AUtifoL i« cvtivrar oul^i 
Tlienrfore it was not Uouier's ubject to give ait eubanced' 
idea of darknoSK in the titita of Ulyssea. Ami yet, if 
fuXot for him mcaiit apccificalty black, then ^cXciTx^'tt 
was the h^i^t of exaggetation in tlie wroug sense* Bat 
if by McAaf be oul^ mdeMood daik, that vat a Mr 

lictner'i means i^ttvinSa^ in coUitr. 


deaeription of the olive tint, as compared with tlie 
withon?<l and elinvelled ckiD of old age. 

We lavo oilier proofs from tbe pooms tliftt Elomer 
tioncMvcd of tuX^v as dark, und not spcciliciLlly U 
black, Tlie former idea ncconlft hr.%i vritli liU calling 
E^artli uAoc, when it ia fresh bt*biiHl i\uj plouj^li (II. 
xviii. 548): ftnd bis calling blood >A^Xa^ not fitn^nanl 
goro. but blood ftvtk as it comcd spurting from the 
^vound (II. i. 303), 

and ogom, tlic frcsti blood of VenuA hcr^olf; m«Xo<Wto ii 
j^u KrjXcft (II. Y. 354V It would be bad |ioctrj to call 
the blood of Veniia fflnch, for the tmmn rvaAonft wldch 
make it good poetrr in Sbakevpeare to «all the blood of 
UuBcail goMeil. So the $t€\ai irorr^x of IK xxiv. 79 h 
endently no moro tbao dark : though in TiL64 we maj 
I^Mfriy say tlio m'r blackens. 

So agalu vitli wioo-coloured oxon, smutty Uiiindcr- 
bolts, violet-coloured sh^ep^ ai»l niunv morv» it is surely 
ooocludve AgaiiiHt taking ibem fur tIem:nptionH of pnV 
nmiio coh>im< or their compounds, ilmt tlioy would be 
bfid dc^^rripttoDS in tbcir Bcvrr&l kind& 

We nmut then seek for the basis of Momer's system 
\iitli rvH|HH4 to mitonr in iminvtliing oucnido otir mrn. 
And it may prepare us the more readily to a«knowlw1ge 
such a boKi's ot^^tbero. if wo boar id mind, ttiat man/of 
the great ol<;nieiit# and K>urcics of colour for ub pres^titod 
Ui«in«r1vv» diirifrt'iitly to him. T\ui tdtvo hue of ttio skin 
kept down the play of white aixl red. Tlio hair twdod 
much moro utuformlyt tliaii with u», to <IarkniM8. T\w 
BCfiSa of colotir was less exea-tSL-d by the culturo of 
flowiTPL Tlio «un »i>ont*r chaugtHl the spring-greeuB of 
tho earth iuto brovriK Glass, one of our instniineiits of 
instruction, did not eiiatt, Tlio rainbow wuuhl much 



IV. Atritlug; fhttmr in tttmtrr^ 

itiorv nirc)^ mvvt tliv vmvr. Tlic art vf |Htiiitiiig vrms 
wKolly, iLiirl tliut uf ilvviiij; u-iiH dmcAt, iiukiii>wn ; iind 
wc nm L<»timiite 1I147 imj^ortADcu of tliitf clcmonl of tlio 
c^iee by recollecting liuw much, with the euItaiicc of die- 
tniKtry, lliB taste of tlita country lu e<>lo«r biw inipruved 
uichin the LaRt ivveiitv years, 'fjio artiAciaU col6urv» 
with wliich iho humaa tyo was conrerBont, werv chiefly 
Uio itl-de6ue(l. »ml Anytliing but full-hodietl, linU of 
metals. The mstvriah. tli^r^ai^, for a f^ysteoi of colour 
did uot offtT tb(-iiii?c'ivo(; i<\ Ilonior'^ Ti^ion as tlii^y iJo to 
our*. Particular coloun* ncrc indued cxluUtcd in rare 
beauty, aH the blue of tin- hi-h himI iift.liv Hky. Vi^t tlu^tm 
cclotirA were, so 10 speak, isolaicd fragmeittd; and, uot 
entering into a ^onenil scheme, tbcy were a|>parent]y 
not coDceaved xvich the |>fen<iif>u necenaaiy tn mRt^lvt 
thorn. It Beetns easy to conipr^tioDd that the eye 
moy ruqnire a familiarity with axi ordonjd system of 
colours ns tlio cdttditioii of tin being able olo^ly to ii|^ 
l^rvi'ialc ;uiy iiiie aiTtoiig them. 

I coiit'ludc, tlieit, that the organ of colr>ur and its im* 
f resHioiifl were but iiartial ly devolopcd aniotig lh;3 Greeks 
of the heroic age. 

Iij lieji of thiH, Homer M^eiiiv tii liav^; biid, fimtly «otne 
crude conceptions of colour diuivod from the elemenu ; 
secondly and priDcipallyi a sy«tcm in lieu of colour, 
founded upon li^lit aud »]iriii diirkrifrA^, ita oj>posit« or 
nogutivc. Wo have seen that the m'^^ of Humer, 
vliidi is applied to fine olive tiDtn in the ekin, and 
which joins band^ with Kvivttt^ and Troptpv^feat, means 
dark, tW idmi-noe x)f light. On the other b^uid, tbc 
huMt% of whlteiiufs lis cWrly indicated to tis in the oty* 
molojry of\4vKo9* H'hich is tbc xainc as that of Acur^ir 
to see, and of \»Kit light in Xf/taffa^ the year, tlie walk 
or course of li^ht : as vreW as in the cognate wonis. 

HU itjfMUhx tMu ofU^ht and darie. 


whicfa appear to bave tkoir root in the Satiscrit tacA^ 

As a gencml proiwsition, tWn, I should »«y tbat the 
Ilomerio oolours arc really tlio mode* and forms of 
lip;ht'', and of lU opposite or mtlier n^gAtive, darkiictt : 
partially alTected perbnfM by Meaa dmuti from tJte 
tiiolalF, liki> the rnddinetia of copper, or the sombre and 
dead bluo of kvavo^^ whatever tho substance may haTo 
been ; and here and ibrn.' vritli an imvptivt' cir<jrl, tm It 
were, lo get hold t\f ottirr UUni* of t'olmir 

Under the application of tbitt prJiieipUs 1 believe that 
all* or Dearly all, the Homeric words vrlll fall into their 
pificcs: uuf] that vc sbati tind that the I'oet iisimI tliecitt 
froiti liTH own ctatiding'iproLintlf with great vigour and 
elluct. \Vc can now sco why Xomos and i*<Aaf witli 
tliuir kindixnl words have such an ininien^ |>redomi- 
nanee: tboogh white and bluck are the limiting ratios 
of colour, rather than colour ic«olf. 

Of the transparent and opaquo, or chmroscHr<K we 
cannot expect to hear from Homer; yet, a» lias boco 
obwrvisl, a rudim^nL of it may bu cJ>iJtaiiMMl in Uio 
highly poutical fit^oritU of tlio eavo or 9oa; and a^tn 
m ihu S*^*ptph vv^ {Od<xiii.i69), since t4^ is Uje baMS 
of the t^ntliet. 

When we speak of oolonr proper, we speak of 
an oflbct whioh \h produced by the docompoBitiou of 
light, and wliidi, so long as tite eye can disclmrgo its 
fiiTirtioii, is coniplvtr, whiiluvor ihv quantity* or llio in- 
cidence, of llgb: upon ilio object said to have coloar 
may happen to be, 

When we speak of light, riiade, and daikneae. we 
n*fer to tlio qnantily of light, not decompnwl, which 
lallft upon tbat object, and to the mode of Itn iiiddenee. 

At F/tfiH-nMiiv, Woriu. lol. 5j. p. it. (B4aitgnrls >833) 


IV. Acidot: Cfihur in Homer. 

Of Ij^ht, sh&dow, and darknosa thus reganlwK Ho- 
mer had lively and most poetical conception*. Thii 
description of olyt'cts by liglit anil iU aliwin'u tax Uist 
matcri&le to tbe au^nnoet. His iroQ-j^y, bis rudd;^, 
his starry licaveD, arc so many modes of light. His wini 
ocdouriM) oxen and sen, )ii> violet ^lieep, his things 
tawiLv, |inr|»lt\ liooty, and tlie rest, give us in &ct m 
rich vocabulary of words for deecribinj^ what !• di 
so far as it has colour, but wbat also varies bt*lw©en 
dull and brijfbt. according to the quantity «>fliglit play- 
ing npon iL HL*rv(fQruxauiplo) » tho link bt'liAeon bis 
0160^1^ caiTi'of and his oiBo'^ o/iof. 

Aa thG9C words all follow in the train, 90 to epcak, of 
juAar, even so Xmukh^ is atioiidml by itA own family, all 
J^ling under the meaning of the Englidi Juljei-Uvi* 
It^tL Ou ibu one band x^<^^v &i^d WXfo^; on iho 
otTicr jua^«A4i^eoV( apyos» And cn7i«\o*(f, all mean tighi\ 
but the (init hvo aix? dnll, and rqire«<?nt thv twilight 
colour, or dobuti^'uble j^rrjnnd bi*l W4-<-ti it and iU negati^ 
while tlio last tlirco are bright and glistering. 

Nothing can bo more pootical than Homcr*a ideas of 
dark and light. It was a rednndancy of lifo in thiMWj 
idea!^, that maile him assiociate ligUt with motiou ; as iH' 
tliose iino linos (II. ii< 457% 

4r twv ip)(p)U^i»v <tsi \fiKKenJ ?<irTr«ff^*> 
And, again, in the Arming of Achillea (II. xlx. 36i)» 

So, on the oUier hand, tho idea of darkiran went to 
animate inGtajibysiL-al eou(re)>lions, a« In blaek &tu, 
black deatbp black clouds of death, black paioA (Ik ii. 
859. 834. xvi. 3 jo- iv. 1J7K 

KntiiniliM« tell us that there exist kindii of creatuj 
reirpiK'tiUg uliidi it is known, that their or^gauv aro' 

C»hnr in dk laUr Grmir lah^mtg§. 


•eiMtite to ligUt anJ (]Arknp<». but vri(h no perception 
niiatever either of colour or of fonu\ So far ju 
respoetc form. Ilomor |ierccivecl keenly such forms as 
wore beauUful : but or mere geometrical form he mav 
have bad very imli^linct icl«&«, if we are to judge from 
litH ejikbeU for tht; form of u MM. The }i£LralIel is 
noarer in the case of colour; for even hie |>ercept)ons 
wore afi yet ucdi^cstcd; as if th©y vrurc no\H;l, not 
aided bv traiJitioiu nn|uiTcd vcvj much bjr hiu)»eir, and 
fixod a(» yt't npitbi^r bj cn«torn nor tiomoiicbitiire. 

From thv n-iimiiis ivbieh have reached ufl of tbc 
colour? of tlic aacicntn, it hnfl been found practicable 
lo ifpat of them in pr«ei&4> detail'*. But. m ejtaniining 
iho cjue^tioa from the works of Momer, we must bear 
in mind, Hr?il> their very tuirly date, and, secondly, the 
likelihood that heroic Greece may probably hare been 
far Iwlind fonic countries of tlio oast in the qm and in 
tbo IdvA of colour, which bas always bad a privLlc^ed 
home there. 

Tbf! tcfCKiiriiry, howtrYtfr^ to a mixture of the two 
questions of light and colour appcora to be traceable 
more or ]e»8 in tlie popular lan^a^, aud Jikewiao in 
the philoi&ophr. of the later Oreeka. 

In the classical period, the hues of tlw eye wore 
divi<lQd, ac ^'\af the darkest, x'W^^ ^'^ iiuenncdiato, 
aud 7X<iH(ot the lightcKt- 

TUn ^ortl T^inror, livk-gn<«u, ajipeara to be qmUi 
adetjtute to the expr«sstou of the colour* It U used 
bj Aristotle ; but I do not know that It is found in ifao 
poets or writent of the best ago. For tbo chssical 
Greek tba ide& of gi«etinen is expressed by jfXtfpw, m 

I WEl«>n > Hf 0«t«ir^« of ud Mvdena CMoim, by WiSkiu 
K^i<>^vMg^i P' 4- LiniiifL' LoCKion it^jt- 


IV. AoidofT f W«uf w //brncr. 

for aa it U expressed at all Now tl*i« worH soemfl 
iunduquatc on. two grounds, FiraC. its prctlominant 
Wca is that of * fresh ' or ' recent ;' which is biil arci- 
iIoiiUlIIv, and nol^ invar'tiiljL)'^ Hits |iriijftfrt'y nf lliime 
objeotfi in riatiire that are green. 

When wc fiml the word x^^fi^^ appliod alike to 
objects of a grreeu colour, and to others that have no 
colour, (or else not in res|iect of their colour,) hut yvi 
which fire fresh or newly spriii>g, we sre W to concIiKlo 
that It wa* for frcahness, and not for grct-nncss, that the 
T^ord y:iiH gciicraljvtn^ed. This idea is contirmed bytwo 
oircumstaucen. Fir»t, that when j(X«/>or does si^iiy 
colour, ae in the case of |jaleiieB3, {where it cannot 
mean what is fresh,) it aifi:Qiliefi the most indcHnitc ami 
feeble colour. licUe more indrcNi than a nepitiTi-. 

Tile meaniug of ^Xm^o^ <%oc i« pmlwhlv nHliy-|>fi1e 
fcar, In iho groou of tlo olivo wo wjo the point of 
connection between this u£C of the term of) the one 
hand, and iiutnral virdun.* on {\u^ other. So ilutl tho 
imago of Uie colour green, to the Greeks, was Doiih«r 
lively and bright on the one hand, uor was it stroDj 
and deep oti the other. 

The M.ri-otiit circumstance is thi«: that the word 
^Xtiypas h npplitnl by tho later Gn^ekfi to olijocU that 
have a colour, but a colour which is Ttot green: imd 
this by authors who Imd the full n»e of Mght. I'hus, 
ill Ri]rijjidi*?s (Ilii'i'tihii i'Ji4,) w** havi' hTju^ti x^™/»!p f*>r 
blood frcaldy shed. It seems plain that, when the epithi 
could bo llm» asod, colour could ouly bo vorj cnrolfjwl] 
and faiully ooiicoivcrl in the minds cic)»cr of those whi 
UMut tlur 4):(]»re«Mion, or of tboflc to wlmni ir. w«k 

I shall not op^n the general subject of the treatment 
of colour by the later 0^eek^ or by The l^tin poeU, 

Orfek ffhit^Ofihy ofcohmr. 


Bill tliat k coutintiod to be buth faint ami iiiitcGDite 
4li)Wii to a vury Inti* |tcnoil, ami iii i\. d«?grir<T wliicli 
vx^ulit now bo deomoJ v^ry 6urprl«iii^, vro ninj jmlgo 
both froni tlio g^iieml Conour of tUe .T,Quid, %TtA iW>in 
tlio remarkable verse of AlbiDOVAnus^ftnAii^uMah |>oel. 
which ap|>lic.*d thf? epithet * purpureuH' to snow ; 
BnuikiA pLii'purc& cADdidiora riiro. 

Nuithi'rr i)o [ enUrr nilo the i)ueBtioii> whether the 
eh&dowe of whito nmj" fifiunl any ground for this 
<-pini(>t r bccaust* an answer. <iTO*n from tho fttcret* as 
it won- af s4'i("[H?ie i*r nrl, wmUl imt iiviiil fijr tli" iiih^r- 
pretaliori of llie works of a poet, who must dewribe for 
tlio cottittion evo- ' 

So we may note the ' c*rvix roeea' of Honco". anJ 
of Virgil". 

Such oxamiiiaiion os I limfo been able CO make 
wotih) lofid mo to Buppoftc whatever of thh kind wat 
rrudcj or defective in the conitnuu ideas of Greece waa 
not without pnint-i of corn-f pomleuce in Its philoiophy. 

The treatise Wtf^ j^ptt^fAn-n^, fiopiilaHy ascribed to 
Anstotle, would appear to bcloug to «omo other author. 
It, liovrcver, in etviifonniiy withfireek ideasP, btiHca tlie 
ajtt^tn of cokjur not, ns^ wo do, upon the |Jti«aiacic 
dccomiio^ttion of Eight, but upon the four olemoQts; of 
which it declares air, water. aJid even earth wlicn dry, 
to be wliitc, fire to be ^ntSo^ or yellow; from tlie 
nujcturtv of tlieiw arito all other colounit aud crcvror, or 
black. i» Ihu ab«oiico of ll^ht. 

I>r. I'rnnll, a rc»ccut etlitor of this Treatise* had. in 

a learned liiuaj of bis own, gathered) lo^elber the Rya* 

torn* of the rarioiifl Greek writers npon colour; and 

es^tecially that of Ariatotio, from tho tottiniony afforded 

•■ llor (M, L 13. J. <> Virg. JSxt. 1 40«. 


IV. Aaid^: Oahfir in i/oHier, 

by bis Afyforoloffica and other works. It oxliibtw n 
curious combiaation of the aim at scientific oxoctiien, 
Vf'iih l\m ^'itrit of tlie plijr^ic&l Icnowlctlgu ubkh lit, in 
»uch iiiatu>rg, [u neccwsiy basis, lu Wdlitj^ idens 
appear to be nd follovrs* 

W -we pnss by the mere mctnpbnimi portion of the 
subject, tlie basia of rulour h lard (lu>r»relicallv in tmtis* 
pnrenoy and motioa. With the idea of whiteness tro 
ftsBociatcd drjncBs and heat; and with blackfiww titoir 
counterparts, wet and cold P. Tht air l^ vrhil^, fire tbc 
hlghoML IWm of vrhiti*; watirr Im 1>Wki,varib the high* 
eat ne^tion of colour, and hlaekc«l of all. All other 
calouffi are treated as intermediate botweon white cuid 
blackV An analog pn^vaila between Ebc int<?rvals of 

and other ^en^ible objoi-t«. Thor« aro seven colours": 

I. Mf'Xd^ black. 5. oXotyj-yi*' violet 

3. XcMuf white, 7. Avtivuvr h]uo. 

4, (l>ori'firof''>r ivd> 

Tho ^ini' or grey ix a mode of bTack (M<\ti^ ti); am 
tbe^ov^i' i« iii|^eiiioLtF^ly doirriln-d aa having tbe aui>e 
relatioD to light, which riehnee^ (Xcirap^') has to eweet- 
nen (7XtA(v). He<l, <ftotrtKfivMi or To^^^pot*, U ligfht seon 
through black, Tliia is th© most powlivo colour after 
^pf^0v; then coine*! gr(M*n, and tht-ii (rtXrKy>^>") vioW*, 
He proceed^ «ti J^ to irXnof i^K€rt tf>atttTai^ meaning, 
I suppose, that the Kvay^Sv (the same thing is said by 

P I'rptLtl'A AriitotolM db«r di« 
F«rbcii,pp. 101, 5. 

4 tlnd, pp, 104^ 6. 

' Ibdd. p, IC9, Ar M«tApli, I 
7. lofiT «. >3. 

» tbid p. 116. At. 4t0«ai.4. 

i^'ofwv of our adt^mfmif ^wr Hvmtr. 


PmntI or o^0Mov, whicb he trandotcs brown) is so 
c\ct9^\y akin U-\ tfm ui^^tivi-, or liWlcni*«tf w to bii in* 
ditJtingiiiBhable fmm It. Tliufi Aristotle appears to 
treat grer as out^jdo bifl ecale altogether; tie frives 
irofx^poi'^ somothncs to red and sometimes to blue"; 
aiirl ttfltjiviov or hr^wti is wlioll)- otuittoil. His otdur 
likciA^ifte viirieft: for, In dltTorvnt passages, oXob^yw and 
^paetkOk change places* 

This condition of the pIiilo?»opIiT of colour, so man/ 
ci^ntiJiics afior Homer, aii<i in the mind of nuch a matt 
as Aristotle, may utfibt in explainiii^r to ufi the iiudc*- 
vclopcf! slate of ilomcr's pcrocptions in this partictilar 

There apfteara to be a tvinarknble contnwt betweeii 
eucli undi^eGte<l idooji^ and the solidity, truth, ftfid iirin- 
ncss of tlio remains of colour that liave come <lon-n to 
us ffYKti the aticicDtv. Tho explariFitioti» I stip|)OSe, is* 
that thoi*c> who Iiad to make practitrnl u*e of rtilonr, did 
iiot n^it for the construction of a pbilo^ophr, tut added 
to their ap|:araLus from time to time all aubetancea 
which» iiaving 4^onie vrilhin their knovted^, were 
found to produce results satisfactory and improvrnp to 
tUo eye. And even so Homer, though liis orgrm was 
little trained in the diseritniuatloin of colours, and 
though hu fi>unil(;d hinivi'lf munly ujhiei luero inodifl- 
cation« of lijfhc a^mrt from its deeomT>osition, yoc haa 
made very bold aiid cfTectlvo use of thctio Ijmitoti ina- 
teriak Ilia %urea in no coac jar. while lh*7 never 
Gul to Mtrikflf. Sar wit wp to utijiposi.* that vrv mv in 
th!« department nn oxeoptbn to that compnmtive pro- 
fusion of power which marked his ciidowmenta in go- 
neml. and that he bore, in the partii^alar point, a 
rrippleifl natitre ; but mther we are Ut Irani that the 
• CoCQ^ MfL L S- 343 b. 4- v^th 111 4. i74 >• ^- 

8M, Mimw, k AMM iMfNMU* to Uv«i^ ^ <j«. >r 

vllb «^ iM«>l in pwtiMfar. 

Anw Ln» MPTlfd tW -^v-r of IfoMrr to fcv ff^vIK Bm ta 

MmI is MiMBi hy thr ifvmcfWft of bva ift «abr. Tbe 

w irtf y pmDB ol the iiMfliiift«tw« df a loul tp Od t^ iV> ^ 
MM <inljr bj 6rr tluil inm ouuU br aude i—Bfalilr ift all Mid «f* 

• UU>i Mil iCpott HI ne Wnki. 

imirvi cfW xjoKmk. 


vptUtmA cir iii(-tT«4iHJ (rd y^ ntrt ribfjttou yi Kf^m ^<mV)^ Hill va 
Lm\r no tra/v f<i|firr at the rc|>ctttioiTi of iIlc prvj^ii« cm tho A4QI0 
focFe (pfim'tal, (>r uf itn uijitiatinEi to uuiDiiuur^'lurnl iruii, ov of > 
bev denomiootiuQ f<;ir Erou wluti tbua lioat«^ nail f4>o3e«i- Od tlie 
OcmtnLT^-, in tbb paMntfr th(* nitftjil whrri fully bonWiMd w ftlll tlr- 
duvd Co Ih* tfAijptit : Aikil vo hnv^ howIm^to in H amcr Mnj Uurn of a 
rr.liitiud iKtwFTii ■uzmi uud fflB^^^oi. vKn|il lite inerclf an^itv one, 
ih«t noitlkcr o^f clu-ni &* f-iu»l int-^ llf fiariwi' for Ttmktiij; IIk- ^ii«M 
or AdulU*. 

A^iii, tin- hnnbi'M* of iron wm iiui-h m iLp|tfirrntly mci all tbdr 
viftluftH and lilmuii i)f ibifllf cuiulitutnlii JiSioiIti- Wencr it in nivd 
flioiijt with HtonM BH A uymbDl vf 1i»ilunH ; tnfl of 0^ X'tfvt ;v/^ ^ 
tfi'Air^t'J. /|Ei*''j- V" (lo i>»t l^i>d il woriLMi up wvti» otUiV mvUiU ; fiM* 
«ain|iZe, un ihi^ Imtklor or flUicli] iif Afpitarmnon, Ah trn liMvr 
Mwa, it u ant used by Vuhsm ia cnokiufl Ukc 4hicld oT Aohillt*. 
Thp t^ msU into tbc fiiv f^old aud Klrrr. ooppcv and tin » Imil 
Ijoili^ aji[«iVDtl}^ ^LcrltiiUil iM |iw volt^ ajirl truti u C«i> ^ahI fvr 
wnrkiik^ in i^imwhi wllh %hfi uth^ hu-ihIi* Riic tlir IiI<-a of hikr<lnM« 
U ncTvr HuiuoiAtrid nilh tvaB-vr p mirl, if il tnwJ \ bant iikii ntf^L 
47rrtainly it would not h*vr fn-nj m iniitiiltlr ntntcrMl fbr tlic intricwtE 
ronea nfdn^^tia 

Aynn. tlii< ai^M^vt «iti«»w luiiuit in rciTourvhtt UMUFtud wlut 
iidwp ; lutd b^ ni;^ mttiuB oumttfioiii^ viUj tlir uidjiwry colour of 
at««i All tlii*> iT^ififn the tdryriij^U vf Uir iici,'«livc evidtttm, «M«iiJi 
loDijlittHleiil VLth till' »l4» UiHl mnH wi havc Wen *t««l 

The Cumjillor ■/ tli« Tn'if-x in EwuthitH makni nowf (i'h w^.> 
■imply tt dark iriptnl Itiit Millin ntfn)™ ^■'^i nam withLtil an 
c]i]t!>ri U iio. And tijbl w'aU tli« Fpitbet ^^Qt it ia Iwl. Hr tAt- 
mtnv tint ilinj* app«» lo ni) tin by Uw nAVW «f fittmhwn 
4Biii|il)r, 4Uil trad tfy lli« itfww uf jiAuAiAhijui u^^rruj* ; ci> tlwt tk» 
<loubl« IM* cf nnHv and umrfrtjiec fur lio vrould ]^ tiki' tbal of 
jD/icin6«in and fttMium for the vaae mcUl in L»un' TbW idea 
tTMla tHe nbOoikec m inldDC it<i aiBinc from th« coltfur : Mid ia *a 
far tuUtiivd by lb* um of tlw U«raft*n Mvnr, wbicb I prrviunn ia tb» 
miur word m I&iw, br Ind- Dui 11 wiuld bi^ tIn|:uUr lb<u flonwr 
bhuulJ dnu hare ilouUo iuim* Tut iWii m«t«U, wbicJi of all jJwmih 
at alijcctN bavo p^riapa b««n tnort Mmmonlj d«agnat«d by bbdicIi* 
t>ficA. Abil tbiff LypM^Mni 11 twl in >onrdMi#p v^tli thn rvtitmc 


S*4* 9n titr tttttniuy of 

«iH«iii«g of MPMtf iM Hottirr ; rmt Uw tt«nl (mSfBUa k Uork 
ilrvplnM ivr7 far Ifrum ll>«t of tin. wMA Hoomt dcMCribw am vklta 

Tb(7 autf priJablr iutrqifKMiaii liir tbii iSO&rnH wun) apjnvni Ut 
tv iLat vliich IB ftlsv W Bcinir^um wftli itfl sabMqvM UM and il^ 
icriptiao M s oolccr. Fraii Lictoa** ' A&ctral miiI M«do« Cotoon^* 

lau/iW bim cttrbiOflUi ottvft\trr : anal thai, lUcerdinfC to xhr. *j,fmrm 
U*t\anmj or DioHroridoL thk wm obtained b^ Uie ■bckoto Irom tbr 

1^. r. to4i Thj« lnlrr|in4atiMl wouM »nwilM ^w lair Ihidnig 
Mm i» Hutnn' - Tat tbe nrilj of It<* w - for Uie dark colour Nod 
|h( ■JTiBlty to gty^Jp u iv Such • tiliMBiK^ wouU in*krf b t^twl 
rvlicf for ikt oarmice tn tbr pdM* of AIcibmh; afpinft U» onppfr- 
platcd ■«■§ T and Tomld Btaad *iJI in tbr wt of tbe pw y wbrtc it 
^ipt^irviu tv (ilAnnl In rrlirf witli vnktr iiifUk. D, xrm^ £64- ^^^JV- 
uJ «Tm 1JC1 ifc^ buckkr of AgBamnnaii, zi. 34, for oii ibn. 
buckler, thiMii^h tb« Mrpttitf. fftHfd ■! *■» ■, bt* ^ribmUy i^Aml 
nuttnut uritli lb# bV^ »»■! ^'^*fC^ a')'><V ^^ "^ t'*'*^ o"' ^^'i "^ 
cwKK^ jvt, iM Ujf> arr diraliiiMtl with tmlf n of j;;i4d aiiil twmtj of 
tin, lK<^ fcnml «l!f<t mjvld be o»r inch b< w« ncod mi «Q|i|M«r 
Honi<r to hftvo rcj«*tnL Thin Uiic Miri>OD«tr m ctiU fomd 
otlif^ r*-jip*r-orp». hnx \nt* in onr <le*^t TirjiiM. than li> ||i« 
<Kjm tftirhf*<l b^ thv auci^itla. I uudi^nrtaud ttvm » 
rcTvril in mrtBllnricy. that Id Ub purrat R>nii it ia cryMAHbf, tutl] 
naaarA or nu-thy, of a d^p ann>, l>nRl«, mmIt itowdThl and thoft^ 
mulily ^imvrrtfvl tn u«r nc n pij^n'^t 

I hIk>iiI4 thervrmv HU|ipoM: llml the rnHH n rtcA n iikIbI , tliol 
the oi]h« oq tbc biu^klpr □^tAn litit* or l«it<l>k coloiimi in pffroenl : aod 
that the tiow 0(1 the iSi4<l<f 1*^ pr** iM^tr B ii'>i1li1« nf the iubvbuMV ni il 
luHvp xlul^. W« i.<«D tbiiM im<Urv(r,Antl wh^^' nimw i« twi nMd 
wi^b tb« guM, vlicr, jfoXiAc, jiriil tin, iii tUf. tot^r uf Vulcan, or uritb 
tbv ifold, ailTcr. iron, ami x*^"^ *^ ^^ eliBnol of Jani>'. We 
•lao uiid«nUnit vby. ttiouffh rvonr k not UMd in the Ibrgo, 714 tht^ 
tTVTiob itHind llie i^ii«jBrd on tlie «hirtd i>f AohiTIn ii Avtfff. Hin 
it](4T|ircUtioii U b1n» in coiifornutj ivilL Llm Bi>mtrnc empbiyiiiBnt 
of l}ie JidjevlJTc itvihvDr. 

I flind^ntanil that thftrv ia, in th# .lf<««M ^f>Hk<niiAv nt Xapk*^ 

' fL xtiii. 4rt, Vp jti^ 

• Tind, 5«4, 


«va»ov itttii xoXm 

A flponi^ or Iftiltr. with n Uito nii Uir i>iii1 of thr luuulk, which in 
foruictl i/i th'\t tLAlin; blue carbtnuit^ of copper horcd throujch for 
the par|>i>i(t 

Of the fo«r »ii^Hfiwilioiiii ifivcii lo ;^n^ it> Hom^r (<^p[n»r, 
kmatf \n\mrv. nnrl trurt''), 1 nrlhcro tti the fiii4L It r»]iriut Ih: intti, 
(r) Wausc il is never iti«tL|ft>i]t>J tm hwil in ihr. «diiic nay vrith It, 
(3) b«o&iiM^ il in no much more commcoi, (3) booftiue lb(«c UKlaU 
nrv cxprnnljr dutilif^ifeLfrl mw fr^Ti iht othc<r, Bd iD 11. v. -7;j. 

Kritlirr tTui iLtr xfl>jidr uf Hirtuvr be bruuttf. Nui. Iiowwi-ri fruin 
■bauluU «HDt <>f hiLtilrii-Afl : Fur ! Imm fratu conipirtcTit authcntjr 
thul very jc<M>d vuttinu iniiEruiiiciihi (nat, af cuurv^ «|iiiO Ca ilt^l) 
iriAy bi< niiHlc in 11 t^xnizc voiU]xt«c<l of 87^ pkrt« oupp^TH iicd 17^ 
jKLtU tiEL But flfr tilt? fuiUwiug tiaiauiui : 

I, Homier ^wajs cpraks cJ it v a pure vatsUi tLlong with utiir^r 
puM nctftlfli (Tvpo whoro Vulcan 08«t< tl Intn th*' furmu-o tu h« 
wron^t; Tl. wiii. 47^. 

1' A|^ii, litxnUHt, ukiiiiiigh vrr nniA Tint jwyiif ton pniiflilmtly 
Irom llontrr* q^tbfts of o<>lour, ytl In ^i* owe wc DtAj Uy cnniii- 
denthk^ bLiyim nut oul/ on hi« :c«X<Ar tpvipAt (dniv the Vpvtff^r of 
Homer Imuii tn tjri|i;hinf«N). boi upi>ii tb* f*^ ^ii-I »^^. vhirh 
inc«n brighi ftiul tr1»vrrkuik;, Thi-iiv qtillKlv i^night wunlcl i:ot >ip|jly 
to bronjcc : nor vouM Hoinn phite with ht^nRc lh« walln uf the 
pftboe of nUcitiouia. Neither tlon il apin'^T- UkcW xhtl he v-aiild 
gfw u> » h««i#u of Ittudxc dJJKUig the icnpocitLg iiaM^r7 cl hdttlc, 

3. It do^ ui>l feppctt' th»t HtHiipj- knew BDytliitig at kll of th« 
fwiun «r olkjiiiie af mrtJ^k. 

W« luv«, Umh, t9 i?onctude ehi&t x^Xir^ WM copper, hudraMl hytKOnfi 
mrtSod ; w Mime tUink by ihi- BRraioy uf WKtfrr : or bIm, nnd more 
probbhiy, MConlIng Cu a tny uuiple piwrn. hj cvoluig iltfirlj io 
th« air {Sti* Miltin, Mfn^nJu^^i^ Koiii^ri<juCt pp. if6-$*J 

I* EuA«th. II L |k. vJ. 

K Ic 2 

SECT, v.* 

Homer and some of his Successors in Epic Poetry : 
in particular^ Virgil and Tasso. 

Thb great Epic poots of the world are members of a 
brotherhood still cutreraely limitod, and, aa far aa appears, 
not likely to be enlarged. It may indeed well be disputed, 
with respect to some of the exiating cliumantSi whether they 
are or are not eotitled to stand upon the Golden Book. There 
will also be differeDcea of opinion as to the precedence among 
those, whose right te appear there is universally confessed. 
Pretenuons aro sometimes advanced under the influence of 
temporary or national partialities, which the silent action of the 
drilized mind of the world after a tJme effectually puts down. 
Among these there could be none more obviously untenable, 
than that set up on behalf of Alilton in the celebrated Epigram 
of Dryden, which seemed to place him at the head of the poetA 
of the world, and made him combine all the great qualities of 
Homer and of Virgil. Somewhat similar ideas were broached 
by Cowper in his Table Talk. The lines, as they are less 
familiarly remembered, may be quoted here : 

Ages elapsed ere Homer's lamp appeared, 
And ages ere the Mantuan swan was heard ; 
To carry Nature lengths unknown before, 
To give a Milton birth, asked ages more. 

But this great mast4?r is also subject to undue depreciation, as 
well as flattered by extrav^ant worship- 1 myself have been 

» The Hubfltftuce of this and January and July respectively, 

the two following Sections fj^rro- T857, They ore reprinted with 

ed two Articles in the Quarterly the obUgtnf; approval of Mr. 

Eeview, Nos. 201 and J03, for Murrav, 

Hilton attd Dante in rttatioti io liomci: 


iioMnsl in k comfKuij ootnposod of Pt^foMcn «r a OcroDta 
lT|iivor«ity, who vor<* &r<l<<iit lulmircTJi of Shftkotpiftro, ihu 
within tho HpLera of tli^r kriovlcdi^ Milton wan onlj refjardfd 
Jitt €if i^<|itAl r«nk iriih Klapitork, it is not. I trurt. «itli*rr 
tiHtigiuil vanitj' nr rt^Wf^hmf* [in'jii^irp. nnr i« it thr* mpm nmuW 
iii*|wrtHj hv ll]f* wiOe niigti uf Ins ntUiLirrieiiEa uiiU fXTfi^riiliuit^a. 
which ihuIlrh Engliuid cLun^ lltat lip Ahoulfl Un niimbrrcd in tlio 
firtrt cIau of epic puou ; in tliat claw of wliivli lIomtT u the 
heftd. (1]Atin^uiaT]«4 before nil coinjit^titon bj a dear Acd «TTcJt 
n tft»-t supopioriiy- 

It ^ui)ld bo difflcck v> iDAticntd anj sMig^Morj oomporuon 
Iwtw^h MiHon uitd HorufT : fto diffor^m, m vuuitio^ iii poinU 
of ccintact, arti tlK* rhdi^wli^r* partly r>f tb^ mvn. %nd titon 
□Luch iiiorv of thoJr norlu. PorTiiL|M the ^tytili*«i ami thif 
mmvt- perTAifing criin-it uf iltc llUd Ik, itjt li<lc}ttjr uui ttvukiohs 
a» A iiiin-E>i' of luan »nd of ill? ^lAitle »p1r>'r<* in nliifli hi^ Bvi^ 
with U« iiilliitl4>ljr varied iuLAiforj' botb uctuni A»d ido^L Bui 
that vvhicL mo*; <x<cito« our Adiuirnlion in Milt^tn in tUo iWti' 
ciljr hnd force of goiiiii», by ^hich be hu tnvdicd Itc^voitd the 
titiiniiii Fiphore, aud bodied fortb to tu ii«w wortUa id the u&> 
kno«i)« p<,vp1od miU inbtLbiunU vlio muftt be AO imuMMOniblj 
i)tfr«Tc^( from our ovrn fa^. Hoinn'')i IaaIc w» ono, whicb Jid- 
tnlttoit i>f .iiul rvfviv^d kIia.1 we nay ^'all n perfect accomplifJi- 
mont; Milton'^ wjui itn nndpriitkinf; Iwynml tbmlnfnglhof auuu 
iacA|MLbltf uf unvibiuf; more Ibj^n fAint adninbi-aijou, luid ooe of 
nbkb. ibe uiur« cltiVMcJ Uie BpecUtor'a |.uim uf ticw, lli« 
mora keenly be murt find ccruun dofccu glftrc upon hmi. 
Tlio |>o<iD» of Milton gm u« HtMon to tbink that lut t<tnt^ 
tjons of cbaniHtf wero tnueuluw am! powerful ; but the mb- 
jo«t did not Admit of tboir being elKwtiMUy Umed. For bit 
oMiVit flpproftcb«B t« p#rfecfioit >n bis art, v* muM look boyotitl 

A iiiinpftruain betw<%m Milton «ud Ihuitif miiiM be sui«evibat 
UHire practicftbUt. but ii would not Acoord with tlw onmpositkiii 
of tbfl fro«p. whkb I abttli bcra atliMupt to pro>«cit, and «bicb 
hm llofiKTr for itn oeotro. Oii tlio otbor bund, Ponto mijEbt, 
f&r belter thiin Miltmi, bo cotnpwl with UoiiMr ; for whUc li« 
iaiutbe t'ui^atorioAndl'anidiAofkriiKii^beAroiilylbjuiUiltoB, 


IV' Aviti^^M: Mnw^f rtW Ai> Sn^wMwirw. 

fmmill^v htunan. He i« if}c<-«ciiitlv <;iji)i^i»rwint wtti) thtukatnre 
Aiitl tlit< fif« of aiiLii; luid tlinitgti for thf« mom part be dnivi 
u»> A» Hl*xmAii tia^ flmnit 1ntii. in outline <*i1j. ^H 1)^ llii* 
^trvujrlh Knd dcjHh uf Um toiicS l»- han prcxlticiM tli^itrftt. for 
cxAEnplc, Kranoftira And L'gotino, tbjil bavi; m Imt^W I>cooui« l]i<; 
coffimon proix'i'tv urmLkukind, if ijol jia Achillc^tiui^ riy^MW^*, J'^'l 
na LcAf miU ilamlut. «S4i[l tbu thcolo^^ce) Im^ih, ajid IIh^ viItil* 
terrene Ui^Atrcof i>aoli^'^ pootii remove hiin to AcrcatdiatniMC 
from Homvr^ fri>m wliotn bo ux'iiu to June (l«rivM| fiUlo, «n<l 
wiih whom wr m»v thrrpfon^ fpol djbtiireid h« contd hkve boeo 
bur 1]filj> arqiifliut^) 

Tli« poiMfl, wliom It i* TiHKt nal«r«I In rntripArr wirh IfoTit^r, 
arc thcfir who hnie !iii|ijilrifil ti^ mi llri* ^re«U*iL At^andiktm- n'lth 
pi>itLta of <ouUci bttncFU llinir uwii i>r)»i1-t anil bin, aaj vbi) at 
li^e umc time Ari* aucIj innnifi^t children of gcnaiM ft0 to 
entitle ihcui to the hf^iLvur or \mng wontod in wdi a oonfltct* 
Tluwo condctionfl I prc^aiiLiio to be mo«t devlv fuHillcd hy 
VWgW and TftwOi and yrc tnay bogin iritb the dd«r of tbe 

Pwbflp* CThAprnttn Iiba pono too far trlieii btf xyr* ' Vb|pl 
halb nofl»ing of hi* own, hnt onlj Mfxrliori: bk in^'enitont, 
riatUfr. luiii form, bciing Jill HmnT-r's''.' Ynl no suiitll pun ijf 
ihii ^wcffplng piTrpositioD uwi imilonbtedl;* l« lovlv {^fxxt. 

l^Htb an v^itnturttliuLr^ amount of admittod imikUion and of 
cbvion* Ataiilnriijr on tlio ^nrfiu^, the iEndd atacnb. aa to al- 
most tsvery iuTnUinmad pai-ticulur< in tbo ftLrongoet oontniM 
with Ihc lliar!- Av t-j mcLro. 1^uro»H iiauioa, p1ao». ^iimoi 
nnd timc4. the two n-orhfv. wh<^r» tb<»jr do not actualk concur.' 
Ftind in hh noar r«lntiotfs one to another, m veeoD lo be iittati]> 
able withonA at»olnt4i idciJtty of mtjoct ; jot it may be donbl«d 
whothor any two grvni poems can bo nam^^whieh ar^ M> prct- 
foiindt}' diar^ordniii iipoti alni'uii «rcry |ii»at tbat tottebm tbnr 
iiitonL't hpirJI ; uynu vst*ryxV\ng lliai rrUle* lo (tie Innli of oiir* 
DAliirc. to clic lann of thought arxl julion, attd to r«racity In iIm 
mmin^eiiii'tit of the litgh«rr sabjeots 4Qch m birtorjTt Okoralil^* 
polilT. and rcli^ion- 

, Ttiu iniinciiF^^ povdni uf V\irpl ah zt [nK't \\&d Utwti Jejikuii- 
ali.iU;it U^'urET Ur. virolc tlio J^<iii<ul. Ifu hnd shonx ibcif full 
»p]cnrlour io che (Jcor|^<;«; ihou^h Ute q^t, or (fto to ft|>cAk) 
the Ijc'jiri, even of tliat i:r<?;it work was l'>uclicd witii pai-alysis 
by his K|>i<'uri>An ntA f»eIV.**ontring; (ihil<»opljj. The -^"-iidii 
Uoc« not boar a fainter inipreifikkn of hU ;;enim4- The *onri©r- 
fully ALuULincd Uffulj iu»J mftjoolv of iu vor«, ihv inipo^QD^ 
iL|ik]n(loiir of iiji tnooit nUl^orAto livkln^atioiiH, iUo |jQ*rvr of tlio 
ttuthoi' ill i]nfi>Uing, whi>n be ntni-o* U' do it, the ivwwreet^f 
patttiDii, ami evL<rL puvbap* t1i« Aill wbk'U b^' liiw Khown in the* 
gcurml voa»trurlion oF bif> pli^Cv ''^hnnot bf* loo hi^lilj; pnuunl. 
Uiii wbiJo itb gi*iii?i-ul u^ure aa an epk- ifcr tbe epk |Hh;ru ui 
prrctnincmly Hhiciin trougbt iti defect^ tnio fuller »io*, tli« 
pftrticuhi- vbj«t-t ]i« propufvd to biniMrlf fffL^ fftt^il to tbi; ^ttain- 
nicnt of tbi; very highrM cxccUonoc. While Homer >nji|f lor 
iMtionnl glorip'> (ho poom of Virgii » tooi'd lbrou;-buiit to a 
bpiht uf tvturtjorliko wit^lntJuiiH >iu uiuso, hovovvr tii^row, 
cAii mjuni-tin an upright f^t utidor ui bai^ fl burdwi. 

Ahi] vot, m regard (o ita exteniul form. th<* ^En^ld U pcr- 
lin[v, tu (I whole, tbi^ muft m;4Jiuli^ |xiGim lliar fhe Kuropgcn 
ntiml hflM in j*ny «j;e prod«<'od. W<* of(i-» b™r uf ih*- hhy 
marcL t^f ihc II'Lutl: but iljifiigh itv trrniEi^itboii 'i% tdiiavn n^ 
propniit« Ami thorcfon* Df;vor nicBfi* it only ruct ioto MAtoliwtB, 
i>r into A 1ii)eb*pttcb«ij vublifiiitT. wheD Homer hu «ocMbn io 
hnct hn cckci^ic9 tor tui ctfFoH. Hi; b inTftriably tnie to Itb 
0W11 cofiooptio-ii of t^JC b«r«l^i a* one wbo should triii uid ()o- 
&]j;bl ib^ eoul «f the betu<«T: luid m, whtn ho Iioa Btrung him 
i«lf, liko A bov, fiir feoioe gr«fti pwuhgu of hW action, - Km 
brunghi ihif atritij^ tntb^ hrtatt, tho Iron tA the ivood,' nnd kju hit 
bisuari.straijChiirfljr Ih^ iinlimidHhintifrIf Again, Tliu^lwiaheri 
ill vrkJt IriMf granWrur thu tnju^bAUriiguf ihi* GrecV aritiT mtbe 
Second Buok, partly by Ibo iniooAtionuribc lliuo.ttiMl partly 
by an avoubloi^ of iio less Umu bix coMOCUtii« timlle*, ntudi 
lUacribi! r^iuctivcly tlie lhi»lt of ibc Greek urnw, lli« rcsotiail- 
iQg Ifaipp, ilw iwarmuig iiLjnb«rf^ tbo vcttliiig duvni of tkit 
I'uiik^ »« iliej fortn ibe UuOj ibo biuj tnATBliaUiUj; by tho 
coiitiii«ik(l«i-!», thi luajwty iif ;\g»iiiemnon prcvintnvtit aiitui^ 

• Oil. im 38a. 

iV. Amdm T ff^mfT **/ iU* Sntrmwt^. 

ibmH, 1LiT^4tfvdOT,b« flats tn»ilf«bo«ltfa« 
vkfa opCTwi—pi indeed xd pwtkd f beWiiiwii bj 
anJ vitli m cofwiond r^4W bf tiMrt h^nAk bvl flii 'm 
mmm u • taaUer oT biwifi. Uitcnal. ^m f U f t iidL bbiI ttf^- 
poi;rmfih*e*L A«d tliw be prvondit vi<h f^fcd iitaqi^iit]FE, 
f6rMtrilir«*fattMlr^1itic«.B«tilbaivorbi«4MeL WetbM 
dial Im iMi git«o «,, i«ifMb«r vtUi a ««« nm*» *MD«nt ofi 
Ibiw, ft &™>g o^P ^ ^^ UrnCufM o wi pwi 1>T tW Greet.' 
MMfl of tk* i^K- Hut Virgil, in hn inilMiou i)f U« BuMcric 
CaUId^iv- (o|ion vKkIi llum* viEl Ir fu^Aei MOcaMMi to oom- 
■Miii iMTCaltcr. «hti t^ln-eDCG to «tktf nncUn). Imb poraucd ft 
eogn# qoito dri^rcoL Wuiiik* Ifoincr'i c^fg^oo* bflnxlsL-^ 
Ikin. vlu'^b poon frofc a «n{:!e |MMiit ft broad stroMi of tpWrft- 
do«r vrw tbff »bolti. VirgU wiih iMi, and iwWfld ratli«r puoM, 
■fli>n, oirrM Bt tbr<t<itHi hift l0Q|r^nva fat ftt a Ubario««ljr- 
wtakiod detMkia To varr tlic m^riwaw cwk, be iims 
vrarj itiTfEtidtj' or liim ilmt butgiftai^e ftftd gramnftr oui nip- 
|iljr'- He |Bau»Hi fruDi tiiMiiimtivi* to vucativ^ aoil fraiiB TOdk> 
tiro lo ftomkuUire. Scnnoboilr wosi present, ftuil Uiea MiM^bodj 
WW iiot abttenl' ^Vm^ uxl iiccoQtrfiineiila aro ^ot op A* nj< 
niitvlir« A« if he had bocn n cnrtfiil muter ofroitavioAilrc^af' 
Ji iwir drama for Iba «ta^, TItat vo iwiy nercr bv Irt down 
for ft ibOOMOtt ha dfiMribiilea li«r« ai»J th«r« tbo timilcfi, which 
Honw ftooiinitiUt«d at Lbc opudng, and introducea, beiwo^ri tb« 
woounia of milicArr fioniing^nUf f^^enda of t««niy or motv liaoa- 
tTprn \h*- wljule, llie Itfvi^t of )im im« tlirougb Uie CAiaJogue, 
inihkAjl ijf IjL'ihg. liki; ffomcrV ilecidedljk' low^r. » ctuh laghvr 
Uiqh i« u»uftl with hiui. TJi^re b not tii )l> 1 tbioi. a aioglo 
TCtne Apjiroadiing h> (ho ^r^rrn^ p^de^trU. EIU render mil 
Itiot tmrLiinilliMng relinf «0 ad^reoable in Homer, vhicb tarita 
QM it VDrt! the |>Tftv of the niutfcloa, miiI fro»hi?iui tfio fiunltii 
far A rHiim to bighar irfforLi. Virgil Hoomft lo troat us a» lio'naa 
■t n ceruiri atng^ of th^ir dorlino aro trMLt«d hy expoHenood*' 
(lnvi*rH, ff ho kvup Uitint gfiiag from f«»ir ibat, if tbfljr oniw lot ibiin 
iitojt [ir ftWkiiu, tlicv «iU hrt itmiMc' in ^ctl iiji ih4>Tr juu'^* iigain- 
Ue lun^r uiiWiidft hi« buw. Hut at iJiLlivlaird tua)' In? JiiSk itaU 

d It il 42.>-S,l- <^ ^^li- N«|»vviJTig thtf Slaakt in 

' Htc hI» I,nHiiijr« LaooHin* Ihv ^iir-iil. 

(^tahffnc in iht IHad and in Mc jBneid, 


luid cvon woiiri«om«, m a pliun; And the omftm4*nU in tho 
.En^id frequ«iit1j arc nnXj anil ind^w! could lijbnilj be, uoro 
nmikfneiital lUaa the pa%«a;f£H wliioh tboj purport to embcUkb. 

ITir diffiprmirr nf iIhi twfi ('nUlogiim PAiuiot br mcivp rlrArly 
oxTiiiiilM than hy curnfKtJ^in^ HiHii«rV deatTipiioii <*f lite >ery 
firvt ctintitig<Ti)l, tfmL fruin Bu-utu^ vitb Vjrprn uiwnin^ pAra^ 
grjijib about McM;ntic»; or Ifi>mcr'» lft»t Anil ncArly sJuplcM, 
on iUv ^[^ClloManHl>, witli ihir ilo«cnpCkin 4>f OuuIIIa. (ccrtAiiiljr 
A iio>cn|it:nii of romnrltiLblo W-AUty.) with which U ctuocd tho 
||httormj£ prcxi.'Siion of tho Italian anny ia tho ^^^noid. 

Tho ^tifttaiTicd itatolinitta of diction, metro. And rbjifam In 
the /Kfi^id l# a feal, A&d ai> Atloimding foAt : btit it it iroro 
Like tlio pei-fui-maoL^ of n traiaMl At1i1oto> beiwp?n triok And 
Mr^ligth. tbAM the ffrnndMir of frtv mid ?iiii]|t1e N.tlfird, tach 
A» it l« ti?rn ill lb<? niirirnt niirriur, in DiottmhI iir Ai^bidwi; AT 
in HoiDerp ilto AnaeaL ^arrior'a only bard. DiffiCTtiil |wrA<*aA 
will, Acconlihg to tbi^ir t^mpenmenl^r Ik? Apt to troiit this av* 
);ii]ftnc»Q of diction m a mant or a fault l alb b(>n<?vor, must 
Ackuofrled]£e it to bd a irondto-. In tliin r^^poct Vir^;!! haa 
boon folloiifti nilli nn orrtjnAry poiv^r, hiil vAt not Af^uAlled, 
by Taa«o- And the iiripr«^ou, cr«Alod in thi8 r<«p<vi by ibo 
i4^TiL^d ^ it ftland*. oioit bo 1i«igliionod when wo rutvotnbor 
UmI it is Htill Mi nn^tna\itv\ pooin, afid ibnt tlirt Jiiirlmr KaiI at 
h'» deceaw by uo Dieatui bniii^bt it, mid ih*? Itifrr hiMiks nf it 
in jiiirtictdar, up to ttbat ho o(iithidi*^M) tht^ prriprr i^tiiniliifib 

'J^e Jai[noai« and uatokl ainnuat of iniitatioh in V'trgil ItAe 
perbap* teiid«4 1« »aIco ua I«0 tlion duly miuIMo of ha vMt 
phonal powL-n; and (h« rrcnn ami r««b[n effect* produced by 
tho <Elnn»cter, if wf< oao call it a ehnrA<^tcr, <rf Sis JEntm^ cheat 

iat6 an untr;>t> Kuppodt^ tbal Ito ounM not buvo poawiaed 
n i*oaI ponor of ibiii tlie hig}i««t kin<l of <lAlinMlion. 

It IK frfrrliAp^ hArdly ponltlu toexh^tnt tb« !npic« ofoeMuro 
ulikli may bi* jiutly nmxi Ag:utiiit Ihfl .'Knoai of Virgi)^ Hbi 
moral dcficictLcicn are not (■« lo apeak) bidilen antidt^t ibe ao* 
complinlinientA of a manly intoUect, nor ln» inCallictunI aicdio- 
crity rcdcoAiod by any IVaah and gtnniDe virtttOi- Ho ii« nol. 

' It \i 4^|-itio> iR}L vi» ■ II. 

it Tf;6-^- M»i. tiiH 


tV. Avuiihi: //<Huitr OJiiI Am 8KCcrid*or«. 

l4> our kiioivU^ci, a Malmnau ; Bajr mere* be b not a warrior; 
for vrc fed ttmt hw battles and fmUa or irar aro tbo po«l'9, ajkI 
noi lib : and whoa bo appciar* in nrm* vrc nro tcmplotl to oali, 
*Son i>l Vt-nuH, wbat bibf'mcn baTe ;ro« h^roT Th© violent 
€iaf?g«ration«, hv which Vh-f^l attompte to vAiup up bia bora^ 
martiilcbar^icier, onl* produce lb«^uxpif of I^nginus ; ftoold 
ronction, apprgat-'buig lo a iIiuU(!*t, ibronalk ibr n?OKU'r'n niiiMJ, 
A«v fc>r iiiHUmc^;. wht^n i» the Shai!i?« bi<IfiK, tliu |miiH n^prvHTtiU 
die Orcck cliicfUina^ aa treuibllug aud flying at tbe al^'bc of 
biin, t)i« iii*h1cnc»A »f t.b^ vcrMra uumui <<:icu» dtbcr iUv. 
laa aulrdbHk of lUa tbonj^bi, inr ibo proftiiULtiofi offorcd to tlio-^ 
memijrj of llomcr In tl^e pcnon of hU licroos* who indeed often 
mod* ^^caa Irciublc, but ni^vir trcmblofl <il tii'n Uicoudroib: 
But Virgil gom rurlhor >ot, wlicn }jc iiiakc« Diu[D>.*<J au4irt' that, 
having b««D en^aj;oiJ in «ln|-Lc combat with ^n«a», Iw fcnowi 
bv fltiwrioricu how tcrribto » vriivriur ho will yniyi* i and tbaii] 
had thftre tieen two more «uob in^i. Tro}~ wonlJ have c>oik- 
^Tir-rr-il Gmwn^ nitd not <iiMm<<'- Tmjr. Xo«r, j^Ctkiutx nftviv* in 
th« lliar] even once t>x(iL-uii>s a re^I f^^U of uar; aril a» to lliv 
tuaglo cotiiluiL Iwtwocui tliu two chiizfa, Diuuied fml knocked 
Ar^ rp«^( kim down nitb a atoiitL L At>d tbcu, aflcr ho liad bocn carriod] 
off acd appdrCTiitJy twi to ri^hu ly bio moibcr, Lo ww thric«> 
aav«d Iroia the liiMdljr chargn of Ifio sttno warrior hv ibo aingi* 
int^TTVintioii of Apolb^ nbo by diTino foroc arreted tJwt attadi. 
In pawiu^, it may bo obAiwoJ that, niiiov Vit^^d ouold, witli 
imptitiity. lu it lippcai^T w far aa hb popiUarity was ooiKumed, 
tliD>i iiuitiluK' niid takil^ t1i« autbca* JVom whoM) w«altll bo io 
lai^grly iHirrtmnU either Uif kimwIiHlgL' of Gnvk hr^i^itun^ id 
itA ben] aud father. Homer, nmiX bavv* fa'eii \t'ry Ivk anioag 
ati*n ibc cdacatod Itomann, or cbn; thoJr ittaiHliknl of rjuiU^ niiut 
bavo lircn ^^viouifly debased bvfore thr^' could accept Micb tc9ni 

U in ci>tnnioTJ to tiiul tii»U with .^^oaa for bi« vitc oviduct 
Io Dido. 4ind for the «rolcbod ciciiac he offers in bin uwn lic- 
baJf, wfa««i ho i>m-ouiUijr> Uor offondr<i «piHl in (be rqgiotn of 
AEdiJiunuf and rorH-itlionr- But tbo truth i^. that Urn fiurJy 

*> At DDiia^ni |<n>corca. J^ti — jEii. vi 489. 
i -fin. xi. a»a-;. fc ^ y» 303-iA 

P^mtim- i^^fktfOM. 



exntHitn A\u\ lllitilrntrs iHtc mtly the (i>ul uDi-i'jiUt^v of ibis piir- 
tirulAT Lhanutor^ but, on mlli be furllier noticed pn^v^nclj* the 
f&chUf ttttti livtcrJor^t^l ccjnciT|iii9ii ut' huiDuu ualurv lU Urge* 
wliich Virgil wfTni to hftvf* ffinnpil. Alnti htu boen ir<^<cd by 
liim jw, on tbe vrb4>ic, but a bh^tkiv bomjf : ho btiil uol Muiulcd 
Ujv do|>th4 of tho li«iirt. nor monviii^Hl dtbi^r i\w atrengtli of 
gdiid or ihf^ ■trGmf-tb of «vi] t}utt mnv nM<Jc in h. Tbo 
Vn-^lian .Iftrtfiat ik n m;^^ up thing. f»r Htt^r 1o stand among 
thr v4iiifiiif difitvtjifa M^ptfita, thtui Aiming mr'ii tiT tnitf^ fla^b ivnd 

Thj bone* are mftf r*^wl<>^, tliy blond w cold j 
Thou liMl no specnlaiion in tliow fjtm 
VTbtcli iboii dtJBii gbm williL 

Not can wo draw au ai^ol^xy fur iht? d«^octs of tbift priAarip- 
cbiiriu'tfT in Virgil from tbr j^thm* ofllnni^-, Tho I>nriUnian 
Prini-i* 1* intliu'd in x\w IlliH, iw Ui ('verjlhio^ p-Aenttat. a lacU 
turn and tmuif^ixauid Agun?, Hr ** jiljiml vi<rT bigli Jn vtuliini 
(nd autlmi'itv* -tml, 11:4 wi; bnf'C wrii'", bfr may prnltfibly bare 
bocD. by the dignity of lineal «k«c€nU tbe b«Ad of Ova wholo 
Trc>jan rao«. But How^r pftrn biut elf vriDi gcucrAbtiu; fur, 
aff no }'ooi lA grontcr w the rcnily i^roAtivo w<irk i^f i^hniiKtcr, 
va n<>>Tio b«lt^ fladetfitiiodb how, w)ir>rQ tho |>iir|>ob« of bU 
|>ueflii r«H|aLT« it. to ittkc n hxy ti^itv. and »taff bim <"it wilh 
ttnvr. In vthm mity b(> c^lkd tbe ritAl acdon rf tlic Ifiid. 
Xnimn baa no roiiaiJerabl** ^\ht<\ c'lihvr martini or pulificAl. 
Ifr \n Trry far tndpiid IwJiintl ibn iioblr fUrjHvkin in i\n» tint 
<7|iHi:ilyr and rolydAnia^ in tho i^^comb ju v^II a» Ilec:lAr in 
both. Still, if Ojtrre ia iu t^iu Humerb .fWoA coUiioK trmiid. 
iLo4|iiiig Tigoroiuk, nothing pofoiind, tli«re In on the odicr luiud 
nothvnc ovor-pomincni or protcatioiu, and tbcrcforo vvthiDf 
iDoaiu nothing iDPousiHtimtt nothing tintruo. AU th« Qouimo 
«hAmclorit down to Thefvto*, ihre dnivro roch id it* why ^th a 
nuBlvr'v bud ; -Co^m fomifl 00 eice|>ti<iD : on t)ko rontrftry, we 
hiiTf* Id ftdmirtf tbt^kkiU wtib which, in » Uiiut ufiiud^UL'tluciiicv, 
bU rMttline ik filM np. nnd hn in k(^« cmlJroly dnnr afanjr ron- 
Afs^ion ivitli catbvr tliONit gr^or rlmntetcTB on tho TroJAD aide^ 

I Mivi^tk iii ,1- ■ Achm*, gr KlhnoU<gy, Beet ii^ p. 4f I- 


I V. Aoulffa : Burner ami hi* S^c^^aorjt, 

vrlio luTv Uwa niiiiierl, or villi the t»ffciiunat<- PAritf, Tliis ^ 
llm mi>ru irortUv of ntito, htf^ariM*^ n» tlit* rmvouritc I'hiU ct 
Vcnu», lie boro n qualifii;!] am! dim rnHniibliini;!? to hpr c\iMi 
miiiiua ; &» wo tiuy nik? bjr cvrtiin (nite of liu vrr^- lUTgiuiTD 
bcftriiif in Ujc field, juid by ApoUu'n patdi!|[ biui (if lli« pinw 
mar b6allu(red)u> bed in Pi^giunu>",wbcn he hmA b*OAr«Bcaod 
frcin Ujciincd, jU4t »« Venua bad doiio with i'arifl, Aikcr ahe bmi 
«ftv«d hiai ill thiA Thinl Book froiij M^jii^laut^i, 

.NmUinr did Vxv^ii fjul in ihc dclincatiof) of liiii horo, or 
' protag*"»nisT/ frow ^^iiupl© wani of power to fwttrav bimum 
uharHi.'[vr> Kii atit^b wiuit t^iii be* lULTibod to tbe ptiiH of lh0 
Puurtb BrHik uf tUti vfvuruL Ami if it Iw Init.- tlmt, lunid^c all 
(he ntorinir wildneu und iutuiiulj' of llm |iHAeiuii of Diiin, 
ibero m Wjmi^Lliiiig not quite tuiUira] — Mimvihmg tlxat remlbi 
tbo \try rcLTiarkablo imiUtion of it in tho ' Ducbv«»« ilc I 
Vall^re' of Madumc dc Oi.*qIje». and loavo* lib uliii<ut nl » li 
to «iy which of tlio Iwo ii*» nio»t tiio phari^ctcr of a vo|ij. 
And vvhicih of an orl^^miLt -what ar« wo to My of tbi; jt^namo 
£Lad HJiinlv charai^lor of Ttiruuitf Tbo wljoU* of that Mkt 
IK lu good !4nd t.riip aji ha t-jui ib^^rft; and tho nohln Fp^edL^ 
in prtKirtiW, in vWkU hn rp-bt^ki?* llie Iriut cotrarilrco of' 
DraiL<fi«, \a a wurk of wucb extraorJiujiry |ioinT nitd merit, 
that it \a fit (anil tbia i Lake for tlio »aiiimit of ^11 cmlogiwi) 
evon 10 bavo been epukL^a bj ibc Ai:billi» of lluiavrr. In iV 
^roiia roaAXiinj^i la biting aaroaajDt in cluralronc aoatimcitt. 
and m uidijpuuit pikwion, it prcacnte a cotnbinatiOTi not oaMljr 
Co btf mnlcbod ; and it k, aa A wbok\ adnurubly adaplod to 
tbo oratorical purpoti;, for wbic<h it i» pronniiKKl to liavo boaoi 
^iobv^irod But, indf'od, from our tmt vit-vr of Titraua to 
onr laid, wo do tiai timl in him a KJiiglc- wmi ipchla in itaal^ or 
unworthy of the niawiiIiTifi idna and int^niinn rjf the pnrtraii, tx- 
**p( ivbirrif. h\ t.b« vt'ry la^l |niHMig4T of bis lift", lir» frac* agivic^ 
w«mii tn lir Ukcii, a* it B*iro hy forcr, oat of hih Ii^uiiIil. 

Tho ffliJuro b llio j^iloab of Vtr}^l auinot bo txinparod n'ltit 
ibo crwo of an; nio^lcrn roniancc> »uch ai the Warcdojr n- UU 
BloHality of Hcott, whrre tho liuro inaj^ be an tneapid perMB« 
All tfio greater nWirm invoirtor* hn>w boon «i>mpo1M to Imy 

• IL T. 145- 

V n. iii. 383, 

Th*_fiMiM jMt^ititfM ftf Vif^il 


ihr'tr faMnjijB/^p L^' ptLlpA^le br^odtli of jii>iiichiH|(>ricviciil ; 
it wn* tho fPnlSimr ditftiuctioti of the fluinpf ic cjnc. thnt ic IiikI a 
living d«»iitr^; it Inmg ii]x>ii i\ man ; llicrc vr^A ea<iui[li of viuj 
pijffcr in Llc»(nor fcr t\m trnd : his Achilles ftiwl h>« t'lj««« 
n«ire oo^b lui Atka, tbat auAbunod Ihc vorld in whJcU tlictj: 
aUo iQovud, Vtrf^il inndv hi* poem ah £ncid, iiutcaj of f(>U 
lowing tliii i>xnRipl4> of tbo C^olb poeu ; he ihiu pledged liim* 
Hdlf to }iU readers tliai ^nooA fehould bo its centres it* pcik, 
Ltu inifiinl light jind lifo. Riil hi» did nal kct<it Ills nord : liv 
licul di'SHM the bon of Homer wir.kotil Homer's f«r«'. Hr 
;ii4rki i^i^rhufts Clio fiiml trnavtiofi frotiL tbt^ uld uj*ec of llio 
Hrst cliiM to the novr. After him wo TmTc (he Optra of fv^t. 
iho fhiirBaliii. Uio Tbi^baJd, wid ao forth. But -AIiwo* nund^ 
beforo ua vith tlio ])ri>loiiai&DA of AgIuIIcb iind UIjtmw; Atvl 
tho faihir^ u i^roiit in proportipn to th^ eig<^'itic f^nJo of thff 
Attomj^f, Whoo, in th9 liAlian romAAcc, tlj4< chnmi:t«T of tliv 
kdotti itiAu, ju fthown in Orlft&do, aguiu teofliii« tho tiasis of 
new i^pir |Hw^i»% vff agaiTi find in ili<» prntagiiiiiiil grrAt vi<jik- 
neu imleed^ a^ ixiinjiared willi Aolii1li]« and L^l^wm; t)fil 
AtroDgth and miocisu mi cDiaparud with tlic .Giinn of Vir^'iL 

,Upoii the wholo wo tm ihrovn iKick on the atippoMtion tluit 
tUid cryinji rity of the ^F.nridp ih^* fo*blriwfi» ami ontnith 
nf tbe cluiructcr of jKnctm, wan dnc t> ttic fnjve pcmtion <»r 
Virfi;il, irlia naa oblij|;od to diidi^u^ Ids fituolioiiB as a poot in 
cubjoouoti to Idadomimutl ob1i^ti<>iiii u-nd linUliticc uiac^urtl^ 
poriuico of Atigiii<tQr As Ili« entire pcioni. *o tho cbjimcCv-r- of 
il« hor<i, vira>^, before idl other thing«)> an iiuirarnent for i^lo. 
rjfjiii); dio Ki&poror ofRonir. 1i ai uure fi^llnwinL iW in all 
n<9|HM:bi ttittit that rhitmclfT bn turh 41 to uTi>iil Hii|:j^tiiig n 
oijinpnriion di»(Ldv;vituj|:<x>u» to lh«- porMti wh^o dijtnitjr.